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942.56501 

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1303655 



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THE BEDFORDSHIRE 
HISTORICAL RECORD 
SOCIETY 



THE PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE BEDFORDSHIRE 
HISTORICAL REC- 
ORD SOCIETY 

VOLUME V. 

CMS a. ^L^e^Sj 



" E VUS NE POEZ REN FERE OUTRE 
LE RECORD KE EST VOSTRE GARANT." 
LOUTHER: HEREFORD EYRE, 1292. 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY AT THE 
OLD HOUSE IN ASPLEY GUISE MGMXX. 



CONTENTS. 



Assessment of Knight Service in Bedfordshire: 

No. II. By J. E. Morris i 

St. John of Southill. By F. A. Page-Turner . 27 

Some Saxon Charters. By G. Herbert Fowler . 39 

A Late Example of a Deodand. By William Austin 59 

Domesday Notes: II.— Kenemondwick. By G. 

Herbert Fowler 61 

Hillersden of Elstow. By F. A. Page-Turner . 75 

jRAnt of Free Warren to Newnham Priory. By 
J. Hamson 97 

3utenho, Farley Hospital, and Kurigge. By 
William Austin . . . . . .101 

Munitions in 1224. By G. Herbert Fowler . . 117 

Jeecher of Howbury in Renhold. By F. A. Page- 
Turner 133 

'ttingaford and the Tenth-Century Bounds of 
Chalgrave and Linslade. By F. G. Gurney . 163 

Register of St. Mary's Church in Bedford, 1539- 
1558. By The Rev. A. G. Kealey ... 181 

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, No. I. By 
G. Herbert Fowler . . . . . .201 

foTEs and Queries 257 



\ t dex 259 



I 



vii 



RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION. 



(Explanatory of the symbols used in the text.) 



1. Words underlined, underdotted, or crossed 
through, for deletion from the original manu- 
script, which form no part of the final record, 
are enclosed in brackets .... 

2. Additions and interlineations, which form 
part of the final record, are in half-round 
parentheses . . . . . 

3. Marginal notes by the scribe are similarly 
in ( ), but are marked by an asterisk in 



{Ricardus} 



(uxor eius) 



addition 



. (*misericordia) 



4. Interpolations and additions by the trans- 
criber, other than the usual expansions, are 

in square parentheses .... [given] 

5. Omissions by the transcriber are shown by 

dots, or by etc. in square parentheses . . [etc.] 

6. Letters, words, and phrases, of which the 
reading is uncertain, are enclosed in square 
parentheses with a query . . . [? tandem] 

7. Terminal expansions, especially of place- 
names, when the right ending is uncertain, 

are left with an apostrophe . . . Stacheden' 

8. Unreadable words or passages are shown by 

dashes 



In transcription of early MSS., stops and capital letters 
are employed in accordance with modern usage, unless otherwise 
stated. 



viii 



ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMON USE. 



B.H.R.S. — Publications of the Bedfordshire Historical Recor 
Society. 

D.B. — Domesday Book. 

P.R.— Pipe Roll. 

R.S. — Rolls Series of Chronicles and Memorials. 
R.C. — Record Commission. 

V.C.H. — Victoria County History (of Beds, unless otherwi^ 



stated), 
d. or dau. daughter. 



vvid. widow. 



f. father. 



w. wife. 



m. mother. 



sis. sister. 



s. son. 



I 



THE BEDFORDSHIRE 
HISTORICAL RECORD 
SOCIETY 



TEMPORARY TITLE.] 



THE PUBLICATIONS OF 
THE BEDFORDSHIRE 
HISTORICAL REC- 
ORD SOCIETY 
VOLUME V, PART I 
[AND VOLUME VI, PART I. 



" B VUS NB POEZ RBN FBRB OUTRB 
LB RBCORD KB BST VOSTRB GARANT." 
LOUTHBR : HEREFORD BYRB, 1292. 



PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY AT THE 
OLD HOUSE IN ASPLEY GUISE MCMXIX. 



V. 



1303655 

TEMPORARY TABLE 

OF 

CONTENTS. 
VOLUME V. 

PAGI 

Assessment of Knight Service in Bedfordshire: 
No. II. By J. E. Morris i 

St. John of Southill. By F. A. Page-Turner . 27 

Some Saxon Charters. By G. Herbert Fowler . 39 

A Late Example of a Deodand. By William Austin 59 

VOLUME VI. 
A Calendar of the Feet of Fines. Part I., 1 192-3 to 

1222-3. Edited by G. HERBERT FOWLER . . I 



vii. 



RULES FOR TRANSCRIPTION. 

(Explanatory of the symbols used in the text.) 

1. Words underlined, under dotted, or crossed 
through, for deletion from the original manu- 
script, which form no part of the final record, 

are enclosed in brackets .... {Ricardus} 

2. Additions and interlineations, which form 
part of the final record, are in half-round 
parentheses (uxor eius) 

3. Marginal notes by the scribe are similarly 
in (), but are marked by an asterisk in 

addition (*misericordia) 

4. Interpolations and additions by the trans- 
criber, other than the usual expansions, are 

in square parentheses .... [given] 

5. Omissions by the transcriber are shown by 

dots, or by etc. in square parentheses . . [etc.] 

6. Letters, words, and phrases, of which the 
reading is uncertain, are enclosed in square 
parentheses with a query . . . [? tandem] 

7. Terminal expansions, especially of place- 
names, when the right ending is uncertain, 

are left with an apostrophe . . . Stacheden* 

8. Unreadable words or passages are shown by 
dashes 



In transcription of early MSS., stops and capital letters 
are employed in accordance with modern usage, unless otherwise 
stated. 



VU1. 



NOTE BY THE EDITOR. 

The issue of parts of two volumes under one temporary 
cover, however regrettable, was found to be necessary if the 
continuity of publication was to be maintained. When these 
two volumes are complete, fresh introductory pages, i. — viii., 
will be issued, together with full indexes, and the present pages 
i. — viii. should then be detached and destroyed. 



THE ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT 
SERVICE IN BEDFORDSHIRE. 

No. II. 

BY JOHN E. MORRIS. 

VI.— THE BARONY OF BEAUCHAMP OF 
BEDFORD. 

We may start with what was said in Vol. I. by Dr. 
Fowler and Mr. Chambers. 1 Hugh de Beauchamp had 
been sheriff of Bedfordshire at some date before the survey 
for Domesday Book was made ; he succeeded Ralf Tal- 
boys in that office, and presumably in most of his lands ; 
there is reason to believe that he married a daughter of 
Ralf and Azeline, 2 and the lands which were registered 
in Domesday Book in the holding of Azeline as Ralfs 
widow were afterwards part of the Beauchamp barony. 
In later days Bedford was reckoned as the caput 
baroniae ; the barony was said to be " of Bedford " ; like- 
wise one Beauchamp after another held Bedford castle as 
if the castellanship was hereditary by right. Yet borough 
and castle were alike royal, and King John was quite free 
to appoint the famous Falkes de Breaute in place of the 
Beauchamp who upheld the cause of Magna Carta. One's 
general impression is that the first Hugh was a pushing 
man, sheriff and chief landowner in the county, ready to 
grasp other properties when he had the chance, and to 
look upon Bedford and its castle as his own ; apparently 
also some of his descendants were of a similar type. 

Some introduction of this kind is necessary to any 
account of the Beauchamp fief, because in addition to 
Hugh's own lands, as given in D.B., whether his own 

i. Beds. Hist. Rec. Soc, i, 2. 
a. Beds. Hist. Rec. Soc., i, 66. 



2 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



originally or taken over by him as Ralfs successor and 
heir, we find that his successors held the whole of the 
lands of Azeline, of Albert the Lorrainer, and of Turstin, 
also some of the lands of Countess Judith, and a few 
stray virgates of a certain Chelbert and Osbern. Hugh's 
own hides I add up to 173^ in Beds., scattered all over 
the county, 19 in Bucks., and 10 in Herts. It is some- 
what rare to find a baron holding so considerable a pro- 
portion all in one county, but we know from D.B. that 
there was an exchange made, between 1066 and 1086, of 
Beds, lands against those of Ware in Herts. Azeline held 
32 hides, Albert 23 J, Turstin 6f, Judith n% — regardless 
of those which did not pass to the Beauchamps, — Chel- 
bert 2>h virgates, and Osbern 1 hide and 3^ virgates. 
Hugh's total comes to 202^; Hugh's plus Azeline's to 
234-I; the gross total to 278%. Now Simon de Beauchamp 
a century afterwards acknowledged the service of 453- 
knights, which will be discussed later. But it may be said 
here that it appears as if William the Conqueror fixed 
roughly the round number of 40 for the united barony, as 
Ralfs and Azeline's, and perhaps Judith's lands, fell in ; 
Walter the Fleming's 30 hides, and Nigel Daubeny's 25 
hides, and many other instances all over England, point 
to a very natural love of round numbers, sometimes nearly, 
not often accurately, proportioned to the number of the 
hides or the value of the land. The extra 5-5- knights 
are accurately proportioned as 1 15 to Albert's and 
Turstin's hides. 

As to Judith's 1 if hides, she had as subtenant a man 
named Hugh ; as these lands fell in to the Beauchamps, 
we conclude that he was our Hugh. We have direct 
evidence that one of the Bruces, who as co-heirs to the 
honour of Huntingdon succeeded to their share of the 
bulk of her lands, acknowledged in 1259 tnat one hide in 
Stanford was in the Beauchamp fief. 3 At Radwell she 
had in chief 2 hides 2\ virgates, the exact number held 

3. Quoted from V.C.H., Vol. III., under " Southill." 



BEAUGHAMP OF BEDFORD 



3 



later by the Pateshulls as subtenants of the Beauchamps. 
At Sharnbrook and Stagsden her small holdings dis- 
appear, being clearly merged in the Beauchamp holdings 
alongside. It is not at all rare to find some great man as 
the D.B. subtenant of land which his successors afterwards 
held in chief ; I know a good instance on the border of 
Shropshire and Herefordshire, where Walter de Lacy was 
subtenant, and his descendants were overlords, namely at 
Lude or Ludlow. 

Turstin, we guess, had some connection with 
Azeline ; for a Turstin was her subtenant for one hide at 
Cainhoe, which followed the rule of her other lands, and 
the small capital holdings of Turstin " the Chamberlain," 
whom we are considering, were all merged in the great 
barony. 

Hugh held no land at Carlton, but his descendants 
had subtenants there owing service of i + I + tV of a 
knight. One of these fractions was for 3^ virgates, the 
exact D.B. holding of Chelbert, a King's almoner; the 
other two correspond to 5 J virgates held by Osbern " the 
fisherman." Moreover, Osbern had two virgates at 
Sharnbrook, and claimed 1^ virgates which Ralf Talboys 
had seized ; this connection with Ralf, Hugh's predecessor 
as sheriff and landowner, gives some explanation as to 
why his modicum of land disappears like Turstin's into 
the great barony. As regards Carlton alone, 9 virgates : 
H of a knight is nearly in the proportion of a knight 
to 5 hides. 

The case of Albert of Lorraine is very interesting. 
He was the sole Bedfordshire landowner who held under 
the Confessor, and also retained his land in chief under 
the Conqueror ; the land being 8 hides plus f of a virgate 
at Chalgrave. And this is not all, for the Conqueror also 
gave him as tenant in chief 10 hides at Wootton, 3 at 
Shelton, which was a dependency of Marston close to 
Wootton, and 2 at Sharnbrook. Lorings are to be found 
here for the next two centuries and more, but as Beau- 



4 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



champ subtenants. Mr. Round has given us a clue to the 
reason. Albert was a cleric, therefore he could not leave a 
lawful successor. Either the Lorings were descended 
from an illegitimate son, remaining on in the humbler 
position where their ancestor had been lord, or else from 
a nephew or other relation of Albert; or some fellow- 
countryman from Lorraine was taken as subtenant and 
founded the family. The last holder at Chalgrave and 
Sharnbrook — for Lorings vanish from Wootton before 
13 16 — was the celebrated Sir Nigel, one of the prominent 
comrades and fellow fighters with the Black Prince at 
Poitiers and elsewhere, who, as an original member of the 
Order of the Garter, showed to what height a man of 
comparatively humble birth could rise by military skill. 
He paid an aid on the occasion of the knighting of his 
prince in 1346, and he paid direct to the King's collector, 
although he was not a tenant in chief, but a subtenant of 
Lord Mowbray, 4 one of the successors to the lands of the 
Beauchamp Barony. Returning to Albert's position, we 
can easily understand how the tenancy in chief, lapsing by 
his death, was taken over by the most powerful baron of 
the county. 

In 1 1 66 Roger Loring owed to Simon de Beauchamp 
the service of 3-5- knights, John Loring one knight, and 
Wilfred Loring with two partners one knight. In the days 
of the Testa, about 1250 (?) Peter Loring owed if for 
Chalgrave, and i for Sharnbrook, and David Loring 
with five partners 3 knights for Wootton. We cannot 
exactly fit in the knights with the hides in these villages, 
but the total of 4-5- knights bears to the 23 D.B. hides 
the exact ratio 1:5. If Turstin's 6\ hides bore a service 
of ii knights, then we have the exact 5f to add to 
the round number of 40 which we discussed above. 

Under the Trailly and Belvoir headings of my former 

4. Sir Nigel, as far as I can make out, held no land in Hampshire or 
in Surrey, except in Conan Doyle's fiction. But the same authority, the 
Receipt Roll of the Aid of 1346, shows that he paid on f of a knight at Kimpton 
in Herts. 



BEAUGHAMP OF BEDFORD 



5 



article on Knight Service, 5 I gave instances of " knights " 
or milites — not dubbed chevaliers or domini, but ordinary 
horseman in the ranks of the heavy cavalry, for they 
were not important enough to be even mentioned by name, 
— who were on the land at Yelden, Oakley, and Turvey. 

1 overlooked then an instance at Sharnbrook ; when Ralf 
Talboys seized Osbern's virgates he put in there one 
of his knights ; perhaps Hugh retained this soldier on the 
land, and it is just possible that he was another Osbern, 
who held virgates at Sharnbrook as Hugh's sub-tenant, 
and 2\ hides at Bletsoe. Otherwise the solitary instances 
of soldiers in the Beau champ fief are to be found in Herts., 
curiously enough on the only two manors that Hugh held 
in that county. It is hardly out of place to mention them 
here. At Bengeo " Hugh [holds] and two knights hold 
of him six hides for one manor; in demesne are two 
plough-teams, and 7 villains with 6 bordars have two 
plough-teams, and there might be four more " ; the land is 
worth in 1086 and was worth in 1066 £3, but in King 
Edward's time £6. At Hunsdon the daughter of Ralf 
Talboys holds 4 hides of the fee of Hugh de Beauchamp ; 

2 hides are in demesne and one plough-team, and there 
could be another ; 4 villains with a priest and a French- 
man and 8 bordars have two plough-teams, and there 
could be a third ; it is (1086) and was (1066) worth £^\, 
and in King Edward's day, £6. We make a contrast; 
the two " knights " are subtenants, as in the Oakley and 
Turvey instances ; but the " Frenchman " is sandwiched 
in between the villains and bordars, as if he was an un- 
important person, as is the case at Yelden. We also see 
a point of resemblance ; in each village the rustics are 
badly off, and one might imagine the soldiers domineer- 
ing over them and treating them harshly as mere Saxon 
churls, so that they cannot break more ground with extra 
ploughs. The value of the entries is that they show how 
sub-infeudation began in the Beauchamp barony ; doubt- 

5. Beds. Hist. Rec. Soc., ii, 197. 



6 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



less other milites and Frenchmen were similarly settled 
by Hugh, or by Ralf before him, on lands in Beds., but the 
clerks responsible for the entries did not record the fact, 
whereas the clerks in Herts., luckily for us, did. 

The carta or return of Simon de Beauchamp, 6 sent 
in at Henry II.'s request in 1166, is a declaration of the 
number of knights due. There were 36 + \ + tV knights' 
fees due on the old enfeoffment (de veteri feoffamento), 
apportioned before 1 135 (the year of the death of 
Henry I., before the civil war of Stephen and Maud upset 
the relations of barons to Crown). There were 8 on the 
new enfeoffment (de novo), apportioned since 1 135. " And 
there remain on his demesnes and on marriage portions 
oj- knights (et remanent super sua dominia et maritagia 
IX milites et V ta pars). This last phrase is unusual, and 
certainly seems to bear out the inferences drawn pre- 
viously, namely, that the Beauchamps, by marriages and 
other means, added further lands to Hugh's D.B. fief, 
and consequently owed knights for them. The natural 
interpretation of the carta is that Simon declared 44-J 
knights due to him from his enfeoffed subtenants, leaving 
him to provide from his own retainers 9-5- more to make 
up 53-t-. Moreover, already in 1161-2 he had been 
assessed at 54 knights, for he paid ^36 for scutage at one 
marc (13s. 4d.) per fee. In 1167, the next year after his 
carta, the sum was ^30 10s. and 8d. plus 8 marcs de 
novo, the exact amount due for 53! knights. In 117 1-2 
there was the difference of a trifling fraction, £55 15s. 
and 8d., at £1 per fee for 53^ knights. 7 

But in 1 194-5, f° r tne Aid for ransoming King 
Richard Cceur de Lion, the charge was for ^45 15s. and 
8d., and the Pipe Rolls for later reigns, e.g., 27 Henry 
III. and 7 Edward I., show consistently an assessment 
for 45 H knights. The 8 fees de novo disappear, as 
far as the Crown's claim upon the baron is concerned, 

6. Red Book of the Exchequer, Vol. I., pp. 319-322. 

7. Ibid., p. 72. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



7 



once and for all. Therefore I feel obliged to put aside 
both the remarkable assessment of the year 1161-2 as 
due to some unexplained accident, and the natural inter- 
pretation of Simon's words in the carta, and to fall in with 
Dr. Fowler's suggestion that the g\ demesne fees re- 
main after the 36* had been created. Then Henry II. 
must be considered to have sprung upon Simon the same 
trick as upon other barons, adding up the de veteri and 
de novo and the previous demesne fees, so as to tax 
him for scutage on 53-t-. The trick was much resented 
throughout England; and Simon, it should be noticed, 
was one of the rebels in the " Barons' War " which fol- 
lowed soon after. Finally other kings yielded to the 
strong feeling and accepted the figures de veteri and in 
dominio alone, which were thus definitely recognised. The 
fees enumerated in the Testa de Nevill for this barony 
are all marked de veteri, except indeed on the last page 
of the MS., where neither de veteri nor de novo is written ; 
but this page bears signs of careless writing. 

Although I have definitely accepted here the 
theory that the Beauchamp obligation was 45-5- or 45^ 
knights for 278^ Domesday hides, yet to do so goes much 
against my will. The assessment of 54 knights six years 
before Simon sent in his carta, and his deliberate adding 
up of the de veteri and de novo to 44!, before he de- 
clared 93- as remaining in dominio, cannot be easily 
explained away. It is undoubtedly tempting to believe that 
the Beauchamp barony was an instance of a 1 :5 propor- 
tion between knights and hides ; and it is remarkable that 
very many Beauchamp subtenants did hold on a 1:5 
basis ; further, if 53 i were the true figure, we would have 
got the following result : — 

Hugh's own D.B. hides 202^ : 40 knights. 
Azeline's and Judith's hides, 43^ : 8 knights. 
Albert the Lorrainer's hides 23J : 4% knights. 
Turstin the Chamberlain's hides, 6^ : ii hides. 



8 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Total (Chelbert's and Osbern's added) hides, 278^ : 
53* knights. 

Yet I know that very rarely in the great English baronies 
does the ratio hold good. As I showed in my former paper 
it is not even nearly true in the Boulogne and Belvoir and 
Odell baronies, though approximately true for that of 
Cainhoe. 8 

As to the details revealed by the carta, we are at once 
struck by the very large number of the enfeoffed sub- 
tenants and the very small number of knights that each 
owed. Roger Loring's unit of 3^ is the largest; 
Robert de Bray and a partner owe 25, Richard Gobion 
and two partners 2^, Robert Malherbe and two partners 
2h Roger de Scrupeny 2, Jordan de Heverishou ih 
thirteen owe one each, groups of two or three or four or 
even as many as nine men are jointly responsible for one 
or a half, and some for tV or A- No less than 85 men 
are responsible for the 36 fees de veteri, and 19 men for 
the 8 fees de novo. We contrast at once the Odell and 
Cainhoe baronies, in which there were fewer subtenants and 
larger units. It would have been difficult to raise a satis- 
factory squadron of horse when 104 men were responsible 
for raising it. and we can imagine the jealousies and shuf- 
flings that ensued when the feudal summons went out ; for 
it is to be noted that the enfeoffment dated mostly from the 
years before 1135, a period when the Crown required the 
men for war, and a monetary composition or scutage was 
then a very rare alternative for active service. 

Several of the names are those of families which rose 
from comparatively humble subtenancy to positions of con- 
siderable importance in the county, not only the Lorings, 
but also the Malherbes, Gobions, Passelewes, d'Engaines, 
the latter being, originally, a Northamptonshire family. 
It is also noticeable that several are named from their 

8. The total hides of the Bedford Barony in the table, p. 189 of vol. ii, 
should be corrected to 278J, as the hides of Judith, Turstin, Chelbert, and 
Osbern were omitted. 



BEAUGHAMP OF BEDFORD 



9 



villages, e.g., Nigel of Salford, Thomas and Peter of 
Goldington, Nicholas of Keysoe, and one infers that the 
development of infeudation proceeded on some such lines 
as the following : — William I. requiring so many horse- 
men, Ralf Talboys or Hugh de Beauchamp planted two 
retainers at Bengeo, one at Hunsdon, and one at Sharn- 
brook, to be there maintained by the villains and bordars 
so as to be ready to mount and ride in at his call, and doubt- 
less another man at Salford, another or two at Goldington, 
another at Keysoe, and so on. In course of time, naturally 
enough, the obligation lay on the land rather than on the 
individual man who happened to hold it. There is always 
one knight due from Salford; and as scutage is sys- 
tematised, and the Beauchamp pays when he does not 
fight, he obtains in his turn from his subtenant at Salford 
the money in lieu of one knight's service. Thus whereas 
Hugh had his horsemen armed and ready, and put a pro- 
portion of them on the land for their maintenance, keeping 
the remainder by him in dominio, his successors multiplied 
the number on the land and came to regard them chiefly as 
tax-contributors. 

Here we come again to the five-hides argument. 
Giving up the old-fashioned idea that the Conqueror fixed 
ab initio a number of knights in exact ratio to the number 
of hides in the fief, we must acknowledge that the Beau- 
champs frequently allotted lands to their subtenants at the 
ratio of i : 5. The Salford manor was of 5 hides, and 
always was assessed at one knight. Azeline's 2\ hides at 
Stondon were assessed at \ knight two centuries later/ 
Judith's 2 hides and 2\ virgates at Radwell were in Henry 
III.'s reign (? 1250) held for \ knight plus \ a virgate. 10 
Three subtenants held jointly one hide at Turvey for \ 
knight. Three subtenants had 8 hides at Bromham — 
though the Hundred Rolls say 7| hides — for ij-. 
Judith's one hide at Cainhoe carried \ ; five at Colm- 

9. Feudal Aids, 1284 and 1302. 

10. Testa de Nevill, pp. 248-9 in the printed copy of the Records Com- 
mission, pp. 174-7 ot the original MS. 



10 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



worth, five at Houghton (Conquest), and fifteen at 
Linslade, in Bucks., were assessed evenly at one, one, and 
three knights. In other cases the ratio is nearly accurate, 
namely at Putnoe (Goldington), Cockayne Hatley, Carl- 
ton, Barford, and Higham plus Streatley. The most 
definite statement is that given by the Testa for Chalgrave, 
where Peter Loring is said to hold " one fee and two 
hides, whereof five make a fee of the said Honour of Bed- 
ford " (unum feodum et ii hidas unde quinque faciunt 
feodum de dicto honore) ; but if he held there 7 hides, 
there is a loss of i-g- since the D.B. survey. As said 
previously, it is remarkable how exactly the total Loring 
holding works out as 23-6- hides to 4^ knights, even 
though D.B. gives 8i hides to Chalgrave and the Testa 
gives 7. 

Instances to the contrary are to be found in Simon de 
PateshuH's holdings of 1^ hides at Riseley, and of 2\ at 
Bletsoe, each for one knight. Also 4^ at Hinwick plus 
Pavenham carried a \ knight, \\ at Eyworth plus 
Gravenhurst a \ knight, 7^ at Eversholt one knight, 10 at 
Hockliffe one knight, two virgates at Bolnhurst 3 V of a 
knight. The table printed further on will show details of 
the one-to-five and of the non-one-to-five holdings. 

We have yet to discuss certain changes. The figures 
given by the Testa (1250?) often vary from those of the 
Hundred Rolls (1278) and from those of the inquisitions 
recorded in the Feudal Aids (1284 and 1302-3). Perhaps 
Henry III. and Edward L ordered surveys to be made by 
inquisition, and the results to be registered, just for the 
reason that variations as to tenure were frequent, and they 
wanted to know what service the barons owed to them and 
the subtenants to the barons. Naturally, there were 
changes as land passed from man to man, or from family 
to family. But one seems to trace a certain amount of 
purpose, a substitution of simple tenure in place of pecu- 
liar tenure. The cases of Ravensden and Renhold, and 
of Stagsden / will be seen to be much to the point when 
studied in the parallel columns of the table. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



11 



At Ravensden, according to the Testa, hides were 
held for ^ of a knight, one virgate for 3V, two vir- 
gates for 3V, three virgates for Jr; at Renhold 2 hides 
for tV, and three virgates for it- 11 The fractions are 
peculiar; tV indeed means i5d. at £1 per fee, or iod. 
at one marc ; but 34 and 37 and 38 will divide into 
neither 160 nor 240. Yet we have no warrant for assert- 
ing that the clerk was careless or wilfully wrong. Also 
that 1^ hides in one case and a virgate in another should 
carry the same fraction of a knight is strange ; here we do 
suspect carelessness, and think that 1+ virgates would be 
correct. We turn to Feudal Aids (Inquisition of 1302-3), 
and find men of the same name owing \ knight, or T V, 
or 2V. The explanation must be that in the course of 
half a century there has been methodical simplification ; 
it may be that, when the Beauchamp fief was divided 
among co-heiresses, their husbands or sons thought it a 
good opportunity to introduce simplification. The 
tenures are not all of them, even now, exactly accurate to 
the ratio, but most are quite accurate, and the others 
nearly so. 

The Hundred Rolls are extant only for Willey and 
parts of Stodden and Manshead, 12 but, so far as they exist, 
they are very valuable. At Stagsden the Testa registers 
18 subtenants, viz., the Prior of Newnham and Wilfred 
Bordeleys, holding under the Abbot of Warden for ^ of a 
knight, and the other 16 holding each or in pairs one hide 
or one virgate ; total for the whole village 9 hides plus \ 
of a virgate plus ^ of a knight, where the D.B. hides of 
Hugh and Judith jointly were but six. But the Hundred 
Rolls consistently show us one virgate = 2V of a knight, 
and the inquisition of 1302-3, though not giving area, 
shows as at Ravensden men of the same name holding 
for -rV or wo or ttf. 

11. These figures are quite clearly written in the MS., but in one case 
the printed version has xxvi. where the MS. has xxxvi. 

12. Manshead in Vol. I., Willey and Stodden in Vol. II., in the printed 
edition of the Record Commission. 



12 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Now I think that we can understand slight changes 
without unduly straining our evidence. The H.R. areas 
are throughout treated as scutage hides and scutage vir- 
gates ; x defendit se pro tanto ad scutagium, or pro forin- 
seco servicio. There seems to be a deliberate rearrange- 
ment so as to simplify matters, and thus to make the col- 
lection of scutage money easy. At Carlton the Testa 
shows a Malherbe owing J of a knight; but the H.R. 
have another Malherbe holding 3^ virgates, and yet 
assessed only at 2 virgates, i.e. for iV of a knight (pro 
dimidio hidae ad scutagium); we remember that Chel- 
bert's holding here was 3^ virgates. Somehow or other 
the 8 hides at Bromham fall in the H.R. to 7|. 13 Just 
now we noticed the at Chalgrave falling to 7 ; this is 
not a case of a bit of land being alienated, for the Lorings 
held "totam villatam " (H.R.); and no other subtenant 
there is mentioned in any document. My general impres- 
sion is that, two centuries after Ralf Talboys and Hugh 
de Beauchamp had planted at least some soldiers on the 
land for their keep, and a century after Simon declared 
that a tale of 44! knights were due to him from 104 
enfeoffed subtenants, later Beauchamps or their heirs 
rated anew the land in terms of soldiers, so as to obtain 
easily small sums of money for the now normal tax in lieu 
of military service ; already several manors were rated at a 
knight for five hides, and now other manors were brought 
into line. 

In offering the table for what it is worth, I would 
emphasise that each document is incomplete, so that 
rarely can we make a satisfactory comparison ; therefore 
already in the text I have called attention to some villages 
where the figures allow a complete examination. The 
receipt roll of the aid of 1346 in Feudal Aids helps occa- 
sionally ; but it is confusing, for the money was drawn 
from both tenants-in-chief and sub-tenants. 

13. I thought to find at Bromham another case like the Carlton one. 
The printed H.R. entry here reads tenet iiii. hidas . . . pro iii. hidis ; but 
the MS. reads iii. quite clearly in each place. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



13 



In the table following, the first column gives the 
names of the vills in the Beauchamp fief, marked " dem." 
if Hugh de Beauchamp held in demesne at the time of 
Domesday Book, and " sub." if he had already sublet the 
land. The second column shows the number of hides and 
virgates (H. and V.) returned in D.B. as his holding. 
The third column shows the tenancy of the land as 
recorded by the Testa de Nevill, compiled about the 
middle of the xiijth century. The fourth column traces 
the further devolution of the land, as shown by the Hun- 
dred Rolls of 1278, and that Inquest of 1284 which is 
published as Feudal Aids, vol. i., pp. 1-7. The fifth 
column is from the Inquest of 1302-3, published as 
Feudal Aids, vol. i., pp. 7-16. 

The names in brackets show which co-heir of the 
Beauchamp Barony was holding at the time of the entry, 
and it is useful to consult the pedigree to see which suc- 
cessor held one third, and which one ninth. Moreover, 
entries in our documents sometimes only name the then 
holder without saying that he was a successor to the Beau- 
champ or Bedford barony, so that one might pass them 
over if one did not know. 



William de Beauchamp. 



Matilda 



Ella 



Beatrice 



m. 

i. Roger de Mowbray. 

ii. Roger PEstrange. 
One third of the barony. 



m. 

Baldwin Wake. 



i. Thomas fitz Otho. 
ii. William de 
Montchensy. 



m. 



(i) Matilda 



m. 

John de Bottetort. 
One third. 



Joan 
m. 



Ida 



Isabella 



Ralf Paynel 
One ninth. 



m. 

John de Steingreye. 



John de Horbnry. 



m. 



Isabella 
m. 

i. Simon de Pateshnll. 
ii. Walter de Teye. 



Richard le Rons. 
One ninth. 



(i) John de Pateshull. 
One ninth. 



14 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Name of Vill. 



Stodden Hundred. 
Keysoe: dem. 



Domes- 
day 
Book. 

4H. 3 v. 



Testa de Nevill. 



2 hides in capite. 
Will Tuaud, - 2 \- kt. 
Walter de la Lende, kt. 



Riseley : dem. & sub. ih. 2T. Simon de Perteshuil, i kt. 



" Estone " 14 : sub. 
Milton (Ernest): sub. ih. 



Bolnhurst 15 : Judith. 



2V. iV kt. in " Parva Stotton." 
3jv. Hugh de Lega, ih. = - 3 V kt. 
Rob. Basset, kt. 

2V. Rob. de Silbethorp, - 3 V kt. 



Willey Hundred. 
Stagsden 16 : dem. 

„ Judith. 



5H. 



IH. 



Biddenham 17 : sub. 



IH. 



J of the vill. in demesne. 

J. de Boles, 2 Virg. 

G. de Bordeleys, ih., G. fil. 

Robert, ih. 
W. de Stached, ih., Mat. Blundus, 

IH. 

P. de Goldington & G. Golston, 

IH. 

W. fil. Richard, ih. 

T. Murdoc & Simon Arlewine, 

IH. 

Prior of Newnham & G. Burde- 

leys, tenants of Abbot of 

Warden, J kt. 
Rob. Goldston, 1 Virg. 
Prior of Bushmead, 2 J Virg. 
Nich. Pinceware, 1 Virg., John 

Cocus, 1 Virg. 
Joce Cleric & Will Perteshuil, 1 

Virg. 

Gilbert Passelewe, ih. 



BEAUCHAMl* OF BEDFORD 



15 



Hundred Rolls, and Inquest 
of 1284. 



Simon de Pertesseye (Montchensy) 
2H., ad scutagium: H.R. 

i hide in " Stokton ": F.A. 
Will Basset (Steingreve) 2H., et se 

def endit pro tanto ad scutagium : 

H.R. 

James Grym pays 20s. ut non fieret 
miles: H.R. 



Will, de Montchensy, 3H. : H.R. 

Hugh de Blund (Horbury), 1 Virg. 

= -A- kt. 
R. de Stacheden (Steingreve), 1 

Virg. = 5V kt. 
P. de Goudintone (Steingreve), J 

Virg. = T V kt. 
H. de Dylewik (Paynel); blank. 
Adam Harlew (Paynel), \ Virg. 
Prior of Bushmead & John Burde- 

leys, sub Abbot of Warden, ih. 

Alex. Buzun, ih. 

Ric. Coc. (Paynel), J Virg. 



Inquest of 1302-3. 



Walter de Stouton, 3 V kt. 

(V Estrange). 
Walter de la Lounde, kt. 

(Paynel). 
Will, de Jarponvyle, J kt. (le 
Rous). 

Will. Tuaud, 1 Virg. = T \ kt. (le 

Rous). 
John Pertesoyl, X V kt. 
J. fil. Galfrid de Risle, 2 Virg. 
= Akt. 

Sibyl Basset, ^ kt. 



Margery Grym, 7 V kt. 



John de Botetourte holds manor 

of Aylewike (sic) in Stachedene. 
Hugh le Blount, ¥ V kt. 
G. de Bordeleys, kt. 



P. de Goldingtone, ¥ V kt. Rob. 

Goldston, ¥ V kt. 
H. de Aylewike, kt. 
Roger de Bray, 2V kt. 
Will le Eyr, ^ kt. 



Alex Buzoun, T V kt. 



16 ASSESSMENT OF 



Domes- 
Name of Vill. day 
Book. 

Bromham 18 : sub. 6h. 

„ Judith. 2H. 

Turvey : sub. ih. 

Sharnbrook: sub. ijv. 

,, Loring. 2H. Jv. 

„ Judith. 3 H. 

,, Osbern. 2 v. 

Carlton: Chelbert. 3JV. 

„ : Osbern the ih. iJv. 
Fisherman. 

Radwell: Judith. 2H. 2jv. 

Bletsoe: sub. 2H. 2 V. 

Thurleigh: sub. 2V. 

Hinwick: Turstin. ih. 3V. 

Pavenham: Turstin. 2H. 2Y. 

Barford Hundred. 

" Chainhalle" : 5H. 

dem. 
(In Ravensden). 

" Salchou " : dem. 5H. 
(In Renhold). 



KNIGHT SERVICE 



Testa de Nevill. 



W. de Swineshead & W. Malherbe, 
1 kt. 

Gilbert Passelewe, \ kt. 
G. Passelewe & Will. Malherbe, 
to >t. 

\ Knight among 3 subtenants. 
Peter Loring, \ kt. 

G. fil. Pagani, \ kt. 

Simon de Pateshull, \ 4- ?V kt. 



Will. Malherbe, \ kt. 

Henr. de Sharnbrook, \ kt. 
Rob. de Montibus, jV kt. 



Simon de Pateshull, \ kt. + \\. 
Simon de Pateshull, 1 kt. 
Simon de Pateshull, 2 Virg. 
John de Pabenham, \ kt. 



J. le Sauvage & W. Engayne, iJh. 

= kt. 
Nich. Pipart, iv. == ¥ V kt. 
G. de Eyringham, iv. = kt. 
W. Fraunceys & H. Picot, 2V. 

= -h kt. 
R. fil. Will. & Nig. de Radwell, 

3v. = A kt. 
Prior of Newnham at Salcho, 2H. 

= tb kt. 
\ kt. in capite at Ronhal, 
John de Flamvill, 3V. = ^ kt. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



17 



Hundred Rolls, and Inquest 
of 1284. 

W. Malherbe, 3H. : H.R. 

R. Passelewe (Montchensy), 2JH. 
W. Passelewe (Steingreve), 2H. 

Will, de Montchensy, ih. : H.R. 

Peter Loring (Montchensy), ih. ad 
scut. : H.R. 

Helena de Pentin (Mowbray), ih. 

Henr. de Bosco (Pateshull, Mow- 
bray), Jh. 

Joan Druel, Jh. in Colworth : H.R. 

John Malherbe (Montchensy), 
3*v. : H.R. 

H. de Sharnbrook, pro dim. hid. 
ad scut. (Pateshull, Mowbray), 

John de Montibus (Paynel), Jh. 
J. de Pateshull (Mowbray), 2|h. 
Jv. 

J. de Pateshull (Mowbray), pro i 
feodo. 

R. de la Leye (Pateshull, Mow- 
bray), Jh. 

In Podington, J. de Pabenham 
(Montch.), 7 v. = J kt. 

J. de Pabenham, 2H., at scut: 
H.R. 



Will, de Montchensy & John de 
Horbury hold in Ronhale & 
Ravesden, 8h. 2jv. 



Inquest of 1302-3. 



Five heirs of the barony jointly, J 

kt. in dominico. 
W. Passelewe, I kt. de baronia. 
N. Fermbaud & W. Passelewe, J 

kt. 

Peter Loring, £ kt. 
Elenia Parentin, i kt. 



John Druel, T V kt. 
Nigel atte Wode, ¥ V kt. 



John de Pabenham holds in Blet- 
soe, Sharnbrook, Radwell & 
Thurleigh for 1 knight. 



In Hinewike & Papenham, John 
de Pabenham, J knight. 



Nich. Godfrey, & heir of Nich. En- 

gayne, J kt. 
Nich. Pippard, kt. in Ravenes- 

dene. 

Rog. de Tyringham, T V kt. 
W. Fraunceys and Ric. Picot, 
tV kt. 

Successors of Ralf & Nigel, T V kt. 
Prior of Newnham, J kt. at 
Salcho. 

Abb. of Warden at Ronhale- 

graunge, 1 kt. 
Heirs of H. de Flaunville, T V kt. 

at Salcho. 



18 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Name of Vill. 



Putnoe: dem. 
Goldington: dem. 
., sub. 



Domes- 
day 
Book. 



5H- 

3H. 
6h. 



2V. 
IV. 



Testa de Nevill. 



Abbot of Warden, i kt. 
W. of Goldington, £ kt. 
Rob. Pippard, J kt. 
Rob. Ruffus & Rog. Wygeyn, 



kt. 



Wyboston: sub. 

„ Azeline. ih. 

Chawston : sub. ih. 

Roxton : sub. ih. 

Colmworth 19 : sub. 5H. 



ijv. 



Ric. de Weldelos, 1 kt. 



Barford : 4 



sub- 
tenants. 



Wixamtre Hundred. 
Cardington: dem. 

,, Judith. 
Willington: dem. 
Cople : 8 subtenants. 

Judith. 
Northill: sub. 
Southill: dem. 

Judith. 
Stanford: dem. & 

sub. 

„ Azeline. 
Warden: Azeline. 

Clifton Hundred. 
Stotf old : dem. 
Campton : Turstin. 

"Cudessane ": sub. 
" Chickesane " : 

Azeline. 
Henlowe: Azeline. 



12H. Henry of Barford, \ + tV kt. 1 

Hugh de Bretevill, \ -f ^ kt. 
Hamo de Creuequer, 2H. = J kt. 
Held in ward, 1 Jh. — -ts kt. 
Simon de Pateshull, \ kt. 

6h. 2§V. 
3H. i|v. 

IOH. 
9 H. 3V. 

IV. 
2V. 

2H. IV 

IH. 

2H. |V I 

2H. 

2V. 

ih. 3|v 

2H. 

4H. 

2H. 3V. One kt. with Aspley & Milton 
Bryant. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



19 



Hundred Rolls, and Inquest 
of 1284. 

Ralf de Goldington, J kt. 
Rob. Pipard, iJh. 
W. le Caron, Rob le Ros, H. 
Wygeyn, i|h. 



Inquest of 1302-3. 



Abbot of Warden, 1 kt. 

Ralf de Goldington, \ kt. 

John Pippard, \ kt. 

R. Wygeyn, fa kt. 

Rob. le Rous & W. le Caron, \ kt. 

Prior of Newnham, \ kt. 
Fulc Goscard, \ kt. 
I Rob. de Stacheden, \ kt. 



Heirs of Ric. de Waldebof, 1 kt. ( Joan de Braybrok & John de 

J Longgeville, 1 kt. in Colmworth 
( & Barford. 
Henry of Barford, \ kt. 
Hamo de Creuequer, \ kt. 
Walter de Enveyse, J kt. 
Alice de Bordeleys, \ kt. 



John le Child, \ kt. 

Abbot of Warden, 1 \ kts. 4- Jh. 



Adam de Boueles, of Magna Hol- 
well, § kt. (1' Estrange). 

Prior of Chicksands, 2 kts. 



Abbot of Warden \ kt. (aid of 
1346). 



Roger 1' Estrange in dominico. 
Nich. de Boweles & W. de Pratis, 
■fa kt. (Teye) in Magna Hoi well. 



20 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Domes- 
Name of Vill. day Testa de Nevill. 
Book. 

Stondon : Azeline. 2H. 2 V 

Biggleswade Hundred. 

Hatley: Azeline. 5H. ijv 

Beeston (Sandy) : 2V. 
Turstin. 

Holme: sub. iv. 

Astwick 20 : 3 sub- 2H. iv. 

tenants. 

Flitt Hundred. 

Eyworth: Azeline. ih. j John de la Mare & Nich. de 

Gravenhurst : sub. 3H. 2 v. Bueles, J kt. 
Haynes: dem. 5H. ih. 3JV. in capite. 

Higham: sub. 8h. \ Hugh Gobyon, 2 kts. in Higham, 

Streatley : sub. 4H. iv. ' Streatley, Faldho, & Sharpenhoe.i 



Cainhoe: Azeline. 
Turstin, subtenant. 



IH. 



Simon de Pateshull, £ kt. 



Redbornstoke Hun- 
dred. 
Houghton (Con- 
quest): dem. 



Maiden : dem. 
Wootton: Loring. 
Shelton (Marston) : 
Loring. 

Manshead Hundred. 21 
Salford: sub. 

Aspley : sub. 
Milton (Bryant) : 

sub. 

Eversholt : sub. 
Hockliffe : Azeline. 



5H. 



I OH. 

3H. 

I OH. 

6h. 

7H. 
I OH. 



2|V. 



2V. 



Ward, 2H., Will Brito, iJh. 
H. Cosin, Jh., J. de Flamvill, ih. 
Parsona, iv., Malherbe, Jv., 

Priory of Chicksands, iv. 
Gilbert de Cotes, ih. 
David Loring, G. fil. Pagani, & 

four others, for 3 kts. 



Nigel de Salford, 1 kt. (Stein- 
greve). 

pro uno scutagio; and he who 
holds Milton answers for Aspley 
& Henlow. 

John fil. Milonis, 1 kt. 

John Malherbe in ward, 1 kt. 



BEAUGHAMP OF BEDFORD 



21 



Hundred R^and Inquest Inquest q{ 

Will. Bruton, | kt. (Montchensy). Will. Bruton, } kt. (Bottetort). 
Will, de Port, i kt. (1' Estrange). (| kt. (Mowbray) : aid of 1346). 



Walter de Estwik (Montchensy), (1 kt. : i.p.m., 12 Richard ii.). 
iJh. 

Peter Brien & Nich. de Boweles, 
£kt. 

ih. 3^v. (l'Estrange): cancelled. 
Ric. Gubyun, 1 kt. Higham (Pay- R. le Botiller & Th. Paynel, 1 kt. 
nel), + 1 kt. in Sharpenhoe & Higham & Streatley. 
Streatley. Heirs of Faldo, ih. = £ kt. in 

Faldho. 

Mat. de Thorp, f kt. Sharpenhoe 

& Streatley. 

I Margeria de Pateshull, Y V kt. 



John Malherbe, Will le Bretun, & (Two women, f kt., Will Brytone, 
H. de Flaunvilla, 5 hides for 1 kt., Matilda Flanvylle, T V kt., 
kt. Chicksands Priory, T V kt. Aid 

of 1346). 

Patricius & Isabella le Fleminge 
for 2 kts. 



John de Salford, 1 kt. (H.R.). 

Anselm de Gyse, Jo kt. (H.R.). 
Heir of Rob. Brian, 1 kt. 

(l'Estrange). (H.R.). 
Abb. of Woburn, 7H. 3V., for 2 

marcs, H.R. 
W. de Montchensy, i\ kt. (H.R.). 



Nigel de Salford & tenants, 1 kt. 

John de Gyse, J kt. 
Peter Brian & R. de Harlingdon, 
i kt. 



W. de Ponte & Luc. Chetwode, 1 
kt. 



22 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



Name of Vill. 



Battlesden: Azeline. 
Chalgrave : Loring. 
Potsgrave. 

Buckinghamshire. 
Linslade : dem. 

Lathbury: sub. 

Evershaw 22 



Domes- 
day 
Book. 



IH. 

8h. 

? 



I5H. 

4 H. 

? 



2V. 

iv. 



Testa de Nevill. 



Peter Loring, 1 kt. + 2H. = f kt. 
Henry Blacfront, iv. = ^ kt. 



Mich. senior, kt. Dom. 

Nicholaa, 1 j kt. 
Isabella Daubeny, \ kt. 

Will, de Evereshawe, \ kt. 



Marsh Gibbon. ? 

Upton cum Chal- ? 

veye. 

Hertfordshire. 

Bengeo 23 : sub. 6h. 

Hunsdon: sub. 4H. 



Rob. Brien & Egidius de Insula, 
\ kt. 

Peter de Goldington, 1 kt. 



1 kt. held of Beauchamp fief. 



NOTES TO THE FOREGOING TABLE. 

14. "Estone" Mr. Round will not allow to be Little Staughton, but 
the evidence here is rather in favour of the identification (compare B.H.R.S., 
i> 70-73)- 

15. In the V.C.H. the Grym Manor is assumed as coming somehow to 
the Beauchamps from the Bishop of Coutances; if considered as coming from 
Judith's half-hide, of which Hugh was subtenant, it would be in line with 
her other holdings let to him. 

16. "Aylewike" should be Dylewike or Dylwick. See arguments in 
the text that the clerk of Testa miswrote "hide" for "virgate." 

17. Ralf Passelewe holds one hide at Biddenham, but of the honour of 
Gloucester; H.R. How this transfer came about there is no clue; the Bishop 
of Coutances had held in D.B. land which passed on to the earldom, e.g. at 
Yelden, but he had had none at Biddenham. 



BEAUCHAMP OF BEDFORD 



23 



Hundred Rolls, and Inquest 
of 1284. 



Inquest of 1302-3. 



7 hides, (H.R.). 
Edmund Everard, iv. 



H.R. 



Peter Loring, 1 kt. 



Five Beauchamp coheirs, 1 kt. 

Heir of Will Daubeny, \ kt. 

(V Estrange). 
Abbot of Buttlesdene, Jh. ex dono. 
Pagani de Bello Campo: H.R. 

(Brien's widow & Giles hold of fief 
of R. de Somery). 



Five Beauchamp coheirs, 2 kts., 
& Will, le Rous de Coupol, 1 kt. 



Abbot of Butlisdene & Prior of 
Luffeld, \ kt. ; no Beauchamp 
overlordship. 



Joanna d' Engayne, J kt. : (F. A., 
vol. ii., p. 435). 



18. The J knight due from 5 tenants-in-chief must refer to the reduced 
obligation. 

19. The Braybrok-Longgeville entry does not specify that they held 
under the barony of Bedford, but the roll of 1346 shows that they did. 

20. The inquisition post mortem is quoted from V.C.H., Vol. II., p. 203. 

21. (H.R.) signifies that Hundred Rolls confirm Feudal Aids; H.R. 
without brackets that Hundred Rolls alone give the evidence. 

22. There is no evidence how Evershaw came to the Beauchamps. The 
unconfirmed entries in the Testa of Marsh Gibbon and Upton seem to be 
due to mere error. 

23. The manor of Bengeo was alienated to Bermondsey Abbey, but the 
D'Engaynes had a claim to overlordship and also held at Hunsdon ; compare 
Herts. V.C.H., under Bengeo. 



24 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



As regards actual military service, the reduced obli- 
gation of the Beauchamp fief is recorded in a marshal's 
register 24 as two knights in the year 1245. William de 
Beauchamp then served in person in Wales se altero 
milite ; he and his companion, being dubbed knights, 
would have each had some 3 men-at-arms in attendance, 
making up a half-troop of about 8 lances. But two 
knights in lieu of 45 is much less than what we would 
expect. I suspect a clerk's error ; se altero milite ought 
to be cum duobus militibus, for I have come across an 
occasional slip of this kind in military rolls. As an alter- 
native, I suggest that, when the obligation was being 
reduced, Beauchamp tried to make it as low as possible, 
then Henry III. or Edward I. objected; at any rate the 
number was finally settled at three. It will be remem- 
bered that the Daubeny 25 and the Odell 30 were also 
reduced to three, so that the Beauchamp three for 45 still 
remained low. I would say here what I omitted in Vol. 
II. when writing of the barony of Belvoir ; Robert de 
Ros owed the service of 27 for his father's inheritance in 
Yorkshire and Lincolnshire and Northumberland, and 33 
for his wife's barony of Belvoir, 60 horsemen in all ; in 
two feudal wars in Wales he recognised 6 as his reduced 
obligation. So the Beauchamp fief, compared with both 
larger and smaller fiefs, was assessed very lightly. 

The new obligation receives no notice in the inquisi- 
tion of 1284, and the subtenants' fees in that of 1302-3 are 
all given on the old scheme. But the tenants in chief are 
assessed in 1302-3 on the new. Therefore, we have to be 
very careful to prevent confusion. The clerks of this 
document seem to have understood that there were two 
schemes, for some of the entries are cancelled as if out of 
place. On pages 8, 11, 12, 16 of Feudal Aids it will be 
seen that tota baronia defenditur contra regem pro iii 
f.m. ; two of these entries are cancelled, two are not. Roger 
l'Estrange, and William de Montchensy, and after him 

24. Chancery Miscellanea, V. No. i ; B.H.R.S., ii, 247. 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



33 



Frewen of Sapcote, co. Leic, clerk, in trust to sell and 
pay all debts and legacies. To da. Sylena St. John 
£ 1000 at age of 21 or day of marriage. To sister Eliza- 
beth Wetherhead, wife of Richard Wetherhead ^10 a 
year for life and £$ for mourning. Son Needham St. 
John to be residuary legatee at age of 21, meanwhile 
money to be applied for his education. To John Wether- 
head (son of sister Elizabeth Wetherhead) now an infant, 
£$0. Nephew John Fifield of the town of Southampton 
to have his real and personal estate if his son & da. die 
under age and unmarried. Legacies to nieces Sylena and 
Joanna Fifield, and Mary Wetherhead, and to sisters 
Elizabeth Weatherhead and Mary Fifield. The said 
trustees to be executors and guardians of his children and 
to have £5 apiece. (P.C.C. 299 Price.) Pr. 29 Nov. 
*733 by J onn Turner, John Simons, William Wright and 
John Frewen, exors. By Elizabeth his wife he had issue : 

V. 

1. John St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 16 
Aug. 1722, d. in his infancy 1 May and bur. at Cold 
Overton 3 May 1723. 

2. Needham St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 5 
Aug. 1725, m. at St. George's, Hanover Square, 29 
May 1753 (Arch. Cant. Lie.) Dorothy Covey, of 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, spr., and d. at Kirby Muxloe, 
25 Jul. 1762, aged 37. 

3. Benjamin St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 
17 Aug. 1726, d. in infancy 28 Aug. and bur. 29 Aug. 
1727 at Cold Overton. 

1. Selina St. John, born & bapt. 16 Apr. 1728 
at Kilby, co. Leic. and there bur. 26 Mar. 1807. By 
her will dat. 28 Feb. 1803, wherein she is described 
as of the borough of Leic. spr. she desires to be bur. 
in the chancel of the church of Kilby, where she was 
born. Legacies to servants, and to her friend, Sarah, 



34 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



Countess of Denbeigh, 20 guineas for a ring. To 
friend Miss Easter Willows her silver coffee pot, 
stand, and sugar basin, and the cabinet usually stand- 
ing in her dressing room. Legacies to Miss Frances 
Lerom, Jane Watson, widow, Mrs. Ann Powle, 
housekeeper to the Countess of Denbeigh, Edward 
Farnham, Esq., and Harriet his wife, Mrs. Anna 
Maria Humfrey, Mr. John Maull, surgeon; god- 
daughters, Mrs. Hodgkin, Miss Hester Humfrey, 
Miss Elmira Selina Vaughan and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Gregory. To the poor of Kilby £ $. Appoints 
friend, the Rev. Thomas Willows, of the borough of 
Leicester, clerk, sole exor. and residuary legatee. By 
a codicil dat. 20 Oct. 1803 she bequeaths to Easter 
Willows 6 silver teaspoons, cream jug and silver tea 
tongs having her cypher upon them. (P.C.C. 528 
Lushington.) Pr. 1 Jun. 1807 by Rev. Thomas 
Willows, clerk, sole exor. 

Connected with this branch of the family there ap- 
pears to have been another Rowland St, John, of Lon- 
don, merchant, who made his will 18 Mar. 1692-3, and by 
it bequeathed to his niece Mary St. John ^400 at age of 
21 or marriage, interest on same to go — in the meantime — 
towards her maintenance and education. To nephew 
Rowland St. John ^500, the interest to be used to putting 
him out as apprentice and the principal sum to be paid 
over at age of 21. To nieces Selina and Rebecca St. John, 
and to nephews John and Francis St. John ^300 apiece. 
To the child his sister St. John had last, whether boy or 
girl £200, all of which sums are to be put out at interest 
and the principal paid to sons when 21 and to the daurs. 
when 21 or at marriage. To Mrs. Isabella Glen £50', to 
cousin Joane Stanhope wife of Michael Stanhope £ 100 
to her own proper use, and to the said Michael and Joane 
£20 to buy mourning. To half sister Johannah Coni- 
grave, wife of Conyers Conigrave £5 per ann. To the 
poor of Cold Overton, co. Leic, and to the poor of St. 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHII4. 



35 



Katherine Coleman, London, £5 each. To James Bush 
£ 10 for mourning. To Mr. Peter Vancitter and his wife 
£ 20 for mourning ; to Thomas White £ 25 for mourning, 
and to Margaret Cock £ 5 for mourning. To Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Blackman and Mrs. Susan Blackman, daughters of 
Lucey Blackman, Esq., and to Mr. Lucey Blackman and 
his wife £ 20 apiece for mourning. Appoints brother John 
St. John sole exor. and residuary legatee, and leaves 
to him for life his lands near Frisby, co. Leic. with re- 
mainder to nephew Rowland St. John and his heirs for 
ever. By a codicil dat. 16 Jun. 1694 he bequeaths to Mrs. 
Glenn ^50 more, and to Michael Stanhope £ 100 in con- 
sideration that he assist his executor. To Mrs. Elizabeth 
St. John, daur. to Mr. Ben : St. John and to her sister Mrs. 
Lucy St. John £10 apiece for mourning. (P.C.C. 223 
Box.) Pr. 4 Sep. 1694 by John St. John, brother and 

executor - ' ' ' 1303655 

I am unable to assign the above testator, Rowland St. 
John his proper place in the pedigree. According to the 
relationships mentioned in his will his place should be 
somewhere in the third generation from Francis and Mar- 
gery St. John, as he mentions his nephews Rowland, John 
and Francis St. John and his nieces Mary, Selina, and 
Rebecca St. John. The only solution I am able to suggest 
is that John and Elizabeth St. John had two sons named 
Rowland, which seems on the whole probable, as his will 
was proved by John St. John his brother. 



26 



ASSESSMENT OF KNIGHT SERVICE 



he did his minimum. Similarly, Sir Walter de Teye 
went to Flanders with Edward I. in 1297 in the paid 
cavalry, himself and two knights and 7 troopers making a 
small unit of 10 lances; in 13 10, as one of the recal- 
citrants, he limited himself to sending one man-at-arms to 
represent his obligation of J of a knight. The army of 
13 10 was, as a matter of fact, ludicrously small; merely 
37 knights and 472 servientes ad arma were mustered, 
most of them in units sent by churchmen ; they dribbled 
in slowly, some of them several days, others several 
weeks, late ; in fact, it was the smallest and least efficient 
force of feudal cavalry ever mustered, and the Bedford 
contribution to it was one knight, plus his attendant or two, 
and one man-at-arms. 26 



26. Bottetort's writ in 1298 is to be found in Exchequer Accounts which 
is an inventory of all the horses with their colour and points and value, and 
incidentally with the names of the riders, in the King's paid cavalry. Teye's 
writ similarly is in Exch. Acc. 7 ° T . I have given these figures in my " Welsh 
Wars of Edward I.," pp. 277 and 288. The Marshal's register for the year 
1310 is printed in Parliamentary Writs, under that year. 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL. 



BY F. A. PAGE TURNER, 
I. 

Francis St. John, of Stanfordbury. in par. Southill, 
Esq., 4th s. of Oliver, 1st Lord St. John of Bletsoe, was 
born circa 1559. He m. Margaret, da. of John Selwyn, 
of Friston, co. Sussex, Esq., bapt. at Friston, 14 Aug., 
1552, and wid. of John Almond, of Westham, co. Sussex, 
gent., to whom m. at Friston, 23 Sep., 1590, and by her 
had issue : — 

1. John St. John, eld. s. & h., of whom hereafter. 

2. Francis St. John, bur. at Cold Overton, 26 
May, 1635. 

3. Oliver St. John, living 1634-5. 

4. Benjamin St. John, bapt. at Southill, 13 
Apr. 1606, living 1634-5. 

5. Myles St. John, bapt. at Southill, 15 Dec, 
1602, bur. at Warden, 11 Jan., 1602-3. 

1. Judith St. John, bapt. at Southill, 15 Apr., 
1599, ? viv. 1635. 

2. Anne St. John, bapt. at Southill, 3 Mar. 
1 600- 1, m Thorneton. 

3. Martha St. John, bapt. at Southill, 4 Jul. 
1604, bur. at Clifton, 1 Feb., 1604-5. 

Francis St. John made his will 1 Sep. 1628, desiring 
to be bur. in Southill church. To Judith, his eld. dau. he 
left .£500, and the like sum to his youngest dau. Anne. 
To Oliver St. John his 3rd s. £10, besides ^300 which 
his eld. s. John St. John stands bound to pay him within a 
year after testator's decease. To youngest s. Benjamin 
St. John. ^300, and to his 2nd s. Francis St. John ,£10, 



28 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



and to his eld. s. John St. John, a piece of plate of the 
value of £$. To the poor of Southill, Stanford and 
Broome £$. Appoints wife, Margaret St. John, sole 
executrix and residuary legatee. (P.C.C. 86 Ridley.) 
Proved 6 Oct. 1629 by Margaret, relict and exe- 
cutrix. Francis St. John was bur. at Southill, 8 
Sep. 1628 aet. 69. Margaret St. John, of the par. 
of Clifton, wid., made her will 28 Jan. 1634-5 desiring 
to be bur. in the chancel of Southill, as near her husband 
as may be. To eld. s. John St. John, 20s. to buy him a 
ring, £10 and 12 silver spoons. To s. Oliver St. John, 
20s. to buy him a ring, and to youngest s. Benjamin St. 
John a silver tankard. To dau. Anne Thorneton, 20s. 
to buy a ring. To niece Barnardiston a little silver handle 
cup with the cover to it as a token of her love " for her 
paines and love to me." To the poor of Southill 40s. and 
to the poor of Clifton 20s. Appoints eld. dau. Judith St. 
John, sole executrix and residuary legatee. (P C.C. 36 
Sadler.) Proved 14 May, 1635, by Judith St. John, dau. 
and executrix. Margery St. John was bur. at Southill, 9 
Mar. 1634-5. 

II. 

John St. John, eld. s. and h. of Francis St. John and 
Margaret his wife, lived at Cold Overton, co. Leic, and 
was High Sheriff for that co. 1632. He was admitted of 
Grays Inn, 15 Aug., 161 1. By his wife, Elizabeth, da. of 
Sir Brian Cave, of Stanford and Ingarsby, co. Leic, 
Bart., by Margaret, his wife, da. of Sir George Throck- 
morton, Knt., (Nichols' Leic.) he had issue : — 

1. John St. John, eld. s. and h., of whom here- 
after. 

2. Benjamin St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 
13 Feb., 1633-4, and there bur. 2 Aug. 1672. He m. 
at St. Giles-in-the-Fields, 8 Aug. 1663, Blanche, da. 
of Sir Humphrey Monnoux, of Wootton, Bart. She 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



29 



was bapt. at Wootton, 30 Sep. 1639, an d was there 
bur., 11 Oct. 1671. Marriage licence dated 7 Aug. 
1663 (V.G. Lie.) By her he had issue : — 

1. Beauchamp Monnoux St. John, only 
s., bapt. at Cold Overton, 10 Jun., 1667, bur. at 
same, 2 Sep., 1670. 

1. Blanch St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 
27 Sep. 1665, m. Rev. Jonathan Hooper, Rect. 
of Sandy, to which he was instituted 18 July 
1682. He was bur. at Sandy, 6 Sep. 1722, leav- 
ing issue him surviving. 

2. Elizabeth St. John. 

3. Elizabeth St. John. Executrix to her 
father's will. Had a legacy of ,£10 under the 
will of her uncle, Rowland St. John, dat. 1694. 

4. Lucy St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton, 2 
Jun. 1669, and dying unmarried was bur. at 
Potton, 21 Sep. 1728. By her will, dat. 27 Aug. 
1728, she directed that a large black grave stone 
be set up against the wall, and her coat of arms 
be engraven thereon. To her late servant Ann 
Clarke (wife of John Clarke), whom she brought 
up from a child, all her real and personal estate 
after debts, funeral charges and legacies have 
been paid. To sister, Mrs. Blanche Hooker, 
£ 10 for mourning and 20s. for a mourning ring. 
To cousins Humphrey and Lewis Monnoux, 
Esqrs., 20s. each for mourning rings. To Eliza- 
beth, wife of Jonathan Odell, £10. Appoints 
Ann Clarke sole executrix. Proved, 7 Jan. 
1728-9 by the executrix within named. (P.C.C. 
23 Abbott.) 

3. Francis St. John, bur. at Cold Overton, 14 
Sep. 1 66 1. Letters of admon. of the estate of 
Francis St. John, of par. St. Catherine, Coleman 



30 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



Street, London, were granted 18 Dec. 1661, to 
Benjamin St. John the brother. (P.C.C. A.A.) 

4. Rowland St. John, of London, merchant, 
was bapt. at Cold Overton, 22 Jan. 1632-3. By his 
will, dat. 23 Aug. 1 66 1, he bequeathed to his father 
John St. John, his mother Elizabeth, and his wife 
£4. apiece for rings; and to his brothers, John, 
Francis, and Benjamin St. John, £2$ apiece. To 
friend, Mr. Thomas Ewster, whom he appoints sole 
executor, ^100. Wife Mary, da. of Sir Robert 
Parkhurst, of Purford, co. Surrey, Knt., deed., to be 
residuary legatee. Proved 20 Sep. 166 1 by Thomas 
Ewster, executor. (P.C.C. 144 May.) Letters of 
admon. dat. 31 Mar. 1666 granted to Benjamin 
St. John, brother of deed, of goods unadministered 
by Thomas Ewster, now also deed. He m. at St. 
Mary Woolnoth, 25 Apr. 1661, Mary Parkhurst, of 
Purford, Surrey, spr. ; mar. lie. dated same day ; he is 
described as of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, about 27 ; 
she spr. about 22 ; her parents dead. (V.G. Lie.) 

1. Mary St. John, m. at Cold Overton, 29 Sep. 
1663, Jacob Lucie of St. Catherine Coleman, London, 
who was there bur. 20 Nov. 1689. They had a da. 
Mary St. John Lucie also there bur. 18 Oct. 1667 
Mary, wife of Jacob Lucie, was also bur. at St. 
Catherine Coleman, Fenchurch Street, London, 4 
May 1681. 

2. Anne St. John, m. at Cold Overton 6 Mar. 
1663-4, R- ev - J onn Cave, Rector of Cold Overton, 
who was bur. at Cold Overton 15 Sep. 1695. 

III. 

John St. John, eld. s. & h. of John St. John & Eliza- 
beth his wife, born circa 1623, was admitted of Grays Inn, 
23 Feb. 1637-8. He was of Lincoln Coll., Oxford, matri- 
culated 21 Feb. 1639-40, aet. 17. He mar. Selina Hal- 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



31 



ford, 2nd da. of Sir Thomas Halford, of Wiston, co. Leic, 
Bart. She d. n May, and was bur. at Cold Overton, 14 
May, 1696. Letters of Admon., dat. 7 Dec. 1699, were 
granted to her husband John St. John, who dying on the 
23 Mar. was bur. 1 Apr. 1704 at Cold Overton. By his 
will, dated 11 Aug. 1694, he left to his wife Selina all 
monies, &c, which belonged to her under the will of Sir 
Thomas Halford, Bart., her father, deed., or under the deed 
of settlement made on his marriage with Selena his wife 
or otherwise, and ^100, also plate, jewells, &c. To daurs. 
Mary, Selena, Rebeccah, and Eleanor St. John, ,£200 
apiece at age of 21 or marriage. To sons John St. John 
and Francis St. John, ,£300 apiece at age of 21. Son 
Rowland St. John to be residuary legatee. Appoints kins- 
man Thomas Marson, junr., of Belton, co. Rutland, gent, 
sole executor during minority of his son Rowland who, 
when he be 21, shall be joint executor with the said 
Thomas Marson, to whom he leaves £20. Proved 16 
Jun. 1705 by Rowland St. John, son & exor. Power re- 
served to Thomas Marson, the other executor. (P.C.C. 
149 Gee.) By Selina his wife, he had issue : — 

IV. 

1. Rowland St. John, born circa 1676, d. 29 
Oct. 1723, aet. 47, bur. at Cold Overton, 31 Oct. 
1723. Succ. his father as Lord of the Manor in 1704. 

2. John St. John, bapt. at Cold Overton 10 Dec. 
1687, d. 23 Apr. aet. 28, bur. 26 Apr. 1 7 1 5 at Cold 
Overton. By his will, dated 15 Feb. 17 14-15, he be- 
queathed to his brother Rowland and to his sisters 
Mary, Rebecca, Eleanor, and Elizabeth is. apiece. 
All his share in all messuages, cottages or tenements, 
and also all his share of those closes which were lately 
purchased by his father John St. John of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth St. John, Blanche Hooker, wife of Jonathan 
Hooker, clerk, and Lucy St. John, all which 
premises lie in Cold Overton, and all other his real 



32 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



and personal estate whatsoever, to his brother Francis 
St. John and his heirs for ever. Appoints said 
Francis St. John sole executor. Proved 15 Jul. 17 17 
by Francis St. John, brother and executor. (P.C.C. 
145 Whitfield.) 

3. Francis St. John, of whom hereafter. 

1. Rebecca St. John, bapt. at Knossington, 11 
Dec. 1684. 

2. Mary St. John, m. . . . Fifield, and had a son 
John Fifield named in will of Francis St. John, her 
brother, and also 2 daurs. named Selina and Joanna 
Fifield. 

3. Selina St. John, d. 16 Oct., bur. at Cold 
Overton 22 Oct. 1696, M.I. 

4. Eleanor St. John, bapt. 20 Oct. 1692 at 
Cold Overton, m. before 17 15 . . . Woodland. 

5. Elizabeth St. John, born 3 May 1695 at 
Cold Overton; m. between 1715 and 1732 Richard 
Wetherhead and had issue a son John, named in will 
of her brother Francis St. John, also 2 daurs. named 
Mary and Elizabeth Wetherhead. 

Francis St. John, 3rd s. bapt. at Cold Overton 8 
Mar. 1689-90, succ. on the death s.p. of his two brothers 
Rowland and John to the family estates. He m. Eliza- 
beth, da. of who was bur. at Kirby Muxloe, co. Leic. 

20 Feb. 1732-3, and letters of admon. dat. 16 Mar. 1735-6 
were granted to William Wright, guardian of Needham St. 
John, and Selina St. John, her only surviving children. 
Francis St. John, her husband, of Kirby Frith, co. Leic, 
gent, made his will 11 Oct. 1732, and bequeathed to his 
son Needham St. John, his heirs and assigns for ever, all 
his lands and tenements. He left all his goods, money, 
&c. to John Simons of Belgrave, co. Leic. Esq., John 
Turner of Cold Overton, co. Leic, Esq., William Wright 
of Newarke, near the borough of Leicester, Esq. and John 



37 



(I.) 



(II.) 



(HI.) 



(IV.) 



a St. John, 
|. 1604. 
1604-5. 



Anne St. John, 
m. 1663-4, Rev. 
John Cave. 



I I ! 

Elizabeth St. John, Elizabeth St. John. 

viv. nupt. 1686. — — 

Lucy St. John 
b. 1669. d. 172S. 



32 ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 

and personal estate whatsoever, to his brother Francis 
St. John and his heirs for ever. Appoints said 
Francis St. John sole executor. Proved 15 Jul. 17 17 
by Francis St. John, brother and executor. (P.C.C. 
145 Whitfield.) 

3. Francis St. John, of whom hereafter. 

1. Rebecca St. John, bapt. at Knossington, 11 
Dec. 1684. 

2. Mary St. John, m. . . . Fifield, and had a son 
John Fifield named in will of Francis St. John, her 
brother, and also 2 daurs. named Selina and Joanna 
Fifield. 

3. Selina St. John, d. 16 Oct., bur. at Cold 
Overton 22 Oct. 1696, M.I. 

4. Eleanor St. John, bapt. 20 Oct. 1692 at 
Cold Overton, m. before 17 15 . . . Woodland. 

5. Elizabeth St. John, born 3 May 1695 at 
Cold Overton; m. between 1715 and 1732 Richard 
Wetherhead and had issue a son John, named in will 
of her brother Francis St. John, also 2 daurs. named 
Mary and Elizabeth Wetherhead. 

Francis St. John, 3rd s. bapt. at Cold Overton 8 
Mar. 1689-90, succ. on the death s.p. of his two brothers 
Rowland and John to the family estates. He m. Eliza- 
beth, da. of who was bur. at Kirby Muxloe, co. Leic. 

20 Feb. 1732-3, and letters of admon. dat. 16 Mar. 1735-6 
were granted to William Wright, guardian of Needham St. 
John, and Selina St. John, her only surviving children. 
Francis St. John, her husband, of Kirby Frith, co. Leic, 
gent, made his will 11 Oct. 1732, and bequeathed to his 
son Needham St. John, his heirs and assigns for ever, all 
his lands and tenements. He left all his goods, money, 
&c to John Simons of Belgrave, co. Leic. Esq., John 
Turner of Cold Overton, co. Leic, Esq., William Wright 
of Newarke, near the borough of Leicester, Esq. and John 



ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL 



37 



FRANCIS ST. JOHN OF SOUTHILL, AND HIS DESCENDANTS. 

(A Cadet Branch of the St. Johns of Bletioe.) 
KEY PEDIGREE. 



John, = Margery Selwyn, 



i St John, 



Martha St. John 



= Selinl Halford, Benjamin St. John = Blanche Monoui, Francis St. John, Rowland St. John, = Mary Parkhurst, Mary St. John 
d. 1696. b. 1633-4. I b- "639. m. 1663. d. 1661. b. 1632-3. b.c. 1639. m 1663, Jacob 

d. 1672. I d. 1671. d. 1661. m. 1661. Lucie, d. 1681. 



Rowland St. John, 



Anne St. John, 
m. 1663-4, Rev. 



1 I 
St. John, Franci9 St. Joha 
1687. b. 1689-90. 



Rebecca St. John, Eleanor I 

b. 1684, b. 1693. 

Elizabeth St. John, Selina St. John, 

b. 1695. viv. 1714- d. 1696. 

15. m. Richard 

Wetherhead. Mary St. John, 
m. . . Fifield. 



Beauchamp Mon. Blanche St. John, 
nous St. John, b. 1665, m. Rev. 
b. 1667. d. 1670. Jonathan Hooker. 



John St. John 
d. 1723 



Needhmm St. John, = Dorothy Covey, 
b. 1725. m. 17SJ. 

d. 1762. 



SOME SAXON CHARTERS. 



BY G. HERBERT FOWLER. 

ABBREVIATIONS. 

K. — Kemble, J. M. : Codex Diplomaticus Aevi Saxonici (Engl. Hist. Soc, 

vii.) 6 vols. 1839-1848. 
B. — Birch, W. de G. : Cartularium Saxonicum. London. 1885-1893. 3 vols. 
T. — Thorpe, B. : Diplomatarium Anglicum Aevi Saxonici. London. 1865. 
R.S. — Rolls Series = Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain. 
T.R.E.— Tempore Regis Edwardi = at the time of King Edward or before the 

Conquest. 
D.B. — Domesday Book. 

V.C.H. — Victoria County History of Bedfordshire. 

Several of the charters and other documents, here 
printed in abstract, have already been noted in V.C.H. , but 
search of the printed Latin and Saxon texts has disclosed 
a few more which relate to the County. In all we have 
now fourteen documents alleged to be of Saxon date, deal- 
ing with grants of land in twenty-one vills ; three of the 
latter occur in more than one document. Probably a yet 
larger number of documents of this date relates to places 
in Bedfordshire with common Saxon names, such as Sut- 
ton and Carlton, but shows no internal evidence by which 
to link them with the county. Two only of those here 
abstracted have appeared in English before. 

My thanks are due to my friend, Prof. W. P. Ker, 
for the translation of some charters from the Saxon. 

In the case of most deeds it did not seem necessary 
to print more than — (i) the invocation and exordium, (2) 
such parts as relate to Bedfordshire, (3) the closing 
phrases. Omissions are indicated by dots 

Among the points of interest in these charters is their 
record of the earliest spelling of place names. The late 
Professor Skeat, whose " Place-Names of Bedfordshire "t 
is the standard authority, knew several of these charters ; 

t Cambridge Antiquarian Society : 8vo. publications, xlii. 



40 



SAXON CHARTERS 



his explanation of the name is given in the fourth column. 
It is interesting and instructive to compare the names in 
D.B., forming the third column, with the Anglo-Saxon 
forms in the second column. 



Arlesey. Alriches eia Alricheseie. ^ESelric's isle. 

Aspley. JEpslea. Aspeleia. Aspen Lea 

Barton. Berton. Bertone. Farm Yard 

Caddington. Cadandune. Cadendone. Cada's Down. 

Chalgrave. Cealhgrsefan Celgrave. Chalk Trench. 

„ Celegrave. 

Clapham. Cloppham. Clopeham. ? Stub Close. 

Clifton. Cliftune. Clistone. Cliff Farm. 

Cranfield. Crangfelde. Cranfelle. Crane Field. 

Hatley. Hsetlea. Hatelai. Haetta's Lea. 

„ Hattenleie. 

Kempston. Kemestan. Camestone. Caemb's Farm. 

„ Csembestune. 

Langford. Longaforde. Langeford. At the Long 

Ford. 

Luton. Lygetune. Loitone. Lea Town 

[Ly S e * R. 
Lea.] 

Millo. Melnho. Melehou. Mill Slope. 

Oakley. Accle. Achelai. Oak Lea. 

Potton. Pottune. Potone. Potta's Farm. 

Putnoe. Puttenho. Putenehou. Putta's Slope. 

Shillington. Scytlingedune.Sethlindone. The Scyt- 

lings' Down. 

Streatley. Straetlea. Stradlei. Street Lea. 

Studham. Stodham. Estodham. Stud Close. 

Sundon. Sunnandune. Sonedone. Sun Down. 

Tebworth. Teobban- Teobba's 

wyrj>e. Farm. 



LUTON 



41 



No. I. — Charter of Offa, King of the Mercians, 

A.D. 793. 

LUTON. 

K. i, 195 (no. 161). — B. i, 367 (no. 264). — Matth. Paris, 
Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57), vi, 4. 
[Latin] " God and our lord Jhesu Christ reigning 
for ever .... I Offa by grace of God king of the Mercians, 
with my son Ecfrid . . . will give in everlasting right to 
my lord Jhesu Christ at the church of St. Alban the land 
of thirty hides, in places of which the names are under 

written These are the names of the aforesaid lands 

. ... at Lygetune [the land] of five hides, namely the 
land which Ealhmund the abbot who shirked war-faring 

gave to me in return for a pardon The charter of 

this grant was written in the year of the incarnation of the 
Lord 795 Indiction V, and of the reign of King Offa 35 
on the fourth Nones of May in the place which is called 
' at Beranford.' * 

NOTES TO NO. I. 

Kemble, in his Index, wrongly identifies Lygetune 
with Leighton, co. Beds. There can be little doubt that 
these five manses are what later was known as Dallow 
Manor in Luton, held T.R.E. by Morcar priest [? of 
Luton Church], and at D.B. by William the chamberlain ; 
but afterwards restored to St. Alban in the reign of King 
Stephen. Bissopescote is mentioned, with Cadendune 
but not Luton, in a later copy of a MS. which recites the 
gifts of King Offa to St. Alban; but Caddington was the 
gift of E ad win de Cadendune (see no. xiii. below). It is 
thus arguable that the actual land granted by Offa was at 
Biscot (compare V.C.H., ii, 356, 361, and notes). 

Scelfdune in this charter was identified by Kemble 
with Shelton, co. Beds., but the text shows it to have been 
near Winslow and Swanbourne, co. Bucks. 

There is also recorded (K., iv, 173, no. 324. — T., 
400), a grant of Lygetun to Westminster Abbey by Atsere 



42 



SAXON CHARTERS 



Suerte; but as it comes between Wenstede and Pacle- 
sham it is more probable that Wanstead, Lough ton, and 
Paglesham, co. Essex, are intended. 

Beranford, where the charter was signed, may be 
Barford (D.B. Bereford) as suggested by Kemble. 

Offa was King of Mercia from 757 to 796; Ecgfrith 
his son succeeded him, but reigned only 141 days. 

No. II. — Notification by Archbishop /Ethelhard : 

A.D. 798. 

? FLITTON 

K., v. 58 (no. 1019). — T., 40. 

This document, in Latin, deals with a settlement 
between the See of Canterbury and the Monastery of 
Coccham ( ? Cookham, co. Berks.) ; to this settlement came 
as assessors elder men from ' Bedeforde,' and from Kent. 
Lands in three places were assigned to the See, one of 
which was c Fleote/ the other two being almost certainly 
in Kent ; these lands King Offa had held, and had left to 
his heirs for their lives, after which they were to pass to 
1 the church which is in Beodeford.' It is just possible 
that if ' Bedeforde 5 and ' Beodeforde ' represent Bedford, 
Fleote stands for the xiiith century name Flitte, which re- 
mains to-day in the Hundred of Flitt, the Deanery of 
Fleete, and in the first syllables of Flitton and Flitwick ; 
but the assignment can only be conjectural at present. 

No. III. — Charter of King ^Ethelstan : A.D. 926. 
chalgrave and tebworth. 

K. v, 187 (no. 1099). — B. ii, 334 (no. 659). — 
Chron. Abingdon (R.S.2), i, 83. 

[Latin] " In the name of our lord Jhesu Christ . . . 
I iEthelstan [sic] king of the Angul saxons .... will give 
to my faithful thane Ealdred the land of five hides which 
is called Cealhgraefan and Teobbanwyr]? which he bought 



CHALGRAVE AND TEBWORTH 



43 



from the heathen with his own money's worth, that is, ten 
pounds between gold and silver, at the order of King 
Eadward and of Duke ALIpeved besides with other eorls 
and thanes . . . granting liberty of inheritance, to have and 
to hold so long as he shall live, and after his death to what- 
ever heirs he may will to give it at his pleasure. 

These are the boundaries of the said land. 

Bounds of Chelegrave. — [Saxon]. Where the dyke 
shoots on to Watling Street, then along Watling Street 
till you come to the ford, then along the brook to the 
second ford. Then from the ford up to the spring, and 
thence to the dell, and then from the dell to the dyke, and 
from the dyke to the second dyke to the brook, and from 
the brook to Cynburg well. Then along the dyke to East- 
cotan, thence to the Old Brook, and thence along the 
rithe. Then straight to the Highway and along the High- 
way to the dyke, and along the dyke to Watling Street. 

[Latin] And let the gift of the said land be free of 
every worldly tax except war-faring and the building of 
castle and bridge, for fitting money which I have taken 
from him, that is a hundred and fifty mancuses of pure 
gold. 

But if any man, goaded by shamelessness, shall have 
tried to break or change or lessen this bounteous gift, let 
him know himself at that day of the great doom, when the 
poles and hinges and foundations of the earth with the 
lowest hiding-places of hell shake with fear, on which the 
deed and thought of every man shall lie open, whether it 
be good or evil that he shall have wrought, unless he shall 
first have atoned and made good. 

[Saxon] These are the lands which ^Ej^elstan 
booked to Ealdred with his clean fee, on the witness of 
those whose names are here." 

[Then follow the names of King ^thelstan, and of 
twenty two witnesses, archbishop, bishops, earls, and 
thanes.] 



44 



SAXON CHARTERS 



NOTES TO NO. III. 

Eadward I. was king of Wessex and England, 901- 
924; and was succeeded by his son ^Lthelstan, who 
reigned 924-940; ^thelred, brother-in-law of Eadward 
I., was under-king of Mercia, and died 912. 

Chalgrave was at a later date given to the Abbey of 
Abingdon by Alfgiva or Aelfgifu (Chron. Abingdon, 
R.S.2, i, 428), to which fact is due the preservation of this 
charter. 

As is pointed out in V.C.H. iii, 345, this grant shows 
the Danes as reaching up to Watling Street, and a Saxon 
thane buying them out of their land. Another instance is 
noted under No. xv. 

Chalgrove and Tetsworth, co. Oxon., have been sug- 
gested as the subjects of this charter, but the mention of 
Watling Street pins it to the Bedfordshire vills. 

The boundaries on the south-west and north-west are 
still ' along Watling Street till you come to the ford ' in 
Hockliffe village, and ' along the brook to the second ford/ 
which is marked on the six-inch Ordnance map. But only 
local knowledge of the parish, its springs and dykes and 
dells, can carry the bounds on from this point. On the 
south side the ' old brook ' is evidently Houghton Brook 
between Bidwell and Calcutt, and the ' highway ' that 
from Houghton to Toddington. 

No. IV. — Charter of King ^Ethelstan : A.D. 931. 

? LUTON. 

K., ii, 171 (no. 353).— B., ii, 363. 

A charter granted by King yEthelstan, A.D. 931, 
was given at " Leowtun, a town very well known to all 
men." This may have been Luton, but there is no internal 
evidence by which it can be identified. According to 
Birch's Table of Contents, vol. ii, there was a Witena- 
gemot at Luton, at which this charter seems to have been 
given. 



LANGFORD, CLIFTON, ASPLEY GUISE 45 



No. V. — Will of ;Ethelgifu : A.D. 944-946. 

LANGFORD AND CLIFTON 

K. ii, 266 (no. 410). — B. ii, 571 (no. 812.)— T. 497. — 
Matth. Paris, Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57) vi, 12. 

[Latin] " I iE]?elgifu lay open to my lord King and 
to my lady Queen in what wise I make my will. That is, 
firstly, to my lord King thirty mancuses of gold, and two 
horses, and all my dogs; and to my lady Queen thirty 
mancuses of gold, and the land Westwica. And to St. 
Alban the land which is called Gatesdene, with the mean- 
ing that the brethren may enjoy it in common, and thirty 
mancuses of gold and thirty oxen, twenty from Getesdene 
and ten from Acersce ;and twenty kine, ten from Getesdene 
and ten from Acersce ; and two hundred and fifty sheep, 
and a herd of swine and the swineherd therewith ; and two 
silver bowls and two horns and a book and a cauldron and 
a bench-cloth, I grant with the leave of my lord King. 
And that land at Longaforde to Elfnot for his days, with 
the meaning that in every year he give to Hicca food for 
three days, and after his life the land aforesaid. And to 
Leofwin my grandson one hide at Cliftune, and that half 
[hide] which Winemar held " [etc.] 

NOTE TO NO. V 

Gatesden and Acersce are Gaddesden and probably 
Ashridge, co. Herts. Several other Hertfordshire vills. 
are bequeathed in the latter part of this will. 

No. VI. — Charter of King Eadgar : A.D. 969. 

ASPLEY GUISE. 

K. vi, 95 (no. 1267).— B. iij, 517. 

[Latin] " In the name of our Lord Jesu Christ. 
Every generous gift of kings should be strengthened by 
the witness of writings, lest after-ages, from ignorance, 
fall unhappily into a distraught error. Wherefore I, 



46 



SAXON CHARTERS 



Eadgar, by permission of divine grace King and Chief of 
all Albion, grant to my faithful servant called Alfwold 
by name known to the learned of this island, and to his 
heirs for ever, a certain piece of land, to wit [the land of] 
fifteen husbandmen in the place which by the vulgar is 
called ^pslea; so that he, while life be with him, may 
hold it as he wish with all that is useful — to wit, fields, 
pastures, and woods — and after the term of his life may 
leave it freely to whatever heirs he will. But be it afore- 
said that that the land is free from all burthen of land- 
service, three things excepted — to wit, warfaring and the 
repair of bridge and castle. If therefore any one wish to 
change our gift to something else than we have settled, 
may he be cut off from the fellowship of Holy Church, and 
be wretchedly punished by the everlasting flames of the 
pit, along with Judas the betrayer of Christ and his accom- 
plices, unless he shall have made good his fault against 
our decree by fitting amends. The land aforesaid is 
bounded by these marks from place to place. 

[Saxon] These are the land boundaries to ^Epslea. 
From Hysse Burn to Wendlesdun ; eastward from 
Wendlesdun to Flitan Hyll ; thence on to the white moor, 
and afterwards by a fen to the chief field, up to the little 
knoll ; thence to the apple tree where three land boun- 
daries meet, of the men of Woburn, and of the men of 
Wafandun. and of the men of iEpslea. From the deer- 
gate over the heath to the combe, then round West Lea ; 
from the lea to the chief field which is on the boundary of 
the men of i^pslea and of Wafandun ; and along the old 
road to Dun's knoll ; thence to the old ford, thence to the 
head of the fen ; alongside the fen up to the hill, to the 
blackthorn, to the old pillar ; from the pillar all round 
Fotes eige ; from Fotes eige to the Blundan ford and 
along the stream. From the stream to Cranefeld dyke ; 
from the dyke to the old charcoal pit where the three 
boundaries meet, of Cranefeld men, and of Mereston men, 
and of Holacot ; from these three boundaries to the old 
maple tree ; from the maple tree on to the long corner, 



HATLEY AND POTTON 



47 



always by the High Wood to the tall thorn tree ; from the 
thorn tree again to the Hysse Burn, again to the eastward 
of Wendlesdun. 

[Latin] In the year 969 from the incarnation of our 
Lord Jesu Christ the deed of this gift was written, with 
the consent of these witnesses whose names are marked 
below." [There follow the names of King Eadgar, Arch- 
bishop Dunstan, and twenty eight others. On the back 
of the deed is endorsed [in Saxon] " This is the fifteen- 
hide land book at iEpslea, which King Eadgar booked 
to his lief and true thane iElfwold always for ever." 

NOTES TO NO. VI. 

Many of the above place-names are easily to be 
recognised ; Hysse Burn is Husborne [Crawley] ; 
Wendlesdun is now Wensdon ; Woburn is unchanged ; 
Wafandun, Cranefeld, Holacot, and Mereston are familiar 
to-day as Wavendon, Cranfield, Holcote, and Marston. 
The boundaries seem still to be almost identical with those 
listed above, except that Holcote appears to have been an 
outlier of Aspley ; it is not said, like the others, to have 
' men/ 

Eadgar, King of Mercia 957-959, and of England 
959-975, was a connexion by marriage of Aelf weald (Alf- 
wold), to whom the charter was granted. 

No. VII. — Declaration of ./Elfhelm and ^ffe. 
? About 960. 

hatley and potton 

K. iv, 299 (no. 966). — B, iij, 282 (no. 1062). — Chron. 
Rames (R.S. 83), 62. 

[Latin] " In the name of God. I ^Elfhelm and 
JEtte my wife make known by witness of this writing, to 
Ailwyn the eorlderman and many of our friends with him, 
that for the saving of our souls we have given and granted 
to God and to St. Benedict of Rameseie the land of 



48 



SAXON CHARTERS 



Hattenleia and the land of Pottune, with all that belongs 
to the same lands, for an everlasting gift of free alms. 
And in order that it may be held fit and firm in a genera- 
tion yet to be born, we have strengthened the gift of our 
piety by the aid of this writing under the witness of all of 
them at Wathamstede." 



No. VIII. — Declaration of ^Elfhelm. 

potton. 
K., vi, 211 (no. 1352). 

[Saxon]. " Here is, on this Christ's book, the witness 
of the half hide at Pottune, which ^Elfhelm gave to Leof- 
sige his goldsmith, for his life, and after life to deal as 
might best him please. There were these for witness 
whose names are shown. 

iElfhelm, his lord. Wulfmaer, the bishop's 

brother. 

Byrhtnoth, abbot. JElm&v Cild. 

^Elfgar, monk. Leofric, at Holewelle. 

^lfhelm the younger. Godric, his son. 
i^belhric 1 , • , ■ ^belric, at Hernicwelle. 

yElfwold I h,S twam SOnS - ^lfsige, priest. 

Osferth, priest." 



No. IX. — Will of ^Elfhelm Wolga 'of Wratting' 
(Died A.D. 969). 

HATLEY and potton. 
K., iv, 299 (no. 967). — B., iii, 629 (no. 1306). — T. 596. 

[Saxon]. " Here is the declaration how i^Elfhelm 
has disposed of his property and his possessions, before 
God and before the world. That then is first, to his lord 
a hundred mancuses of gold, and two swords, and four 
shields, and four spears, and four horses, two caparisoned 
and two not caparisoned And I give to ^lfmaer 



OAKLEY 



49 



and his brother ^Elfstan the two lands in severalty at 
Haettanlea and at Pottune, except that which I give to 
Osgar. ... If ever any one avert or withdraw anything 
from this bequest, be from him God's mercy and his 
eternal reward for ever withdrawn, and he be never found 
in his mercy, but be he excommunicated from the com- 
munity of all the chosen companies of Christ, unless he 
the more quickly that forsake and again turn to right." 
(Thorpe's translation). 

No. X. — Charter of Godric. 

OAKLEY. 

K., iv, 265 (no. 928). — Chron. Rames. (R.S. 83), 111. 

[Latin] " I Godric grant to God and to St. Benedict 
of Ramesia after my life my land of Turingtonaf, so, 
namely, that the abbot of the said church, Eadnoth my 
brother, may acquit it of the service which in English is 
called heregeat, in Latin relief of inheritance, which is 
wont to be paid to the lords by free heirs after the death 
of their fathers. I grant also to my younger son Eadnott 
the land of Acleya." 

No. XI. — Charter of Eadnoth, Son of Godric : 
1049- 1054. 

OAKLEY. 

K. iv, 257 (no. 919). — T. 585. — Chron. Rames. (R.S. 83), 

173- 

[Latin] " Be it known to all who read these that I 
Eadnoth and my wife have given and granted to God 
and to St. Benedict of Ramesia our land of Acleia as 
everlasting alms for the souls of us and of our fathers 
and mothers and of our children. Now this is the agree- 
ment which we have made with ^Elfwin the Abbot and 
the convent of Ramesia. We indeed in our life-time 

t Thorington, co. Suffolk. 



50 



SAXON CHARTERS 



shall hold the land in the name of the church, but neither 
of us shall be able for any reason to give it elsewhere or 
to part it, or to seek a way by which it may be severed 
from the demesne of the said church ; but after the death 
of both me and my wife, the whole shall pass together 
quit and free from all claim to the hand of the abbot and 
brethren. And when they shall hold it in demesne, they 
shall find therefrom two pounds in every year for Athene 
monk, our son, for clothing, in so far as Athene in view 
of this award may be humble and devout towards God, 
and biddable also to the abbot and his brethren. And if 
he by hap shall wish to return [to the world] and leave 
his frock and the monastery, let him take nothing at all 
further therefrom. And we have granted to Lefwin our 
man that virgate of land in which he has his dwelling, 
quit for his life ; but after his death it shall return to the 
ownership of the church together with the main part ; and 
we have given freedom to one half of the men who live in 
serfdom on the land aforesaid. We pray therefore and 
beseech in the fearful name of God that no one shall grant 
or sell or in any wise part this land from the same church. 
But if any one shall have done this, be he accursed and 
cut off from all blessedness of the life now and of that to 
come, and be his dwelling with devils in hell, where their 
fire is not quenched and their worm dieth not." 

NOTES TO NOS. VII. TO XI. 

^Ethelstan Manessunu, when parting his lands which 
lay mainly in Hunts, and Beds., gave Clapham to his 
wife with remainder to Ramsey Abbey, and two hides at 
Hatley to his second daughter; to Leofsige (Lefsi) he 
gave the rest of his land at Hatley, and to his brother's 
son Potton, after the death of Affa, if he could prove against 
her that she had not power to give it to any one. This he 
failed to do (Chron. Rames. R.S. 83, 59-62). Conse- 
quently Affa was able to dispose of it by the foregoing 
deed (no. vii). How the pedigrees shown below are con- 
nected is not known ; but Leofsige, who received grants 



HATLEY, POTTON, OAKLEY 



51 



from both ^Ethelstan and ^lfhelm, is described in the 
Ramsey Chronicle as kinsman to both of them. It is 
reasonable to suppose that this is the same Leofsige as 
received land in Potton by no. viii., and further land in 
no. ix. 

There can be little doubt that the Godric who married 
^lfhelm's daughter was Godric, brother of Eadnoth. 
^Elfhelm himself is said (Cart. Rames., iii, 166) to have 
given Eccleye (probably = Accleye, in D.B. Achelai = 
Oakley ; but might possibly have been misread for Ettley ? 
— Hettenleye = Hatley) and Potton to Ramsey. 

Of the other folk mentioned in these charters ^thel- 
win (Ailwyn), eorlderman of the East Angles, " the friend 
of God," was son of .^Ethelstan Half-King, and thus a 
connection of ^Elfhelm ; with St. Oswald, Archbishop of 
York, he founded Ramsey Abbey in 969. Eadnoth was 
brought by St. Oswald in 970 to be first Prior, then Abbot 
of Ramsey ; he became Bishop of Dorchester in 1008, and 
was killed in 1016 by the Danes at the battle of Assan- 
dune, whither he went to pray for the success of the 
English arms. 

Of course, there are many other Oakleys, and Oakley 
in Northamptonshire has been suggested as the subject of 
charters x. and xi. But its collocation with undoubted 
Bedfordshire vills in the confirmation charter of the Con- 
fessor seems to point definitely to our Oakley. In Domes- 
day Book the Abbot of Ramsey does not appear in 
possession of any Oakley, and the reason is probably given 
by the wail of the Chronicler about another estate : " But 
in what way we have lost all these lands . . we learn neither 
from writing nor tradition ; but, as is believed, on the 
coming of the Normans — strangers seizing at their pleasure 
things strange to them — they allotted them all to a strange 
ownership, and our lot was to be lamented." (Chron. 
Rames. 172). 



52 



SAXON CHARTERS 



^lfhelm Wolga of = <4Effe. 
Wratting; land- 
owner in Cambs. 
and Beds. ; bene- 
factor to Ely and 
Westminster ; d. 
989. (Hatley and 
Potton). 



.^ilfgar. dau. ? = Godric, benefactor ^lfwen = /Ethelstan Eadnoth, Abbot of 

to Ramsey ; d. 1013. Half-King Ramsey; Bp. of 

(Oakley.) Dorchester, d. iof6. 



eld. s. ... — Eadnoth (Oakley). 

iEthelric, monk of 
Ramsey. 

Manne — . . . 
I 
I 



/Ethelstan Manessunu — . . . bro. 

I (Clapham). 



son eld dau. dau. JEUwen son 

(2 hides (Potton con- 

•t Hatley). ditionally). 



There is a little obscurity about the brothers of 
^Elfhelm Wolga. There seems to have been a brother of 
the same name — c ^Elfhelm the younger' among the wit- 
nesses to no. viii, who is also referred to in the Liber 
Eliensis ; this younger iElfhelm had two sons, ^Ethelric 
and iElfwold, who were also witnesses to no. viii. But 
the will of iElfhelm Wolga implies that he had brothers 
^thelric and iElfwold. The two statements are not 
incompatible, but further light is needed. 

No. XII. — Will of ^Elfric Modercop : A.D. 1037. 

BARTON. 

K. iv, 302 (no. 970). — T. 566. 
[Latin] " In the times of St. Eadward, King of 



BARTON, SUNDON, CADDINGTON, AND OTHERS 53 

England, was a man marked for nobleness, called ^Elfric 
Modercop .... whose charter or will this is. 

[Old English] This is the bequest that JEUnc be- 
queathed ere he journeyed over sea .... And to Holme 
for St. Benedict, Barton, all as full and as free as I pos- 
sessed it And be bishop ^Elfric, and Tofi Prude, and 

Thrunni, guardians of this testament, at least that no man 
avert it ; and if any one will avert it, may God Almighty 
avert his countenance from him on doomsday." (Thorpe's 
translation). 

NOTES TO NO. XII. 

This is not an original Saxon document, but appears 
to be a translation into the language of about 1200. 

No mention of ^Elfric Modercop is made in King 
Eadward's Confirmation Charter (no. xv. below), where 
Barton is said to have been granted by Bishop Eadnoth ; 
but the latter may have only confirmed the gift by Aelfric 
on ecclesiastical grounds. 

St. Benedict in Holme is better known as Ramsey 
Abbey. 

No. XIII. — Will of Eadwine de Cadendune : 
About 1053. 

sundon, caddington, streatley, hatley, and putnoe. 

K. iv, 259 (no. 920).— T. 589.— Matth. Paris (R.S.57) 

vi, 33- 

[Latin]. In the name of our Lord Jhesu Christ. Here 
is shown forth in what wise Eadwine de Cadendune parted 
his heritage. That is, I Eadwine first give the land which 
is called Watford to God and to Saint Alban for my soul ; 
and to my son Leofwin, Sunnandune, and Cadandune, 
and Straetlea, and Haetlea, and Pirian, and Puttenho, and 
Beranlea. And after the death of my son Leofwin, let St. 
Alban have Beranlea, and own it for ever. And I will that 
from my better beasts be chosen twenty oxen and twenty 



54 



SAXON CHARTERS 



kine for the holy place where I desire to lie, that is, at St. 
Alban." 

NOTES TO NO. XIII. 

In D.B. for Bedfordshire Leofwine, or Lewin 8 cilt ' 
(the latter word apparently applied to men of king's blood), 
is recorded as having held land in Streatley and Cadding- 
ton, as also in Beeston, Mepper shall, and Langford; in 
the last case he is called, not * cilt,' but thane of King 
Eadward ; since however we read under Streatley of 
1 Lewin cilt and three other thanes of King Eadward,' 
there is no need to postulate another Leofwine. 

In D.B. for Hertfordshire he appears as having held 
in Kensworth, and in the Herts, parts of Caddington and 
Meppershall ; further, as 1 Lewin, thane of King 
Eadward,' in Bissei (Bushey) and Berlai (Barley). I 
suggest that Berlai may be the Beranlei (in one version 
Beoronlea) of the foregoing charter. 

In Hatley and Putnoe no connection with Leofwine 
has been traced. 

Caddington is said to have been granted to St. Alban 
by King Off a (Nero. D. vii, fo. 3b [V.C.H.]); Beranlei is 
enumerated among lost possessions (Gesta Abbatum, 
R.S. 28, iv. (1), 507). 

No. XIV. — Charter of Oswulf and ^Ethelith : 
A.D. 1053-1066. 

STUDHAM. 

K. iv, 280 (no. 945).— T.374. 

[Latin] " This is the charter which shows forth the 
agreement which Oswulf and ^E)?eli}?a his wife made with 
the lord Abbot Leofstan and with the monks of the church 
of St. Alban, when they entered into their brotherhood. 
And first Oswulf and ^E>eli5a his wife gave to the lord 
Abbot Leofstan and to the monks of the church of St. 
Alban twenty shillings for charity . . . ., and offered to 



STUDHAM 



55 



God and to his holy martyr St. Alban in great devoutness 
that land which is called ' at Stodham ' . . . with the con- 
sent and leave of King Eadward and Queen EadgyJ>a . . . 
and they made this gift to God and to St. Alban for the 
souls of themselves and of all their kin .... and chiefly 
that noble dame namely if^elij^a obtained from her present 
lord, that is Oswulf, that this grant should be made for 
the soul of her former lord Ulf, who gave to her this vill. 
And afterwards they both prayed the lord Abbot Leofstan 
that he should give them timber to build in that vill a 
church in honour of our Lord Jhesus Christ and of St. 
Alban .... Nevertheless on the condition that as long as 
they should live they should have that land for their own 
use with the leave of the lord Abbot Leofstan, together 
with the monks, and on such terms that, in acknowledg- 
ment of that fact, they should give in every year twenty 
shillings towards duly feeding the monks, so long as they 
themselves should survive. 

Witnesses thereof, who were at the dedication of the 
church aforesaid, are : 

Wulfwi the Bishop Godric the [justice ?] 

Bondi the Staller ALUstan the Sheriff 

Burhred Leofwine de Cadendune." 

Eadwine his son 

After that the men named " and the rest of a count- 
less crowd of each sex and every age " had borne witness, 
the Bishop pronounced a fearsome curse on any who 
should interfere with this grant, to which all who were 
present answered Amen. Despite the curse, the grant does 
not seem to have taken effect, for in D.B. we find Studham 
in the possession of Robert de Todeni, and the holder 
T. R. E. recorded as Osulf, son of Frane, the grantor of 
the foregoing charter. No claim to Studham by the Abbot 
of St. Alban appears in D.B., but it is enumerated (Gesta 
Abbatum, i, 507) in a list of lost possessions. 



56 



SAXON CHARTERS 



No. XV. — Confirmation Charter of King Eadward, 

A.D. 1060. 

SHILLINGTON, BARTON, OAKLEY, CRANFIELD, KEMPSTON, 

CLAPHAM. 

K. iv., 143 (no. 809). — T., 381. — Cart. Rames. (R.S. 79), 

ii, 70. 

[Latin]. " In the name of God the highest, who 
ruleth all rights of kings, and from the high peak of heaven 
seeth all things. I, Eadward, by the guiding governance 
of God King of all Albion, to Archbishops, Bishops, 

Abbots [etc.] salvation and everlasting joy of peace 

By the grace of God, my heart warns me that what has been 
given by my kingly forbears to his Church, should be 
strengthened by my authority. Whereas the Church of the 
blessed mother of God and ever virgin Mary, and of St. 
Benedict, and of all holy virgins, which is called Rameseia, 
which formerly — that is in the time of the most excellent 
King Eadgar, — by a man of mark iEilwin by name . . . 
has been built and endowed with plentiful gifts ; first I will 
that it be free and quit of all demand both church and 
lay. ... I grant also and confirm all gifts of lands or of 
liberties or of other things which have been given before 
me by the Kings Eadgar or Hardecnut. . . . Besides those 
which my chief men have added in my time, namely, 
iESeric bishop of the Church of Dorchester [who gave] 
. . . Scytlingedune . . . ; Eadnoth bishop, his successor, 
[who gave] . . . Barton . . . ; EaQnod son of Godric 
[who gave] Accle with all that belongeth thereto ; Aylwin 
Suerte Crangfeldae and Kemestan and Cloppham with 
all things." [etc.] 

NOTE TO NO. XV. 

Shillington was in Danish hands, and granted by 
King Cnut, but was bought from a Dane by Bishop 
^Etheric. According to the Ramsey Cartulary, Carding- 
ton was also given to the Abbey by Ailwin suerte. 



MILLO AND ARLESEY 



57 



No. XVI. — Charter of King Eadward : A.D. 1062. 

MILLO AND ARLESEY. 

K. iv, 154 (no. 813).— T. 393. 

[Latin]. " In the name of our lord Jhesu Christ . . . 
I ^Edward by the gift of God king of the Angles . . . . 
granted in hereditary right to one of my Eorls, Harold by 
name, a certain land which of old is called Waltham by 
the dwellers in that place, with all fields pastures meadows 
woods and waters thereto pertaining .... whereon God 

gave him such grace of piety that in the aforesaid place 

he built a monastery to the praise of our lord Jhesu Christ 
and of the Holy Cross .... to the memory of me and of 
my wife ^Edith. . . . These are the names of the lands be- 
longing to the aforesaid monastery .... Melnho, with all 
thereto belonging ; Alriches eia with all thereto belonging. 
.... All these lands I ^Edward king .... grant to the 
church of Holy Cross and to the brethren there gathered 
or to be gathered in the name of God " [etc.] 

NOTE TO NO. XVI. 

In D.B. the Bishop of Durham holds 4^ hides in 
Melehou and 8 hides in Alricesei which had belonged to 
Waltham Abbey T.R.E., and are doubtless the lands re- 
ferred to by the above charter. But the advowson of 
Arlesey was still in the hands of the Abbey at the Reforma- 
tion (V.C.H. ij, 265). 



A LATE EXAMPLE OF A 
DEODAND. 



BY WILLIAM AUSTIN. 



Deodands were abolished as from the ist September, 
1846, by the Statute 9 and 10 Vict. Cap. 62, but had long 
previously ceased to be recorded or even noticed by Manor 
Juries. The latest record of a Deodand in the Rolls of 
the Manor of Luton is at a Court of Francis Heme, 
Esquire, held on the 18th May. 1758. The following is a 
transcript of the entry. 

" Be it remembered that on the day of 1758 
I Thomas Groome of the parish of Kings Langley in the 
County of Hertford, Gentleman, Did by the order direc- 
tion and for the use of Francis Heme Esquire Lord of 
the Manor of Luton in the County of Bedford seize and 
take one horse belonging to Benjamin Hanbury of the 
Borough of Saint Alban in the County of Hertford Inn- 
holder as and for a Deodand to the said Francis Heme for 
and by reason a servant belonging to the said Benjamin 
Hanbury was Drowned from off the back of the said Horse 
in a certain water or place lying within the said Manor of 
Luton called Shire Moor and that afterwards the said 
Benjamin Hanbury did pay for and as a Composition for 
the said Horse the sum of Five Shillings in regard the 
said Horse was very old poor and of little value." 

The Town Moor at Luton was bounded on the east 
by the river Lea and on the west by the road to Dunstable. 
The river in 1758 must have been very much deeper than it 
has been any time during the last thirty years. 



60 A LATE EXAMPLE OF A DEODAND 



[For the meaning of the word, and for early examples 
of Deodands, see B.H.R.S., iii, p. 142, entry 343, and 
note thereto ; other examples may be found from the Index 
to that volume. The immediate cause of death, the inani- 
mate object the value of which was to be given to God for 
the appeasing of his wrath, is ordered in the Gloucester 
Pleas of 1 22 1 to be given to some pious object on God's 
behalf (pro Deo), but in the Bedford Pleas of 1227 it is to 
be given on the King's behalf (pro Rege), presumably as 
God's vice-gerent. I have failed to find any legal warrant 
for the appropriation of a deodand by the lord of the manor. 
Can this be due to the fact that Luton was originally a 
Royal manor ? — Ed.] 



DOMESDAY NOTES : II. 
KENEMONDWICK. 

BY G. HERBERT FOWLER. 

An unsolved problem of the Bedfordshire Domes- 
day Book is the position of the land entered as Chene- 
mondewicke, a name which recurs in documents at rare 
intervals up to the time of Henry VIII. By considera- 
tion of all references to it as yet noted, a general idea 
of its whereabouts may perhaps be gained. 

No. i. — A.D. 1086. 

" In the Hundred of Biggleswade the same Abbot 
of St. Edmund holds Chenemondewiche. For three 
hides and three virgates it defends itself. There is land 
for four teams. In demesne are one hide and three vir- 
gates, and two teams are there. And six villans have two 
teams. And a mill of 13s. 4d. Meadow for one team. 
It is worth 60s., when received 30s., in King Edward's day 
4 li. This land two socmen held and could give to whom 
they would. This land Earl Waltheof and his wife gave 
to St. Edmund in alms in the days of King William." — 
Domesday Book, fo. 210 b. 

No. 2. — A.D. 1212-1213. 

" Assisa uenit recognitura si Willelmus le francus 
et Hugo Pistor et plures alii quorum nomina sunt in breui 
iniuste et sine iudicio disseisiuerunt Henricum de Brai- 
broch de libero tenemento suo in Sutton infra assisam Et 
homines de Biclewad* et homines de feodo de Bicleswde 
ueniunt et dicunt quod homines Episcopatus de feodo de 
Bikeleswad habent et habere debent comunam in marisco 



62 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



illo iinde hec assisa arramiata est Ita quod Episcopus 
Hugo et homines Episcopatus habuerunt comunam in 
marisco illo Post defuncto eo Custodes Episcopatus 
habuerunt ibi comunam. Et post Willelmus Episcopus 
et homines Episcopatus Et eciam defuncto ipso Wil- 
lelmo Custodes Episcopatus et homines Episcopatus dum 
fuerunt in manu Briani de Insula et dum fuerunt in manu 
Roberti de Braibroc et semper (usque) ad annum pre- 
teritum quum (Brianus de Insula) Custos Episcopatus 
fuit in Wallia in seruicio domini Regis cum domino 
Rege Et tunc uenit ipse Robertus de Braibroch et 
posuit partem illius more in defenso Ita quod (per uim) 
suam asportauit ipse fena Et in nulla alia seisina fuit 
nisi per uim ut vicecomes Nec unquam ante terminum 
ilium asportauit ipse fena Quia terra ilia est in confinio 
duorum Comitatuum ponunt se super uicinos de duobus 
comitatibus uel tribus {Consideratum est quod} Et Hen- 
ricus dicit quod semper fuit tenens unde hec assisa 
aramiata est in defenso Et ideo consideratum est quod 
xviij nominentur ad recognoscendum hoc Scilicet vj de 
Comitatu Cantebr' et vj de Hunted' et vj de Bed' Et 
ueniant ad Octabas sancti Michaelis Et Henricus de- 
fendit uim et iniuriam et petit seisinam suam quia 
tenentes ipsi cognoscunt patrem suum habuisse et in quali 
ipse remansit post eum. 

Et sciendum quod Willelmus de Hastinges cuius 
homines ponuntur in assisa Venit et dicit quod comuna 
ilia pertinet ad uillam suam de Kenemundby et ex 
Anceseria ei descendit Ita quod ipse et homines sui 
semper habuerunt seisinam de comuna ilia quousque 
tercio anno proximo preterito dum ipse fuit in Hibernia 
Et tunc liberata fuit uilla sua de Kenemundeby ad quam 
communa ilia pertinet (Roberto de Braibroch uicecomiti 
pro debito Judeorum) Ita quod ipse fuit inde respond- 
endus de xviij libris et ipse interim fecit unde [rectius, 
inde] id quod ei placuit Et non uidetur ei quod ideo 
debeat amittere. 



KENEMONDWIGK 



63 



Et sciendum quod Philippa de Bello Campo et 
plures alii quorum nomina sunt in breui ueniunt et cog- 
nouerunt disseisinam quia ipsa Philippa dederat Roberto 
de Braibroc patri ipsius Henrici quicquid ipsa habuit in 
mora ilia uncle hec assisa aramiata est Et ideo omnes 
predicti sunt in misericordia." — Rot. Cur. Regis 56, mem. 
16 (prius 15). 

" An Assise comes to declare if William le franc 
Hugh baker and several others whose names are in the 
writ, unjustly and without a judgment disseised Henry 
de Braybrook of his free tenement in Sutton within the 
[period set for the] assise. And the men of Biggleswade 
and the men of the Fee of Biggleswade come, and say 
that the men of the Episcopal Fee of Biggleswade have 
and ought to have common in that fen whereof the assise 
is brought. In such wise that Bishop Hugh [1 186-1200] 
and the Bishopric's men had common in that fen, and after 
his death the wardens of the Bishopric had common there, 
and afterwards Bishop William [1 201-1206] and the 
Bishopric's men, and also on the death of William the 
wardens of the Bishopric and the Bishopric's men, while 
they were in the hands of Brian de I'lsle and while they 
were in the hands of Robert de Braybrook and always 
up to last year, when Brian de I'lsle warden of the 
Bishopric was in Wales in the service of the lord King 
with the lord King [12 11]. And then came Robert de 
Braybrook, and put part of that fen under ban (in de- 
fenso) so that he carried off the hay by force, and he was 
in no other seisin than by force as Sheriff, nor had he ever 
carried off the hay before that date. And because the 
land is on the confines of two counties, they put them- 
selves on the neighbours of two counties or of three. And 
Henry says that he always held under ban the land 
whereof the assise is brought. And therefore it is con- 
sidered that [a jury of] eighteen be named to decide this, 
namely six from the county of Cambridge, and six from 
that of Huntingdon, and six from that of Bedford, and 



64 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



let them come on the Octave of St. Michael. And Henry 
denies force and injury, and craves his seisin, because 
the tenants themselves admit that his father held the 
land, and how far he himself continued after him. 

And be it known that William de Hastings, whose 
men are on the assise, comes, and says that that common 
belongs to his vill of Kenemundby and descends to him 
from his antecessors. In such wise that he and his men 
always had seisin of that common until the third year last 
past, when he was in Ireland [1210] And then his vill 
of Kenemundeby, to which that common belongs, was 
delivered to Robert de Braybrook, then Sheriff, on ac- 
count of debt to the Jews, in such wise that Robert was 
to answer for 18 li., and meanwhile did therewith what 
pleased him. And it does not seem to him that he ought 
therefore to lose [his rights]. 

And be it known that Philippa de Beauchamp and 
several others whose names are in the writ come, and 
acknowledge disseisin, because Philippa herself had 
granted to Robert de Braybrook whatever right she had 
in the fen whereof the assise is brought. And therefore 
all the aforesaid are in mercy." 

No. 3. — Early xiijth Century. 

" Let all men know, both present and to come that 
John de Andeuilla gave to the monks of St. Neot a cer- 
tain virgate of land which Milo armiger held from him 
in Kenemundewich' to be held freely and wholly with 
all appurtenances, and he quitclaimed it to them [free] 
from all services which belong to him and to his [heirs]. 
And the monks gave and quitclaimed to the said John in 
exchange for the said virgate of land a certain half vir- 
gate of land which they held in free alms in Edewrth' 
and which Hugh Marre held of them." — Cartulary of St. 
Neot, fo. 54 (Brit. Mus. Faustina A. iv.). In the table 
of Contents (fo. 30) the title of this charter is given 
thus : — " Charter of John de AndeuilT for a virgate of 



KENEMONDWICK 



65 



land in Kinemun de Wic' on the margin, of fo. 54, it 
is spelt in a later handwriting as "Kynmondewik." 

No. 4. — A.D. 1242 (circa). 

a. " Seneschalcy of Blunham 

Henry de Hastinges holds five hides of the Liberty 
of St. Edmund. And two hides [at] Kenemundewyk of 
the same Liberty It was not wont to give [scutage], be- 
cause it is appurtenant to (proprium) the seneschalcy." 
— Testa de Nevill, fo. 154 (Edition of Record Commis- 
sion p. 243b). 

b. " Item concerning the said Honour of Eton. Of the 
Old Enfeoffment Hugh de Audevill' [holds] half a 
[knight's] fee except one virgate in Kenendewyk." — 
Testa de Nevill, fo. 181 (Edition of Rec. Comm. p. 250a). 

No. 5. — A.D. 1252. 

Final concord : Hugh son of Henry de Blunham 
against William son of William de Gamelegeye and his 
wife Agnes, for a messuage and land in Kynemundewyke. 
— Feet of Fines, Beds. II, 23 (5); B.H.R.S., vi. 148, 
no. 530. 

No. 6.— A.D. 1287. 

" Prior of St. Neot was summoned to answer to the 
lord King on the plea — by what warrant he claims to have 
view of frankpledge of his tenants in Eton Temseford 
Crandon Euerton Cherleton Southmol [in Blunham] 
Thornecote Kinemundewik Bereford and Thorneye " 
etc. — Plac. de Quo Warranto (R.C.), 9a. 

No. 7.— A.D. 1288. 

" Deanery of Schetford [Shefford]." 
Prior of St. Neot has in Bedenho, Thorncote, Weston 
[Beeston] Gretford Kynmudeswyk in rent, 15s. g^d. 



66 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



Prior of Chikesond has in the Grange of Heyseles 
in lands and rent, ili. 15s. od. 

No. 8. — A.D. 1330. 
" Prior of Chykesand, of the Order of Sempring- 
ham, was summoned to answer to the lord King on the 
plea — by what warrant he claims to have free warren etc. 
in his manors of Chickessaund Meperteshale Hannes 
Stotfold Houghton Coupel Kynmundeswyk [later on 
Kynmundewyk] Caisho," etc. — Plac. de Quo Warranto 

R.C.), 33. 

No. 9.— A.D. 1377-1378. 

" Grant of two Tenths by the Clergy in Parliament 
held at Westminster, 1 Richard II. 

Goods of the Prior of St. Neot, temporal and spirit- 
ual, according to the register of the lord King anciently 
taxed for Tenths. 

Deanery of Schefford. The Prior has from rent in 
Buddenho Thornecote Buston [? Grintestede] Ky- 
mondewyke ... 15s. 9^d." — Cartulary of St. Neot, fo. 36. 

No. 10.— A.D. 1535. 

" Priory of St. Neot in the County of Huntingdon. 

In the County of Bedfordshire. 

Value in rent assessed in divers villages towns 
and hamlets there in the county, namely 

Kynwyke 3s. 2d." 

— Valor Ecclesiasticus, ed. Rec. Comm., iv, 261. 



Although only one holding is recorded in D.B. under 
the name of Kenemondwiek, it is clear that there are 
really two primary holdings there. 

(a). The D.B. holding had belonged to Earl Waltheof 
— that is, to the estate which later became the Honour 
of Huntingdon — and had been given by him and his wife 
in alms to the Abbey of St. Edmund (No. 1). This land 
was attached to the Seneschalcy of the Abbot at Blunham 



KENEMONDWIGK 



67 



by 1242, and was then held by Henry de Hastings (No. 
4a); his descendants continued to hold Blunham from 
the overlordship of the Abbot for more than a century 
(V.C.H., iij, 229); the Seneschalcy disappeared; and, as 
the value and meaning of overlordships dwindled, the 
family appeared merely as holders of the manor. After 
1242 their Kenemondwick holding has not been traced 
under that name, but — as I hope to show presently — there 
is reason to believe that it continued to exist. 

(b). The second holding in Kenemondwick has been 
noticed to bear that name, certainly about 1242, and pro- 
bably somewhat earlier, as forming part of the Barony 
of Eaton. From this land John de Andeville granted a 
virgate to St. Neot (No. 3); his name occurs in a Herts, 
fine of 1219 (B.H.R.S., vi., p. 52, No. 223). It was after- 
wards held by Hugh de Andeville (No. 4b), for half a 
knight's fee less the virgate given by John de Andeville 
to St. Neot ; his name occurs several times, both as party 
to a suit and on the Grand Assise, in the Eyre Roll of 
1227 (B.H.R.S., iii). The tenure was of "the old enfeoff- 
ment," that is, the original tenant had been sub- 
enfeoffed by the Barony before 11 35; this had therefore 
been done before the recognition of the Barony of Eaton 
as such, either by Eudo dapifer or by one of his immedi- 
ate successors (compare B.H.R.S., ii., 64, 65). The en- 
dowment of St. Neot is still traceable in 1287 (No. 6), 
1377-8 (No. 9), and 1535 (No. 10). I have found no fur- 
ther reference to the Andeville family as holding in 
Kenemondwick, but Hugh de Andeville, John his son, 
and Andrew de Cimindewyk, attest a charter which can- 
not at present be dated, granting lands in Sandy to 
Wardon Abbey (Wardon Cart., John Rylands Library, 
fo. 63d.). As in the case of the D.B. holding, I believe 
that it can be traced later in other hands. 

The first two entries are those which are topographi- 
cally significant. 



68 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



From No. i it appears that 

i. the land was in the Hundred of Biggleswade : 

ii. there was a Mill there. 

From No. 2 we may gather that the fen which 
formed the subject matter of the suit 

iii. was claimed as belonging to (Kenemundby, rectius) 

Kenemundwick, which Henry de Hastings held from 
St. Edmund (No. 4): 

iv. was near the borders of co. Cambs. and Hunts., and 

therefore in the northern portion of the Hundred : 

v. was near Sutton, the manor of Henry de Braybrook : 

vi. was close enough to Biggleswade for the inhabitants 

to common their cattle there : 

vii. had been subject to common rights by Philippa, 
widow of Hugh de Beauchamp (II. E); this implies 
her former possession of adjacent land, but her 
rights, and therefore also the land to which they were 
appurtenant, had been transferred to Robert de 
Braybrook. 

This suit shows that the fen in question must have lain 
close to Sutton, Biggleswade, Kenemondwick, and some 
original land of Beauchamp of Eton ; and any attempted 
localisation of Kenemondwick must be consonant with 
the facts summarised above. 

Now the only lands of Eudo dapifer — lands from 
which the Barony of Eaton was formed — in Biggleswade 
Hundred, were in Tempsford Sandy and Sutton. Temps- 
ford seems to be out of the question, as the men of Big- 
gleswade could not in practice common their cattle so 
far away; we are therefore reduced to Sandy and Sutton 
in our search for that Beauchamp land, the transference 
of which to Robert de Braybrook had given him rights 
over the fen. The Beauchamp manor of Sandy was cer- 
tainly not transferred to the Braybrooks; and no (Lati- 
mer) successor of Braybrook appears among the tenants 
in 13 16. On the other hand, no trace of a Beauchamp 



KENEMONDWICK 



69 



interest in Sutton has been found at any date. Further, 
we know that Robert de Braybrook, who had acquired 
the manor of Sutton in the same way, obtained lands 
from the Beauchamps of Eaton by paying off the money 
for which they had been pledged to the Jews; it seems 
therefore likely that Eudo's holding in Sutton became 
merged in the manor of Sutton, and that Philippa de 
Beauchamp's decisive appearance in the suit is thus ex- 
plained. The authority for Robert de Braybrook's ac- 
quisition of Beauchamp lands follows; it is a deed by 
John de Beauchamp (I E), who succeeded to the Barony 
in 1221 (B.H.R.S., n\, 78). 

" Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Johannes de 
Bello Campo quietum clamaui in perpetuum Henricum 
de Braibroc de tota parte que ad ipsum spectabat de 
debitis que Hugo de Bello Campo [patruus meus et] 
Oliuerus pater eius debuerunt domino Regi de debitis 
Judeorum ratione terrarum quas idem Henricus tenet de 
terris que fuerunt predictorum Hugonis et Oliueri Ita 
quod ego aut heredes [mei] nunquam uersus dictum Hen- 
ricum uel heredes suos aliquam mouere poterimus ques- 
tionem pro aliquo debito quod debeam domino Regi de 
debitis predictorum Hugonis et Oliueri occasione de 
[bitorum] Judeorum. Et si forte contigerit quod occa- 
sione predictorum debitorum idem Henricus uel heredes 
sui in demandam uel in dampnum inciderint ego et 
heredes mei tenebimur illos de demanda .... adquietare 
et eis de dampno illo respondere sine omni placito et con- 
tradictione Pro hac autem mea quietaclamacione dedit 
michi predictus Henricus decern marcas argenti quas 
recepi Et [ne] hec mea quietaclamacio in irritum possit 
reuocari earn fide et presenti scripto sigilli mei impressione 
munito confirmaui. Hiis testibus Martino de Patishull 
Thoma de Roberto de Lexinton Thoma de Heydon 
Willelmo de Raleg Nicholao de Nevill Willelmo de Ebor 
et aliis." — Carte antique, 30 f.f. 13. 



70 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



" Let men know, both present and to come, that I, 
John de Beauchamp, have quitclaimed Henry de Bray- 
brook for ever of every part which regarded him of the 
debts which Hugh de Beauchamp .... Oliver his father 
owed to the lord King for debts to the Jews, by reason 
of the lands which Henry holds out of the lands which 
belonged to the said Hugh and Oliver. So that neither 
I nor my heirs will ever be able to bring any suit against 
the said Henry or his heirs for any debt which I may owe 
to the lord King, out of the debts of the said Hugh and 
Oliver by reason of debts to the Jews. And if perchance 
it happen that on account of the said debts Henry or his 
heirs shall have incurred any demand or damage, I and 
my heirs will be bound to acquit them of the demand 
. ... or to answer to them for the damage without any 
plea or argument. And for this my quit-claim Henry 
has given me ten marks of silver which I have received. 
And lest this my quitclaim should be recalled to be of 
no effect, I have confirmed it by word of honour and the 
impress of my seal to the present writing. Witnesses : 
Martin de Pateshull, Thomas de [Muleton], Robert de 
Lexington, Thomas de Heydon, William de Raleigh, 
Nicholas de Nevill, William de York, and others." 

We have still to consider the unexpected appearance 
of the Prior of Chicksand as claiming free warren 
etc. at Kenemondwick in 1330 (No. 8). As all the 
places mentioned in his claim — together with others 
which are not in Biggleswade Hundred — are to be found 
in the early charters of the Priory (B.H.R.S., i., 101-128) 
with the exception of Kenemondwick, we may safely con- 
clude that this was of a later grant. Now in 1291 the 
Prior is found to have a grange at Heyseles (now Hasells) 
in Sandy; in 13 16 also he appears in the Feudal Aids as 
a holder of lands in Sandy: but in T330 he claims free 
warren etc. at Kenemondwick, and makes no men- 
tion of Sandy; again in 1537 he is found to have land 
worth 6 li. in Sandy. I suggest that this Sandy holding 



KENEMONDWICK 



71 



is derived from or a part of the half-fee of Hugh de 
Andeville in Kenemondwick. The ' Feudal Aid ' of 
13 1 6 is doubly interesting in this connection. 

" Sondeye villata 

Rogerus de Bello Campo 

Johannes de Hastinges 

prior Ospitalis sancti Johannis Jerus. 

et prior de Chikesaunde." 
because this holding of John de Hastings is his only hold- 
ing in the Hundred of Biggleswade, and therefore is pro- 
bably the D.B. or Hastings part of Kenemondewick. Un- 
fortunately there is no return for Sandy in the Testa de 
Nevill (unless the subinfeudations are included under 
the general Honour of Eaton), nor any ' Feudal Aid 3 
for Sandy later than 13 16. 

I infer therefore that Kenemondwick lay, partly or 
wholly, within the present parish of Sandy, at its south- 
east end, touching or overlapping the present boundaries 
of Sutton and Biggleswade. I suggest further that the 
fen referred to in the suit (No. 2) is the ' Millhouse Fen/ 
which extends in Sutton and Sandy parishes northward 
from the Potton-Biggleswade Road up to ' Fen Farm.' 
As to the seven points enumerated above 

i. the Hastings and Chicksand land in Sandy could form 
the northernmost part of the Hundred of Biggles- 
wade, projecting slightly into the Half Hundred of 
Weneslai : 

iii. the fen could touch the Hastings manor of Kene- 

mundwick : 

iv. its head would be within 1^ miles of Cambridgeshire 

(Gamelingay) : and a little more than 2 miles from 
Hunts (Tetworth) : 

v. it would abut on Sutton, 
vl. and on Biggleswade; 

vii. and may well have been subject to common rights 
by Eudo's three virgates in Sutton. 



72 



DOMESDAY NOTES 



Point ii — the question of the mill — requires a little more 
development. Biggleswade and Sandy, both lying 
actually on the Ivel River, are returned in D.B. as having 
two mills each; local knowledge, to which I lay no claim, 
would be necessary to identify these mills, but they seem 
to be accounted for on the six-inch ordnance map ; in any 
case they are pretty certain to have been on the main 
stream like the villages. 

There appears to be no stream in the south-eastern 
or Hasells corner of Sandy, of sufficient importance to 
have worked a watermill, even before the lowering of 
the general water level ; we must seek the mill of Kene- 
mondwick elsewhere. Potton had an inconsiderable mill 
at D.B., worth 5s. a year only. The Potton water finds 
its way to the Ivel through Sutton, and Sutton returned 
no mill at D.B, Yet there was a watermill in the present 
Sutton, which is still shown on the six-inch ordnance map 
by ' Watermill Bridge,' and this is at the foot of that 
" Millhouse Fen " which I regard as the fen of the oft- 
quoted suit (No. 2), and here was probably the mill of 
Kenemondwick. 

In summary, if the foregoing inferences are correct, 

a, the name Kenemondwick covered the area of the south- 
eastern or Hasells corner of the present Sandy, and so 
much of the present Sutton as would include Millhouse 
Fen and Watermill Bridge ; this area included two hold- 
ings of which 

b, one only is returned under this name in D.B., the suc- 
cession in which was (i) Earl Waltheof, (ii) St. Edmund's 
Abbey, (iii) the Hastings family; 

c, the other holding has not been noticed under this 
name until early in the xiijth century; the succession 
here was (i) that estate which later formed the Barony of 
Eaton, (ii) the Andeville family, (iii) the Priories of St. 
Neot and Chicksand. 

It is to be hoped that the publication of further 



KENEMONDWICK 



73 



records, notably of Inquisitions post mortem, may throw 
more light on the problem. 



When the available evidence had been found to 
point to Sandy, and the foregoing pages had been written, 
it seemed worth while to look at the Sandy Enclosure 
Award of 1804. Only a ' picker up of unconsidered 
trifles 5 such as these will appreciate my joy at finding 
the following entry : 

(Allotment to Francis Pym, Esq.). ... ' Also 
one other piece or parcel of land or ground containing 
thirty seven acres one rood and thirty nine perches situate 
in Kinwick field bounded on the south by the Cambridge 
way " etc. — Beds. County Muniments : Award Book E, 
fo/143. 

This seems to clinch the matter so far as Sandy is 
concerned. 

In the matter of the assessed area of these holdings 
we are on uncertain ground. D.B. in 1086 shows 3I1. 3V. 
in the possession of St. Edmund; Henry de Hastings as 
the Saint's seneschal returns only 2h. about 1242. Hugh 
de Andeville at the same date is assessed for a half a 
knight's fee, less 1 virgate, which on the principle that 
1 virgate equals i/20th fee, would give him 2 hides and 
1 virgate. The two together would thus make more than 
the D.B. assessment. Eudo's holding in Sutton was only 
assessed at 3 virgates in D.B. But sufficient allowance is 
not always made when comparing areal assessments at 
different dates, for the steady growth in area due to 
* assarting,' the taking of waste and fen land into culti- 
vation. 

Kenemondwick lay handy to Blunham, the chief 
manor of the Seneschalcy, and attached to this office by 
charter of William Rufus (Regesta Reg. Anglo-Norm., 
i, 100, no. 395 ; 134, no. Ixii.). 



THE HILLERSDENS OF ELSTOW 



BY F. A. PAGE-TURNER. 

(I.) 

Thomas Hillersden appears to have been the first 
of this family who settled in this county. The earliest 
mention — in local records — that I have come across, is 
the marriage, recorded in the parish registers of Todding- 
ton, of Thomas Hillersden with Joane, da. of Ralph Pottes 
of Chalgrave, gent, on the 23rd July 1558. The marriage 
is thus recorded: — " An'o D'ni 1558, Thomas Hillersden 
and Joahne Potts were married the xxiijth of Julie." This 
Thomas Hillersden who was admitted at Gray's Inn 17 
Aug. 1 594 under the name of " Thomas Hilsden of Chal- 
grave, Beds, gent.," was in all probability a member of a 
family of that name seated at a place named Memland 
(now Membland) in the Hundred of Armington, co. 
Devon, who entered their pedigree in the Herald's Visita- 
tion of that county in the year 1620, since the arms borne 
by the Hillersdens of Elstow are identical with those of 
the Devonshire Hillersdens, and the mural tablet in 
Elstow church to the memory of Thomas Hillersden, 
great grandson of the above named Thomas, states that 
they were " descended from the ancient family of the Hil- 
lersdens in Deuonsh," but this pedigree does not show any 
connections. There is, also, a very inadequate pedigree 
of this family in "Additional Pedigrees," p. 174 of the 
Visitations of Bedfordshire (Harl. Soc, Vol. xix.), but it 
is unreliable. Why they did not enter their pedigree in 
the Beds. Visitations of 1582 and 1634 is a matter for 
conjecture, and the same remark applies to the family of 
Potts of Chalgrave who likewise failed to register their 
pedigree in either Visitation, although their position 



76 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



in the county would have entitled them to have done so. 
The earliest settlement of the Hillersden family in this 
county appears to have been at Little Park, Ampthill, but 
they eventually migrated to Elstow on acquiring by pur- 
chase the abbey property from Sir Edward Radclyffe. I 
have not been able to discover the date of the death of 
Thomas Hillersden or that he left any Will ; but he ap- 
pears to have left issue by Joan his wife : — 

(i.) Thomas, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) John, of Battlesden, Beds., and Stoke Hammond, 
co. Bucks. He married at Chalgrave the 6th of 
February 1602-3 Frances, da. of . . . Bely or Bellay 
probably a da. of John Bellay, D.C.L., of Gt. Paxton, 
co. Hunts, by Elizabeth, his wife, da. and coh. of 
Thomas Cooper, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln [Cf. Visi- 
tation Hunts., Camden Soc. p. 122], and by her had 
several children all baptized at Battlesden, viz. : — 

(1.) Thomas, bapt. 9 March 1605-6; he, probably, 
is identical with the Thomas Hillersden who 
married at Houghton Regis, 22 Oct. 1638, 
Elizabeth Conisby, and had a son Thomas, 
there bapt. 29 Aug. 1639. Thomas, the father 
was bur. at Houghton Regis 4 Oct. 1 661, as was 
also his wife Elizabeth, 25 Apr. 1667. 

(2.) John, bapt. 30 May, 1613. 

(1.) Joan, bapt. 6 Sep. 1607. 

(2.) Frances, bapt. 14 May, 1609. 

(3.) Elizabeth, bapt. 9 Mar. 1616-17. 

According to the Visitation of Bucks., 1634 
(Harl. Soc, Vol. lviii. p. 74) Frances married Wil- 
liam Grange ; a third son, William, is named, and 
the third da. is named Susan. Frances, the wife of 
the above John is therein stated to be the da. of 
Lawrence Bayley of Great Brickhill. 



SIR THOMAS HILLERSDEN: II. 



77 



(i.) Alice, bur. at Chalgrave, 12 June 1587. 

(2.) Mary, married at Chalgrave, 22 Nov. 1589 to 

Reynold Home [s. of John Home of Kensworth, co. 
Herts.], and possibly the " Mistres Fraunces Hils- 
don " whose burial is recorded in the Chalgrave P. R. 
date 22 Feb. 1587-8 was another daughter. 

II. 

Sir Thomas Hillersden, the eldest s. of Thomas 
and Joane, married at Chalgrave, 28 Dec. 1598, Eliza- 
beth, da. of Edmund Harding of Aspley, by Elizabeth his 
wife, another da. of Ralph Potts, and by her had issue : — 

(1.) Thomas, bapt. 9 March 1605-6; he probably 
bur. 31 Jan. 1609-10. 

(2.) Thomas, of whom hereafter. 

p.) Joan, bapt. at Ampthill 19 June 1613, wife of 

Thomas Baker. 
(2.) Elizabeth, bapt. at Aspley Guise 30 Mar. 1600, wife 

of Thomas Rowse of Caxton, co. Hunts. 

Elizabeth the wife of the above Thomas was bur. at 
Ampthill 10 July 161 6. Sir Thomas was knighted at 
Theobalds, 17 Sep. 1622, and dying soon after, was bur. 
at Elstow in June 1623. By his Will, dated 3 June, 1623, 
wherein he is described as of the l< Litle Park in Ampthill," 
tie desired to be bur. privately in the chancel of Elstow, 
and left charitable bequests to the poor of Ampthill, 
Elstowe, St. John's Bedford, Milbrooke, Battlesden, 
Hockliffe, Aspley, and Eversholt. He appoints his son 
and heir apparent, John Hillersden gent, brother, 
Thomas Impey gent., John Reynes clerk, parson of 
Pottesgrave, and John Andrewe of Eggington, trustees 
:or the land in Hockley [Hockliffe] and Chalgrave 
:harged in ancient time for the repair of the church of 
Hockley, of which he had promised (as lord of the manor) 
:o make feoffees. Appoints brother-in-law and kinsman 
fohn Harding, Mr. Andrew Dennys, and Thomas Vinson, 



78 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



guardians of his son till the age of 21, the said Mr. Dennys 
to have special care of his education till his age of 18. 
Recites that whereas he had conveyed to his son's said 
guardians (by indentures of the 27 March and 1 and 6 
of April last) divers land, &c, for the raising of ^500 for 
the children of his da. Elizabeth who married without his 
consent and for the maintenance of the said Elizabeth, 
and for the raising of ,£2,200 for the portion of his da. 
Joan Hillersdon, he wills that if there should be any over- 
plus that it be employed in compounding for his son's 
wardship and marriage. He bequeaths all his lands in 
Eversholt to his s. Thomas, his da. Joan and his brother 
John in tail successively. Should his s. die without issue 
under age his da. Joan to be his executrix, and his son's 
guardians shall take upon them her tuition till her age of 
1 7 years ; and she shall be placed for two or three years 
with some good and virtuous teaching mistress about Lon- 
don for her godley and good education and behaviour, 
there to be taught her needle and music, and 
otherwise as is fitting for her. Thomas Vinson 
to specially occupy himself with the care of testa- 
tor's lands with the assistance of his brother John 
and his cousin Nicholas Johnson. They are to take down 
the old houses at Elstowe which were bought of Richard 
Lowder and cause some of them which shall be most use- 
ful to be new framed. To his da. Joan all her mother's 
childbed linen, a pair of velvet cuffs which were her 
mother's, her French hood and border and her wedding 
ring of gold, also testator's gilt casting bottle and silver 
pottenger. To cousin George Hinton [of Eversholt, cf. 
Visitn. Beds., H.S. xix., p. 119] and Mary his wife £20, 
to Mrs. Dennys wife of the said Andrew, William New- 
ton, Esq., and Mr. Christopher Wilson, 40s. apiece to 
buy them rings. Nicholas Welhed to have meat and 
drink if he choose for 6 years at testator's expense. To 
niece Elizabeth Home £ 10. To James Woodward 20s. 
a year for 5 years. To da. Elizabeth, £$0 provided 
neither she nor her husband Thomas Rowse go about to 



SIR THOMAS HILLERSDEN : II. 



79 



impeach his Will. Numerous bequests to servants. 
Would have given his brother John more by Will but that 
he had lately dealt liberally with him. To nephew 
Thomas Home £10 and desires him to be solicitor to 
his son's guardians. Appoints his son executor and resi- 
duary legatee. Desires the manor of Elstowe to be pur- 
chased in his son's name. To the Rt. Hon. Lord Bruce 
and the lady his wife, in remembrance of their honourable 
favours unto him, a piece of gilt plate of the price of 
£20 , entreating a continuance of their favours to his 
children. To Sir James Fullerton, Knt, his especial 
good friend, a piece of plate price ,£10. To cousin 
Richard Hillersdon of Memland, co. Devon, Esq., a like 
piece of plate. Ordains his friend Frauncys Nicholls of 
Ampthill, esquire, overseer of his Will to whom he gives 
a like piece of plate, and to his wife Mrs. Margaret 
Nicholls 40s. to buy her a mourning ring (Signed) Tho: 
Hillersdon. 

Witnesses : — J oh : Hardinge, Andrewe Dennys, Joh : 
Collop, Tho: Arnold, Robert Woodcocke, Ruben 
Broune, Thomas Pearce, William Tomlinson. 25 June 
1623 Adm'on granted to the guardians aforesaid. 20 
May 1702 Adm'on granted to Margaret Hillersdon, spins- 
ter, son's daughter of the deceased, the executor having 
died before taking upon him the execution of the Will, 
and the administrators of the former grant being all dead. 

According to the " Chronicles of the Abbey of El- 
stow," by the Rev. S. R. Wigram, M.A. (Parker and Co., 
Oxford, 1885, p. 183) the original grantee of the Abbey 
property was Sir Humphrey Radcliffe, whose son, Sir 
Edward, sold the same to Thomas Hillersden in 161 6. 
This property consisted of several hundred acres of land 
in the parishes of Elstowe, Willshamstead, Bedford, 
Kempston and Cardington, together with the Rectory of 
Elstowe and the advowson of the Vicarage. The pur- 
chase money is stated to have been £700. The above 
estate remained in the Hillersden family till 1792 when it 
was sold to Mr. Whitbread of Southill. 



80 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



III. 

Thomas Hillersden, eldest s. of Sir Thomas and 
Elizabeth his wife, bapt. at Ampthill 20 Jan. 1610-11, 
married at Knebworth 19 June 1628, Margaret, born 14 
Sep. 1 613, da. of Sir William Lytton of Knebworth, co. 
Herts., and granddaughter of Sir Rowland Lytton by 
Anne his wife, da. of Oliver Lord St. John of Bletsoe 
and widow of Robert Corbett ; and by her had issue an 
only son, Thomas, and a da. Katherine bapt. at Elstow, 
13 Aug. 1632 and there bur. 20 Aug. 1632. He died and 
was buried at Elstow 30 Aug. 1632. By his Will dated 
28 Aug. 1632, he desired to be buried in the chancel of 
the parish church of Elstow near his deceased father. To 
his wife, Margaret, all his manor and lands in Elvestowe 
not already estated upon her for her jointure for life, and 
wills that she and his father-in-law Sir William Lytton 
shall have the custody and wardship of Thomas, his son 
and heir apparent, trusting in them that he may be edu- 
cated in the fear of God in virtuous and religious ways. 
To his wife ^500 to finish the new building of the house 
[the ruins of which are still standing near the church] now 
in hand upon the site of the late dissolved monastery of 
Elvistowe ; also all her apparel, jewells and ornaments, 
his coach horses and ambling gelding, &c. Recites that 
he had made a lease to his father-in-law, his brother-in- 
law Rowland Lytton, his friend Andrew Denys, and 
Thomas Vinson, bearing date with these presents, of the 
late dissolved monastery of Elvistow and the lordships 
and manors of Elvistow, Eversholt and Hockliff, and of 
all his lands there or elsewhere in Beds, and Hunts, for 
20 years at a peppercorn rent ; he will that they shall hold 
so much of the premises as are not limited for his wife's 
jointure and are not accountable for the thirds of the 
King's Majesty, to the use of his said son or his heir by 
the course of the common law. To his sister Elizabeth 
for life the house and grounds lately purchased in co. 
Hunts, free of rent and he freely forgives her husband the 



THOMAS HILLERSDEN : III. 



81 



£57 due to him. In the event of his son's death, to his 
two sisters Elizabeth and Joan ^50 yearly apiece during 
his wife's life and afterwards the whole of his manors, &c., 
to be divided equally between them, saving that he would 
have his chief house in Elvestow to be within the part 
of his sister Joan. Gives £20 after the death of his trusty 
friend his uncle Denys, to making a tomb or monument 
for him [Andrew Dennys was vicar of St. Paul's and 
Rector of St. John's, Bedford : the monument above re- 
ferred to is on the S. wall of the chancel of St. Paul's 
church, and records his death on the 23rd Oct. 1633 m 
the 76th year of his age.] He releases unto his father's 
oid servant and his own trusty tenant Thomas Vin- 
son all acounts concerning his (testator's) father's estate, 
and he is to enjoy a lease of the house and land now in 
his occupation according to the draft now in testator's 
study. To the poor of Bedford £20 at the discretion of 
the mayor and his uncle Denys, to the poor of Elvestow 
,£10, to the poor of Eversholt £5, and to his ancient ser- 
vant Robert ^30. To his falconer, Richard Morgan an 
annuity of £ 10 so long as he continues with his father-in- 
law, Sir William Lytton, to whom he gives as a token of 
his love the lannard [i.e., the squire's hawk] he now keeps. 
To the residue of his servants £ 50 among them ; and his 
wife shall bestow £5 upon the fatherless children main- 
tained by him to bind them out apprentices. Appoints 
his wife and father-in-law executors; and his friends, 
Oliver Lord St. John of Bletsoe, and Sir Paulet St. John, 
overseers. 

(Signed) Tho : Hillersdon. 

Witnesses: — W. Lytton, Rich. Taylor, Andrewe 
Denys, Ferdinando Cope, Wi. Doughtie, Thomas Vinson. 

Proved 11 Sep. 1632 by the executors named. 

Some time after the decease of the above Thomas 
Hillersden, his widow married Sir Thomas Hewett of 
Pishiobury, co. Herts, Knt. [Cf. Beds. N. and Q., Vol. 
III., p. 284]. 



82 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



IV. 

Thomas Hillersden, eldest surviving s. and heir of 
Thomas and Margaret, was bapt. at Knebworth 16 Feb., 
1630; and, on coming of age, he married Elizabeth, eldest 
da. of John Huxley of Eaton Bray, co. Beds., and Ed- 
monton, co. Middx. The following is a brief abstract of 
the Marriage Settlement, the original of which is in the 
writer's possession : " Articles! of Agreement indented, 
dated 26 Apr., 1651 made between Thomas Hilarsdon 
of Eversholte, Esq., Sir William Litton of Knebworth, 
co. Herts., Knt., and Sir Thomas Hewett of Pishiobury 
in the same co., Knt., guardians of the said Thomas 
Hilarsden of the one part, and John Huxley, of Edmon- 
ton, co. Middx., Esq., of the other part. Reciting that 
a marriage is intended shortly to be solemnized between 
the said T. H. and Elizabeth, eldest da. of the said J. 
H. and that the said Sir W. L. as guardian to the said 
T. H. had received the sum of ,£2,300 to be paid to the 
said T. H. at his age of 21. And that the said Sir 
Thomas Hewett by his marriage with Margaret the 
mother of the said T. H. and executrix of the last Will 
and Testament of Thomas Hilarsden, Esq., deceased, 
father of the said T. H. had received the sum of 
^1,319 23. gd. to be paid to the said T. H. as above. 
Witnesseth that the said T. H. in consideration of the 
said intended marriage doth covenant with the said J. 
H. that he the said T. H. will before the 25th March 
next ensuing settle upon the said Elizabeth Huxley for 
her jointure and in full of such dower as she may claim 
out of any other of the manors, messuages, &c, of him 
the said T. H. lying in the several towns and parishes of 
Eversholte, Badlesdon, Tingriff, Tuddington, Maldon, 
Stepping] ey, Kempson and Hockley as set out in a 
schedule hereto annexed. The said Sir W. L. covenants 
to pay to the said T. H. in the common dining hall of 
Gray's Inn the sum of ,£2,300 on his attaining the age 
of 21. The like covenant on the part of the said Sir 



THOMAS HILLERSDUN : IV. 



83 



Thomas Hewett to pay over the sum of ,£1,139 2S - 9d. 
Covenant by the said J. H. that within 6 days after the 
said jointure shall be settled he shall pay to the said T. 
H. for the marriage portion of his da. Elizabeth the sum 
of ;£ 2,800. Covenant by the said J. H. that in the 
event of the said T. H. dying before the said jointure is 
settled upon the said E. H. he will pay unto the execu- 
tors of the said T. H. £800 a year for every ^100 a year 
that the said E. H. shall be * dow'able ' up to the sum of 
£* 2,800. The said J. H. further covenants that in the 
event of the said E. H. dying before the 25th March 
next ensuing before the settlement of the jointure upon 
her, will at or before the 25th of April next ensuing pay 
to the said T. H. the full sum of £2,000 only for the 
marriage portion of the said E. H. in case she shall die 
without issue, and in case she shall leave issue then the 
sum of £"2,800 in full. 

(Signed) Thomas Hillars^don, W. Lytton, Tho. 
Hewytt. 

The children of this marriage were : — 

(1) . Thomas, of whom hereafter. 

(2) . John, born 2 February, 1655, of 'the Inner 
Temple, London. By his Will dated 5 Jul., 1679 he 
bequeaths to his nephew John Hillersdon his heirs and 
assigns the reversion of all his lands, &c, in Hockley and 
Battleston, co. Beds., expectant upon the estate which 
Dame Elizabeth Beecher his honoured Mother hath 
therein. All his lands, &c, in Colmeworth in the said 
co. unto Sir William Beecher of Howbury in the said 
county of Bedford, Knt, and Thomas Hillersden his 
brother, their heirs and assigns, upon Trust after his de- 
cease to raise sufficient funds to discharge all his debts 
and funeral charges and legacies hereinafter mentioned 
and to convey the residue to his nephew John Hillersden 
and his heirs. The following is a list of the legacies : — 
to Sir William Beecher, Lady Beecher, brother Sir John 



84 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



Beecher, sister Arrabilla Beecher, £ 20 each. To brother 
William Beecher, ^300. To brother George Beecher, 
^500. To sister Elizabeth Beecher, £200. To uncle 
Francis Beecher, ^50. To Aunt Elizabeth Beecher, 
£10. To Sir Charles Flawd, £20 and to Lady Flawd, 
his aunt, ^50. To uncle George Horsnell and aunt 
Horsnell, £20 each. To his cousin Elizabeth Trussell, 
da. of his aunt Horsnell, £100 and to cousin Mary Hors- 
nell, £10. To Mr. Thomas Mossett, grocer, to Doctr. 
Briggs, to Mr. John Hookes of Elstow, to his uncles 
Thomas and George Huxley, to his aunt Anne Huxly 
and to his cosen Elizabeth Huxly, £20 each. To his 
couzen John Huxley, £10. To his brother and sister 
Hillersden, £20 each. To his man £5 and to the parish 
he dies in, £10. To the parish of Colm worth, ^10. Ap- 
points Sir William Beecher and Thomas Hillersden 
executors. Signed, sealed and published in the pre- 
sence of Sir John Beecher, Alexander Stanhope and Wil- 
liam Gilbert. 

A Codicill to be annexed to, and part of, the last 
Will and Testament of John Hillersdon of the Inner 
Temple, London, Esqr. 

Reciting that by his last Will and Testament he had 
devised to his nephew John Hillersdon the reversion of 
all his land and tenements, &c, in Hockliffe and Battles- 
den he confirms same in respect of the lands in Hockliffe, 
but as to his lands in Battlesden called Drovers Leys and 
all other his lands in Battlesden he bequeaths same to his 
nephew John Hillersdon for life, and after his decease to 
the heirs of his body in tail male, and, in default of such 
issue to his nephew William, son and heir apparent of 
his brother Hillersdon for life, and after his decease to 
the heirs of his body in tail male, and, in default of such 
issue to his brother Hillersdon for life and his issue in 
tail male and, in default of such issue, to the Master and 
Fellows of Bennett Colledge in the University of Cam- 
bridge. Reciting that he had, in his Will, bequeathed 



THOMAS HILLERSDEN: IV. 



several legacies some of which exceeded £ 50, he now de- 
clares his will to be that the legacies exceeding £ 50 shall 
not be paid until after the death of his mother, or until 
his nephew John Hillersdon shall attain his full age of 
21. He gives to Mrs. Elizabeth Forth, £30, to Mrs. 
Marth [a] Forth £20, both of which are sisters-in-law to 
his brother Hillersdon. In Witness, &c. Dated 30 
Mar., 1684. 

The above John died, according to the stone on the 
floor of the chancel in Elstow Church on the 15th May, 
1684 in the 29th year of his age; but according to the 
parish registers of Elstow he was buried on 20 Apr., 
1684. There is also a mural tablet to his memory in the 
S. Aisle, erected by his mother, Lady Becher. 

(1). Margaret, died unmarried. 

(2). Elizabeth, born 31 Dec, 1654, bur. at Elstow, 
25 Apr., 1657. 

Thomas Hillersden (iv.) made his Will on the 
1 2th Jan., 1656-7, desiring to be buried in the chancel 
of Elstow church, to the poor of which parish he gave 
£io, and to the poor of the parishes of Eversholt, Hock- 
ley and W T ilstead £$ each; and to the families of Sir 
Thomas Hewett of Bishopsberry [sic] co. Herts., and of 
John Hucksley of Edmonton, Middx., Esquire, for 
mourning. To his son John all his lands in Hockliffe 
and Batlesdon in the occupation of John Grissell, Robert 
Cheney, John Page and Thomas Hillersdon, gent., and 
after the decease of his aunt Rowse of Caxton, his lands 
in Oven, co. Bucks and Caxton, co. Hunts. To da. 
Elizabeth Hillersden ,£2,000 to be raised out of the 
yearly rents of Elvesto, which he gives to his father John 
Huxley of Edmonton till such time as the said portion be 
raised. To cousin Elizabeth Rowse ^100 on the day of 
her marriage. To his cousin John Rowse /10 a year for 
life, if he be living with me at the time of my death. To 
servant, Thomas Hutton, an annuity of £10 in like 



86 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



manner. To all the rest of his servants 50s. apiece. All 
his household stuff to wife Elizabeth during her widow- 
hood. To sister, Mrs. Sarah Huxley, his gold watch. 
To his brother John Huxley the younger of Edmonton, 
esquire, his grey colt unbacked. To cousin John Dent, 
esquire, his best bay stone horse. Appoints father, John 
Huxley, and his said son John guardians of his children, 
and wife executrix of his Will. (Signed) T. Hillersdon. 

Witnesses: Sarah Huxley, Lewis Harding, Jon. 
Beaumont. Proved 23 Feb., 1656-7, by the Executrix. 
(P.C.C. 78 Ruthen). He was bur. at Elstow on the 17th 
Jan., 1656-7, aet. 26, and his widow, Elizabeth, re-married 
[as his second wife] to Sir William Becher, of Howbury, 
on the 24 Dec, 1660 at St. Peter, St. Pauls Wharf, 
London. An abstract of their marriage settlement, dated 
22 Dec, 1659 is printed in Beds. N. and Q. Vol. III., 
p. 283. She was buried at Elstow 13 Jun. 1701. The 
following is a copy of the inscription on their tomb in 
Elstow Church: — 

" Hereunder lieth/ ye body of Thomas Hillersdon 
esq/ and of Thomas Hillersdon/ and Margaret his wife 
daughter of Sr. Wm. Litton Kt./ grandson to Sr. Thomas 
Hillersdon of Elvestowe/ on the County of Bedford Kt./ 
both likewise buryed in this church/ wh. Thomas being 
descended from the/ ancient family of the Hillersdons/ in 
deuonsh and having wedded Elizabeth/ daughter to John 
Huxley of Edmonton/ in the County of Midd. Esq./ had 
issue by her two sons/ Vz. Thomas and John yet living/ 
and two daughters/ Vz. Margaret and Elizabeth 
deceased/ And departed this mortall life/ the xvii. day 
of January/ in ye 25th yeare of his age and yeare of our 
Lord MDCLVI./ to whose deare memory/ ye said 
Elizabeth his sorrowful widow/ erected this monument." 

Arms. Arg. on a chevron sa. 3 bulls' heads caboshed 
of the field, Hillersdon : — impaling Erm. on a bend, 
cotised gu. 3 crescents or, Huxley. 



THOMAS HILLERSDEN : V. 



87 



V. 

Thomas Hillersden, eldest s. and heir of Thomas 
and Elizabeth, was born at Elstow the 31 Oct., 1653. 
He matriculated at Ch. Ch. Oxon, 16 Dec, 1670, 
aged 17; student of the Inner Temple, 1670; 
M.P. for Bedford, 1689, until his death. In the 
year 1655 we find him included in the list of Delin- 
quents for Beds., the amount of his fine being 
£9 10s. od. He was buried at Elstow, 26 Feb., 1697-8. 
By his Will, dated 9 Nov., 1693, he desires to be buried 
with his ancestors in the parish church of Elvestoe, in 
the chancel, as near his late dear wife as may be. He 
gives all his manors and lands to his honoured father and 
most kind friend, Sir William Becher, Knt., and his trusty- 
friends, William Becher, his son and heir apparent, John 
Hillersdon of Stoak, co. Bucks., gent., and Richard 
Wigg [he married 1675 Frances, da. of Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Hillersdon, of Stoke Hammond, wid., Lie. Dean 
and Chapter of Windsor], of Heath and Reach, co. 
Beds., in trust for the payment of his debts, and for rais- 
ing of portions of ,£2,000 for his eldest Maur. Mar- 
garet, and ;£ 1,500 apiece for his three younger children, 
Elizabeth, Susanna and Richard, payable on their respec- 
tive days of marriage, or at 2 1 ; and his trustees are to 
allow his said four younger children ^40 a year each 
meanwhile. He gives the guardianship of his s. John, 
during his minority, to his said trustees ; and they shall 
make such allowance to him and to his eldest s. William 
till they be of age, as they shall think fit. To his s. 
William, all his jewells plate and furniture and all his 
books. To his mother, Lady Becher, ,£50 and to his 
brother George Becher and sister Elizabeth Becher, £ 20 
apiece for mourning. To the minister of Elvestowe at 
the time of his death £10. To all his household ser- 
vants 40s. apiece. To servant William Pennyfather, 
£10. To the poor of Eversholt, Hockliffe, Wilsham- 
stead, and Colmorth, to each parish £ 10. After the ful- 



88 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



filment of all these trusts, his trustees shall settle all his 
manors, lands, &c, in tail male on his sons William, 
John and Richard, and the said John Hillersdon of 
Stoak, successively. To his trustees £50 apiece, and 
£ 100 to be laid out in land for the benefit of the poor of 
Elvestoe. To Francis Brace of Bedford, gent., £5 to buy 
him mourning, desiring him to assist and advise his 
trustees in the performance of his Will. (Signed) T. 
Hillersdon. 

Witnesses : — George Horsnell, Ann Horsnell, F. 
Brace, Robert Gay, William Penneyfather. 

Commission issued 7 Mar., 1698-9, to William 
Hillersdon, s. of the deceased, to administer in accord- 
ance with the above Will, Sir William Becher, one of the 
executors named, being now deceased, and the others, 
who survive, having renounced. (P.C.C. 43 Pett.). 

By his wife Mary, da. of John Forth, of Hackney, 
Alderman of London [marriage licence dated 12 Jul. 
1675, she therein described as spr., aged about 19, to be 
married at All Hallows in the Wall or St. Dunstan's 
East (Marr : Lie : D. and C. of Westmr.)], he had issue 
as follows : — 

(1) . William, of whom hereafter. 

(2) . John, bapt. 27 Dec, 1678, at Elstow, and there 

buried 25 Apr., 17 19. 

By his Will, dated 15 Apr., 17 19, John is described 
as of Colmworth, esquire. To his eldest brother William 
Hillersdon, esquire, ;£ 1,000, and to his three cousins, 
children of Mrs. Elizabeth Wildbore, deceased, £200 
apiece. To John Kendall, of Basingborne Hall, co. 
Essex, esquire, and Edward Weaver, of the Inner 
Temple, London, esquire, ,£4,000 in trust to apply the 
interest thereof as his sister Susannah, wife of Mr. 
Samuel Trench, of London, Salter, shall direct, and 
not to be in any way subject to his control. To nephew 



THOMAS HILLERSDEN: V. 



89 



Thomas Farrer Hillersdon ^500. To the poor of 
Colmworth £ 100, at the discretion of his executor. To 
each of his servants now living with him £20. To his 
laundress, Mrs. Ward in Fetter Lane, London, ^50 
over and above the sum of £ 10 now owing to her. To 
Mary Newbowl, of the parish of St. Gregory, London, 
being the person who attends him in his now illness, £20. 
The residue of his goods, freehold lands, tenements, &c. 
whatsoever, he gives to his brother Richard Hillersdon, 
whom he appoints executor. (Signed) John Hillersdon. 

Witnesses : — Susanna Borraston, Mary Borraston, 
Ambr. Beaton. Proved 23 May, 17 19, by the executor 
named. 

(3). Richard, bapt. 21 Dec, 1687, at Elstow. He 
married Elizabeth, bapt. at Goldington 15 May, 1695, da. 
of Benjamin Hasleden of Goldington, by Elizabeth 
Bromsall, his wife. He died 31 Dec. 1735, and was 
buried at Goldington 4 Jan. 1735-6, aged 48. She died 
4 Oct. 1722, aged 27, and was also buried at Goldington 
17 Oct. 1722. They do not appear to have left issue. 

By his Will, 24 Jul. 1725, Richard gives to his 
friends Thomas Browne, of Arlesey, co. Beds., esquire 
and Dennis Farrer, of Cold Brayfield, co. Bucks., 
esquire, his manor of Colmorth alias Colmworth, and all 
his lands there and in the parishes of Eaton Socon and 
Wilden which came to him under the Will of his late 
brother John Hillersdon, esquire, deceased, in trust to 
sell same, and after payment of his debts the residue to 
go to his niece Margaret Hillersdon, to whom he be- 
queaths all his other lands and tenements, at her age of 
21, and if she die under age and without issue he gives 
the same to his niece Elizabeth, wife of the said Dennis 
Farrer. To sister-in-law Katherine Haselden, spinster, 
and to his said niece Elizabeth Farrer, £20 apiece, and 
to the said Dennis Farrer £10 to buy them mourning. 
Residue to said niece Margaret, whom he appoints exe- 



90 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



cutrix and his said trustees to be executors and her guar- 
dians during her minority. 

(Signed) Richard Hillersdon. 
Witnesses : — Am : Reddall, Tho : Reddal, Tho : 

Roe. 

Proved 20 Jan. 1735-6, by Margaret Parslow, alias 
Hillersdon, now wife of John Parslow, esquire, executrix 
named in the Will. 

Adm'on dated 27 Feb. 1765, of the goods of the 
deceased left unadministered at her death by the said 
Margaret was granted to her husband, Major-General 
John Parslow. 

(1) . Margaret, bapt. at Elstow 27 Apr. 1677. 

(2) . Elizabeth, bapt. at Elstow 3 Feb. 1679-80, bur. 
at Elstow 13 June 1701. 

(3) . Susanna, bapt. at Elstow 24 Feb. 1685-6, mar- 
ried Samuel Trench. Marriage licence dated 10 May, 
i7i2(F.O.). 

Mary, wife of Thomas Hillersdon, died 6 Aug. 1693, 
aged 38, and was buried at Elstow 8 Aug. following. 

VI. 

William Hillersden, eldest s. of Thomas and 
Mary, was bapt. at Renhold 24 Apr. 1676 and is described 
in the P.R. as a s. of Thomas, but it is strange that he is 
not mentioned in his father's Will. He matriculated at 
Wadham Coll. Oxford 21 Mar., 1692-3, student of the 
Inner Temple 1693, M.P. for Bedford 1707-10 and for 
Beds. 1715-22. He married Elizabeth, da. of William 
Farrer of Cold Brayfield, co. Bucks., who was buried at 
Elstow 4 Feb. 1709, and he was also buried there 1 1 Apr. 
1725. By his Will, dated 10 Mar. 1724-5, he gave to 
his only son, Thomas Farrer Hillersdon, all his family 
pictures, and to his brother, Richard Hillersdon, esquire, 
his great bay gelding and his one horse chair. All the 



WILLIAM HILLERSDEN 



91 



rest of his goods to his father-in-law, William Farrer of 
the Inner Temple, esquire, his said brother Richard, and 
his brother-in-law Samuel Trench of London, Salter, 
whom he makes executors ; to whom also he gives all his 
lands and tenements not included in his marriage settle- 
ment or otherwise settled on his son (except the advowson 
of the parish church of Colmorth alias Colmworth) in 
trust, to make sale thereof for the discharge of all his 
debts and funeral expenses, and to divide the residue of 
the money arising therefrom equally between his two 
daughters Elizabeth and Margaret Hillersdon. His exe- 
cutors, on the next vacancy of the living of Colmorth, 
shall present thereto the Rev. John Watkins of Arbery, 
after the which he gives the said advowson to his son. 

(Signed) — W. Hillersdon. 

Witnesses. — Am. Reddall, Wm. Pennifather, Yar- 
rall Johnson. Proved 15 Apr. 1725 by the executors 
named. By his wife, Elizabeth Farrer, he had issue : — 

(1.) Thomas Farrer Hillersdon, only s., died s.p. 4 Oct. 
1728 aged 22 and was buried at Elstow. 

(1.) Elizabeth, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) Mary, bapt. at Elstow 17 June 1708, and there 
buried 22 Sep. 1708. 

(3,) Margaret, bapt. at Elstow — Sep. 1709, married 
Major General John Parslow. 

VII. 

Elizabeth Hillersden, eldest da. of William and 
Elizabeth Hillersden, was bapt. at Elstow 27 Dec. 1705, 
and married, 8 June, 1725, at St. Michael's, Cornhill 
Dennis Farrer of Cold Brayfield, Bucks., Esq. He 
died 27 Jan. 1746-7, aged 48; and she died 2 Feb. 
1 737-8, aged 33, and was also buried at Cold Brayfield. 
They had issue as follows : — 



92 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOW 



(i.) William Farrer, born 25 June 1726, bapt. in the 
parish of St. George the Martyr, co. Middx, 9 July 
1726. 

(2.) Thomas, bapt. at Cold Brayfield, 14 Aug. 1727, 
and there bur. 5 June 1728. 

(3.) Dennis Farrer, of whom hereafter. 
(1.) Mary Farrer, died 30 Apr. 1731. 
The following inscription on a black marble tomb in 
the chancel of Cold Brayfield church records the decease 
of the parents of the above : — " Here lies the body of 
Elizabeth Farrer, wife of Dennis Farrer, Esq. (and eld- 
est daughter of William Hillesdon, late of Elstow, in the 
county of Bedford, Esq. deceased) who died Feby. 2nd 
A.D. 1737 in the 33d year of her age. Here also lies 
the body of the said Dennis Farrer, Esq. who died J any. 
27th 1746-7, in the 49th year of his age." 

VIII. 

Dennis Farrer-Hillersden, assumed by Royal 
Licence the surname and arms of Hillersden. By his 
first wife, Anne, da. of Henry Faure of Egham, Esq., 
he had 2 daurs., Harriet and Anne, the former of whom 
married Captain James Haddon, R.A. Anne his wife 
died 21 Sep. 1762, aged 31, and was bur. at Elstow. By 
his second wife, Sarah, da. of Osgood Gee of Becken- 
ham, who died 21 Jan. 1791, aged 51, he left issue also 
2 daurs., viz: — Sarah who died 11 Jan. 1849, aged 74, 
and Elizabeth who became the wife of Col. William 
Colquhoun of the 1st Regiment of Guards; she died 26 
Apr. 1 84 1, aged 75, leaving issue a son, William James 
Hillersden Colquhoun who died 20 Sep. 1861, aged 58. 

In connection with the foregoing there is recorded 
in the Chalgrave P.R., under date 17 Jan. 157 1-2, the 
marriage of Thomas Tyler with Jane Hillsden, and also, 
under date 22 Feb. 1587-8 the burial of " Mistres Fraun- 
ces Hilsden." Presumably these are two daughters of 



HILLERSDBN OF BLSTOW 



93 



Thomas and Joane Hillersden, but, in the absence of 
direct evidence I have not accorded them a place in the 
pedigree. Also in the Luton P.R. are recorded, under 
date 10 Apr. 1670, the marriage of Thomas Hilsden with 
Mary Halsey, the baptism of their s. John 26 Feb. 
1 670- 1 ; the marriage of Thomas Hilsdon, presumably the 
last named, with Elizabeth Johnson 12 May 1678; and 
lastly the burial of Thomas Hillersdon from Kimpton, 
co. Herts., 20 Dec. 17 19. 

In the year 1655 at the Whitsuntide Court Baron of 
the manor of Leighton it is recorded that Mrs. Hillersdon 
paid for a heriot £3; and Mr. Thomas Huxley, for a 
messuage and certain land in Billington, late Isaack Ben- 
nett, late Mrs. Hillersden's, paid fine £7 \ and at the 
Whitsun Court, 1671 William Hillersden paid, for a 
heriot, £ 7/7/0- 









Reynold Home, = 


1 

Mary Hillersdei 
m. 1589. 


>rsden, 


1 

Thomas Hillersden 
b. 1608. 
d. 1610. 


n 



rine Hillersden. 
d. 1632. 



rd ^Hillersden, = Elizabeth Haselden, 
*7- d. 1735- b. 1695. d. 1722. 



saret Hillersden, 
09. 



■yne Faure, b. 1731. 
1756. d. 1762. 



■s. 



95 



HILLERSDEN OF ELSTOWE. 



John Hillersden, = Frances Eellay, 
d. 1638. j m. 1602. 



John Hillersdon, b. 1613, 
a quo the Hillersdens of 
Stoke Hammond. 



= Joane Potts, 
j m. 1558. 



Thomas Hillersden, = Elizabeth Harding, 



j m. 1598. d. 



Reynold Home, = Mary 



Thomas Hillersden, = Margaret Lytton. = Sir Thos. 



Joan Hillersden, 



as Rouse, = Elizabeth ) 
Caxton, b. 1600. 
Hunts. 



Thomas Hillersden = Mary Forth, 

b. 1653. d. 1697- I m. 1675. d. 1693. 



John Hillersden, 
b. 1655. d. 1684. 



Margaret Hillersde 



Ham Hillersden = Elizabeth Fan 
1676. d. 1725. I d. 1709. 



Susanne Hillersden, = Samuel Trench. 



Sarah Gee, = Dennis Farrer Hillersden, = Anne 
1740. d. 1791. j b. 1732. d. 1787. j m. i; 

Issue 3 daurs. Issue 3 daurs. 



GRANT OF FREE WARREN TO 
NEWNHAM PRIORY. 



BY J. HAM SON. 

The writer has had an opportunity of copying and 
translating an interesting document which is in Mr. W. 
Glassby's (Renhold) private collection of manuscripts. 
It proves to be a grant of Free Warren to Newenham 
Priory by Richard II. and is dated 20 November, 1385. 
The writing is in good black ink, and is as legible as the 
day it was written. Apparently nothing is known of the 
history of the deed, but we may assume that it was in the 
possession of Newenham Priory before the dissolution. 
In this connection it is interesting to recall that Mr. 
Glassby read a paper some time ago, before the Bedford 
Archaeological Society, on " Bedford Town and Towns- 
men in 1507," founded on notes from the " Rent Roll 
of Newenham Priory," which was also in his collection of 
documents. 

(Transcription). 

Ricardus dei gracia Rex Anglie et Francie et 
Dominus Hibernie Archiepiscopis Episcopis Abbatibus 
Prioribus Ducibus Comitibus Baronibus Justiciariis 
Vicecomitibus Prepositis Ministris et omnibus Balliuis 
et fidelibus suis salutem Sciatis nos de gratia nostra 
speciali concessisse et hac carta nostra confirmasse dilec- 
tis nostris in Cristo Priori et Conuentui de Newenham 
quod ipsi et eorum successores imperpetuum habeant 
liberam warrennam in omnibus dominicis terris suis in 
Newenham Bedeford Ronhale Rauenesden Bereford 
Goldington Wiliton Sharnebroke Stotfold Stachesden 



98 



FREE WARREN FOR 



Wotton Bidenham Kirdington et in Cotes Dumtamen 
terre ille non sint infra metas foreste nostre Ita quod 
nullus intret terras illas ad fugandum in eis uel ad aliquid 
rapiendum quod ad warrennam pertineat sine licentia et 
uoluntate dictorum Prioris et Conuentus uel successorum 
suorum super forisfacturam nostram decern librarum 
Quare uolumus et firmiter precipimus pro nobis et here- 
dibus nostris quod iidem Prior et Conuentus et succes- 
sors sui predicti habeant liberam warrennam in omnibus 
dominicis terris suis predictis Dumtamen terre ille non 
sint infra metas [foreste] nostre Ita quod nullus intret 
terras illas ad fugandum in eis uel ad aliquid rapiendum 
quod ad Warrennam pertineat sine licencia et uoluntate 
eorundem Prioris et Conuentus uel successorum suorum 
predictorum super forisfacturam nostram decern librarum 
sicut predictum est Hiis Testibus. Venerabilibus patribus 
W[illelmo] Archiepiscopo Cantuar' tocius Anglie 
Primate A[lexandro] Archiepiscopo Ebor' Anglie 
Primate Johanne Rege Castelle et Legionis Duce Lan- 
castr' Edmundo Duce Ebor' Thoma Duce Gloucestr' 
auunculis nostris carissimis Thoma de Moubray Comite 
Notyngh' Michaele de la Pole Comite SufT Cancellario 
Hugone de Segraue Thesaurario nostro Magistro Wal- 
tero de Stirlawe Electo Couentr' et Lich' custode priuati 
sigilli nostri Johanne de Monte Acuto Senescallo hospicii 
nostri et aliis Datum per manum nostram apud West- 
monasterium uicesimo die Nouembris anno regni nostri 
nono. 

^(Translation.) 

Richard by the Grace of God King of England and 
France and Lord of Ireland to the Archbishops, Bishops, 
Abbots, Priors, Dukes, Earls, Barons, Justices, Sheriffs, 
Reeves, Ministers, and all his Bailiffs and lieges, — greet- 
ing. Know ye that we by our special favour have granted 
and by this our charter have confirmed to our beloved 
in Christ, the Prior and Convent of Newnham that they 



NEWNHAM PRIORY 



99 



and their successors may hold for ever Free Warren in 
all their demesne lands in Newnham, Bedford, Ren- 
hold, Ravensden, Barford, Goldington, Willington, 
Sharnbrook, Stotfold, Stagsden, Wootton, Biddenham, 
Cardington, and in Cotes Provided those lands are not 
within the bounds of our forests, so that none shall enter 
those lands for the purpose of hunting or of capturing 
anything which belongs to the Warren without the per- 
mission and will of the aforesaid prior and convent or 
their successors upon Forfeiture to us of £ 10. Where- 
fore we will and firmly ordain for ourselves and our 
heirs that the same Prior and Convent and their suc- 
cessors aforesaid shall have Free Warren in all their de- 
mesne lands aforesaid provided those lands are not within 
the bounds of our [forest], so that none may enter those 
lands to hunt or capture anything pertaining to the warren 
without license or will of the same Prior and Convent or 
their successors aforesaid upon forfeiture to us of ten 
pounds as aforesaid. These being the witnesses : 

The Venerable Fathers William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Primate of all England; Alexander, Arch- 
bishop of York, Primate of England : 

John, King of Castile and Leon, Duke of Lancaster : 

Edmund, Duke of York : 

Thomas, Duke of Gloucester : 
our most dear uncles 

Thomas de Mowbray, Earl of Nottingham : 

Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, Chancellor : 

Hugh de Segrave, our Treasurer : 

Master Walter de Stirlawe, Bishop Elect of Coven- 
try and Lichfield, Keeper of our Privy Seal : 

John de Montacute, Steward of our household : and 
others. 

Given under our hand at Westminster on the twen- 
tieth dav of November in the ninth year of our reign 

[13851 • 



100 



NBWNHAM PRIORY 



It is interesting to compare the names of the above 
witnesses with those of a charter mentioned by Dr. Fow- 
ler in his " Charters of Chicksand " [vide Charter xix., 
p. 127, vol. L, B.H.R.SJ. The date of this Charter is the 
second year of Richard IIX1378] and therefore some 
years earlier than the Grant of Free Warren. Many of 
the witnesses are the same in both cases, but some had 
been advanced to higher titles in the intervening years ; 
notably William Courtenay, Bishop of London 1375, 
Archbishop of Canterbury 1381, notable for his hostility 
to Wyclif and the Lollards; Edmund of Langley, fifth 
son of Edward III., Earl of Cambridge 1362, Duke of 
York 1385; and Thomas of Woodstock, seventh son of 
Edward III., Earl of Buckingham 1377, Duke of 
Gloucester 1385. Of the others, John, Duke of Lan- 
caster, is the well-known John of Gaunt, third son of 
Edward III., who styled himself from 1372 King of 
Castile and Leon in right of his second wife. The 
Steward of the Household, Hugh de Segrave, had risen 
to being Chancellor between the dates of the two charters. 

A grant of free w r arren allowed the holder to take 
hares, rabbits, partridges, and pheasants. 



CUTENHO, FARLEY HOSPITAL, 
AND KURIGGE. 

BY WILLIAM AUSTIN, 
i. CUTENHO AND FARLEY HOSPITAL. 

The Fines for Bedfordshire in Vol. VI., Part I. 
pages 1 6, 19 and 21, of the Publications of the Bedford- 
shire Historical Record Society, contain references to 
suits relating to land in Cutenhoe or Ketenhoe in the 
parish of Luton, and to certain lands belonging to Farley 
Hospital in the same parish. The situation of these lands 
has been a subject of conjecture. I think I can adduce 
some evidence that they were on the slope of the London 
Road Hill near Luton Hoo Park. 

No. 42, page 16, in the Calendar of these Fines is 
dated the 18th November, 1198. The parties were Adam 
Black (Niger) and his wife Sara against Richard de la 
Brache. Richard admitted the land to be the inheritance 
of Adam and Sara. (Hunter 18). 

No. 59, page 19, 18th November, 1199, Adam Black 
(Niger) against Richard de la Brache. Lands in Luton 
partly in the " cultura of Cutenhoe." Richard quit- 
claimed to Adam. (Hunter 24). 

No. 60. page 19, 20th November. 1199, Richard son 
of Philip against Adam Black (Niger). The whole cul- 
tura of Cutenho in the vill of Luton. Richard quitclaimed 
to Adam. (Hunter 25). 

No. 75, page 21, 18th November, 1201, Adam Black 
(Niger) against brother Mauger, Master of Farlege and 
the brethren there. Common of Pasture of Ketenhoe. 
Adam quitclaimed to the brethren, and received in ex- 
change land at a rent. (Hunter 30, 31). 



102 GUTENHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



The extent of land claimed by Adam Black against 
Richard de la Brache was 12 acres, of which 10 lay in 
the cultura of Cutenhoe and 2 acres without. For the 
Fine agreement and quitclaim Adam gave Richard two 
marks of silver. In the claim by Adam against the master 
of Farley of right of common of pasture at Ketenhoe or 
Cutenhoe, Mauger acknowledged Adam's claim, but 
bought him off by giving him in exchange three acres 
of land which lay " within the ditch of the brethren fac- 
ing the land of Adam " to be held of the Hospital at the 
rent of eightpence for all services, etc. 

In the Crawley family Papers in 1772 there is a 
reference to land styled Cotternho and Cothernhoe, 
names of closes near Crawley property. 

In a Poor Rate, in my possession, for the year 181 1, 
I find that in West Hyde, Hamlet of Luton, Mr. James 
Gutteridge was rated for " Kidnoe closes " £15. Mr. 
Gutteridge acquired this property by his marriage with a 
grand-daughter of Mr. Samuel Marsom, of Luton, 
Draper, who was a descendant of Mr. Marsom, a pro- 
minent Baptist at Luton, and fellow-prisoner with John 
Bunyan at Bedford. 

In the rent-roll for the manor of Luton from 1794 
to 1 83 1 the same closes appear as " Kitnoe closes," owned 
first by the Marsoms and in 18 15 by Mr. James 
Gutteridge. In the Poor Rate for 1831 I find Mr. 
Gutteridge rated for "Kidney closes" ,£16, in the 
same situation as " Kidnoe closes." 

In October, 1833, the whole of Mr. Gutteridge's 
property was, by an order of the Court of Chancery, sold 
by Auction. Mr. E. A. Cumberland has in his posses- 
sion the particulars of this sale and a plan of the property. 
Among the lots were " Kidney Wood closes " compris- 
ing twenty-six acres. On the plan they are shown as 
lying on the London Road Hill. 



103 



LANDS OF FARLEY HOSPITAL - 12™ CENTURY, 
and the Cultura of "Kutenhoe" or Cutenhoe. 




104 CUTENHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



By the Tithe Apportionment of 1844 it appears that 
these closes had been purchased by the Marquis of Bute, 
owner of Luton Hoo, and Mr. John Waller of Luton, 
woolstapler. No. 1966 in the award is " Kidney wood 
close," arable, 11a. ir. 9p. belonging to Lord Bute and 
situate on the North side of London Road. No. i960 
is " Kidney Wood close," pasture, 7a. 3r. 6p. ; and No. 
1 96 1 " Kidney Wood close, arable, 5a. 2r. 29p.; both on 
the South side of London Road, belonging to Mr. John 
Waller. All these closes are in West Hyde Hamlet. 
Running alongside Nos. i960 and 1961 was a piece of 
arable land four acres in extent also called " Kidney 
Wood Close," and numbered 19 19 on the map. It was - 
the property of Mr. John Waller but within the township 
of Luton. Whether this piece of land was the piece 
" within the ditch of the Hospital and opposite the land 
of Adam " is not certain, but I think there can be no 
doubt that the land of Adam Niger in the cultura of 
Cutenho comprised the lands now called " Kidney wood 
closes." In the Fine No. 60 above-quoted, it is expressly 
stated that Adam Niger owned the whole furlong (cul- 
tura) of Cutenho. 

As a further point in the identification of these 
closes I might point out that " ho " or " hoe " of Cuten- 
hoe suggest a hill or the slope of a hill. These closes are 
on the London Road hill, and on the slope of the hill. 
They are now the property of Lady Wernher the present 
owner of the Luton Hoo, and the Manor of Luton. 

LANDS OF THE FARLEY HOSPITAL. 

Incidentally, the above enquiry raises the question 
of the situation of the forty-five acres given by Baldwin 
de Bethune out of his manor of Luton to the hospital at 
Farley. The gift by King Henry the Second of the lands 
of Farley and Wyperley to the brethren of the hospital 
of Santingfield in the Pas de Calais, to found a hospital 
at Farley in Luton, is comprised at the present time in 



FARLEY HOSPITAL 



105 



Stockwood Park and Farley Farm, all on the North side 
of London Road. The closes in the cultura of Cutenho, 
with the exception of No. 1966, above mentioned, were on 
the South side of London Road. As no part of Henry's 
endowment of the hospital was on the South side of Lon- 
don Road, and as the Fine No. 75 says that the land 
given to Adam Niger by the Master of Farley was within 
the ditch of the brethren facing the land of Adam it 
seems clear that the Hospital, as early as the twelfth cen- 
tury, had land on the south side of the London Road 
abutting on the land of Adam Niger. 

I am therefore led to the conclusion that the endow- 
ment by Baldwin de Bethune lay on the South side of 
London Road, and comprised Kidney Wood and the 
land between Kidney Wood and Trapps Lane. I 
am also led to the conclusion that Baldwin's grant must 
have been several years earlier than King John's well- 
known Charter of 1204 which confirms Baldwin's endow- 
ment of the hospital. 

Adam Niger claimed common of pasture over some 
part of the lands of the hospital, and the inference to be 
gleaned from the foregoing is that the forty-five acres 
given by Baldwin included part of what is now known as 
Kidney Wood in the extreme north-east corner of Luton 
Hoo Park, and also the lands between the wood and the 
above named Cutenho closes Nos. i960, 1961 and 19 19 
on the Tithe Map. 

In March, 1919 I received a visit from the Revd. 
Father Boulot, Chaplain at the Catholic School at Luton, 
who had been requested to make enquiries as to the pos- 
sessions of the Farley Hospital by an antiquary, Father 
Mermel, priest in charge of the Chapel of St. Inglevert 
par Marquise in the Pas de Calais. I sent Father Mermel 
some particulars of the old Hospital of Farley. 

King Henry's endowment of Farley came about in 
the following manner. Henry and others of our Norman 



106 



GUTENHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



Kings made use of Wissant near Boulogne, as a usual 
place of landing on their frequent visits to Normandy. 

Wissant was the " Portus Itius " of the Romans 
from whence Julius Caesar embarked with his legions on 
his invasions of Britain in the years 55 and 54 B.C. 1 The 
" Times Gazetteer," 1899, nas tne following reference to 
this port : — 

" Wissant, Pas de Calais, 11 miles N.E. of 
Boulogne, a small fishing port and sea-bathing 
resort. In the middle ages was a very active 
port; here the British armies frequently landed 
during the Hundred Years' War." 

On the 10th January, 1156, Henry II. made his first 
visit to the Continent after his accession, and crossed from 
Dover to Wissant along with his Chancellor Thomas a 
Becket. 2 It was at Wissant that William Rufus first 
heard of the death of his father and embarked for Eng- 
land. In 1095 he spent four days there (Hwitsand) and 
thence sailed for England. 3 It was from this port that 
Stephen sailed for England in 1 135 on the death of 
Henry I. As late as 1459 the Duke of Somerset landed 
at Wissant having been refused admittance to Calais 
when he went to supersede Warwick as governor. Cam- 
den 4 mentions Wissant as the " Portus Itius " of the 
Romans, 5 but some writers have thought that Calais and 
Boulogne have equal claims to have been Caesar's port 
of embarkation. Camden is said to have founded his 
opinion on finding it recorded in ancient chronicles that 
several persons of eminence had in a course of ages passed 
over from Wissant to Dover. Calais was not fortified 
until the year 1224, and it was not until it was taken by 
the English in 1347 that it became their regular port of 

1. Comprehensive Hist. England, Vol. i., p. 19. 

2. Cobbe Hist. Luton Church, Appendix A.C., p. 498. 

3. Ang. Sax. Chron., i, 361 ; ii, 198. 

4. Camden, Gough's Ed. 1, p. 320. 

5. Archaeologia : Soc. Ant. Lond., x., p. 7. 



FARLEY HOSPITAL 



107 



embarkation, and Wissant, being neglected, became 
silted up with sand. 6 

When Henry the Second landed at Wissant in 1 1 56, 
he was on his way to St. Omer and Rouen. He probably 
stayed at the Hospital of Santingfield at Wissant. On 
reaching St. Omer he indited his charter granting 
to the Brethren of Santingfield lands at Farley and 
Whyperley in his manor of Luton. The charter was 
witnessed by Thomas a Becket, William, the king's 
brother, and others. 7 King Henry desired that the 
Brethren should pray for the souls of himself and his 
ancestors ; and at the same time that he signed the char- 
ter, he sent letters addressed to the whole halimote of 
his manor of Luton that they should receive the Brethren 
of Santingfield with goodwill and assistance. 8 Dugdale 
tells us that the Brethren of Santingfield colonised Far- 
ley and Wyperley; they erected a hospital there, with a 
chapel. 

The masters of Farley Hospital, whose names have 
come down to us are : — 

Mauger, 1 198. 

William, 1239. 

John de Rokele, 1296. 

John de Felmersham, 1347. 

William Lachebury, 1347. 

William of Wenlock, 1377, 9 d. 1392. 

I have a transcript of the will of William of Wenlock, 
dated 1 April, 1 391. 10 He made bequests to several priests 
in Luton Church, and directed that he should be buried 
there. He names only one of the Brethren at the hos- 
pital. There is a very fine tomb in Someries chapel of 

6. In recent years airmen have alighted there when flying from Dover 
to France. My nephew, the late Colonel James Valentine, came down at 
Wissant when he flew from Dover to France, he being the first Englishman 
to fly across the Channel. 

7. Dug. Mon. vi. (pt. 2), p. 639. I have given a translation of this 
charter in my History of the Crawley family, pp. 217, 218. 

8. Pat. Roll, Henry II. 

9. Vict. Hist. Beds., i., p. 400. 

10. Proved in the Prerog. Court, Register 6. Rous; 16 June, 1392. 



108 CUTBNHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



Luton Church, with the recumbent figure of a man in 
priest's robes, to the memory of William Wenlock. The 
inscriptions on this tomb have been frequently quoted 
as they are the earliest instances of inscriptions in 
both Latin and English. The words are so quaint that 
I make no apology for reproducing them here from Mr. 
Cobbe's " Luton Church," p. 339 : — 

" [Wi]llelmus sic tumulatus : de Wenlok natus : 
in ordine presbiteratus : alter hujus ville : 
dominus vivens fuit ille : hie licet indignus : 
anime Deus esto benignus." 

The English inscription is in these words : — 

" In Wenlok brad I : in this town lordscipes had I : 
Her am I now f ady : Cristes moder helpe me [ljady : 
Under thes stones : for a tym schal I reste my bones 3 
Deye mot I ned ones : myghtful God gr'nt. 

me thy wones. Ame." 

The words " Deye mot I ned ones " mean Die must I 
need once, and " gr'nt me my wones " means grant me 
thy everlasting habitations. 

By the kindly assistance of my friend, Mr. Manning 
of Luton, surveyor, I am able to give a map on which 
the Farley Hospital lands are shown. It will be 
noticed that the northern boundary of Farley is the old 
Dallow Farm. The Dallow Farm house has been re- 
cently pulled down, and the ground covered with streets 
and nouses. The Dallow Farm was the ancient endow- 
ment of Rectorial lands belonging to Luton Church 
down to the dissolution of St. Albans Abbey. A part of 
these lands is shown on the map. 

In the Charter of Henry the Second granting Farley 
and Whyperley to the Hospital of Santingfeld the 
boundaries of the hospital lands are thus described : — 
usque ad terram ecclesiae de Lectona et usque ad terram 
Richardi filii Wulwardi et usque ad terram Gaufridj 
mercatoris et totam terram de Wyperleya usque ad viam 



FARLEY HOSPITAL 



109 



de Prestelya et siccut via dividit usque ad Harpenden. 
From which I gather that " as far as the lands of Luton 
Church " gives us the boundary of the hospital estate on 
the north side; as far as the lands of Richard, son of 
Wulward, I think gives us the boundary towards Cad- 
dington, as far as the lands of Godfrey the merchant, the 
boundary towards Luton. And all the lands of Wyper- 
ley as far as the road of Prestley, and where that way 
divides towards Harpenden gives us the western and 
southern boundary of Stockwood, alias Whyperley. 

In 133 1 this Hospital was called upon to prove by 
what title the Brethren claimed view of frankpledge in 
Farley; and on their failing to appear in support of the 
claim, the manor was taken into the king's hands. 11 The 
King seems to have maintained the Institution, and it 
was doubtless by his appointment that William Wenlock 
was made Master of Farley. The inscription on Wen- 
lock's tombstone says : " In this town lordscipes had I," 
referring to that portion of the manor of Luton worth £8 
a year, which had descended from Maud de Kyme, and 
was sold in 1377 by Edmund FitzHerbert to William 
Wenlock. He in 1389 settled it on his relative William 
Wyvell of Wenlock. 12 The other lordships referred to 
were the above-mentioned manors of Farley and 
Wyperley, probably the portions of the manor of Luton 
called " Luton Mortimer," which had been committed 
to the care of William Wenlock, because Mortimer, the 
then owner, was an idiot, and no trace has been 
found of the name of a master of Farley sub- 
sequent to William Wenlock, but in the year 1447 
the revenues of the Hospital were granted by the 
Crown to King's College, Cambridge. 13 It is suggested 
by the Vict. Co. Hist. Beds, ii, p. 357, that this Hospital 
had been dissolved amongst the 122 alien priories seized 
by the Crown, under the powers conferred by the Statute, 



11. V.C.H. Beds., ii, 357, and Plac. de Quo War (Rec. Com.), 78. 

12. V.C.H. , Beds., ii, 352. 

13. Pat. 26 Hen. vi., pt. 1, m. 7. 



no 



CUTENHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



2 Henry V., No. 9, 14 but the name of this hospital is not 
amongst those mentioned as dissolved under that 
Statute. I think the explanation is that the hospital had 
already been seized into the King's hands as early as 
1 33 1, under the circumstances above mentioned. 

The hospital lands were more than once let to farm 
by leases from the Crown, between 1331 and 1554. In 
1554 Queen Elizabeth granted the manors of Farley and 
Wyperley to George Rotherham, the. head of the Farley 
branch of the Rotherham family. In 1640 Thomas 
Rotherham sold to Richard Norton " All that capital 
mansion-house known as Stockwood, alias Wyperley, with 
the appurtenances New Woodfield, Pond Close, Stock- 
wood Close, Slipp and Highwood." 15 In 1708 Thomas 
Rotherham, of Farley, sold Stockwood or Whyperley to 
Richard Crawley, whose son, John Crawley, in 1740, 
pulled down the home of the Rotherhams, and erected 
the present mansion, the seat of the Crawleys of Luton 16 
at the present time. 

The Rotherhams retained Farley, and Thomas 
Rotherham left it to his wife, who devised it to her 
daughters, one of whom married John Sharpe Palmer, 
and that gentleman sold it in 181 5 to the Marquess of 
Bute, from whom it was purchased by John Sambrook 
Crawley, about 1855. Farley thereafter became the 
Home-Farm of the Stockwood estate. The extent of 
the manors of Farley and Wiperley was close upon six 
hundred acres. 

Although all remains of the ancient buildings of 
Farley Hospital were pulled down by the Rotherhams, 
it is interesting to learn that a portion of the old Hospital 
of Santingfield at Wissant is still standing. Father 
Mermel writes me that the Chapel at Wissant, now 
called the Chapel of St. Inglevert par Marquise, was one 
of the Chapels of the Hospital at Santingfield. He 



14. Rot. Pari., iii., p. 22. 

15. Crawley Papers, and V.C.H. Beds., ii, 360, 361. 

16. Hist Crawley Family, p. 223. 



KURIGGE 



111 



describes it as a twelfth century building of " square 
stones and agglomerated flint, such as may be seen in 
many old buildings in the south of England." The main 
portions of the Hospital were wrecked several times 
between the years 1347 and 1772, the materials being 
finally used in the erection of three farm houses and 
buildings, on the lands which had formerly belonged to 
the Brethren of Santingfield. 

ii. KURIGGE IN LUTON. 

Two of the Fines recently calendared for the 
Society deal with Kuruge or Kurigge. 17 The latter cer- 
tainly, the former probably, is still to be recognised as 
Cowridge End in the Hamlet of Stopsley, in the old 
parish and Manor of Luton. Since the place was well- 
known in the twelfth century, and was the abode of man 
in Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Celtic, Roman, Saxon, and 
Norman times, it may be useful to gather together some 
records of the place. 

Fine No. 207 in the Calendar of Fines, dated the 
17th March, 12 19, records a suit by Juliana Balle against 
William de Kurigge, as to the fourth part of a virgate 
of land and the moiety of a fourth part of a virgate of 
land in Stoppeslega. Assize of mort d'ancestor. Right 
of William, for which he granted her a messuage lying 
between their houses, with all the dyke and i\ acres of 
land abutting on the messuage. William to acquit the 
said premises of all demands of the chief lord. Juliana 
and her heirs to pay rent of a halfpenny for all service. 

A few years earlier, about 1196, in a deed or charter 
of Baldwin de Bethune, Earl of Albemarle, Lord of 
the Manor of Luton, 18 the Earl confirmed to the Abbot of 
St. Albans, amongst other things, " land at Craulea " 
(Crawley Green) and " the wood as far as the way of the 

17. B.H.R.S., vi., p. 28 (no. 112), p. 49 (no. 207). 

18. Chronicles and Memorials No. 28 (1872). Registrum Abbatiae Johannis 
Whethamstede, Vol. I., p. 421. 



112 




KURIGGB 



113 



wood of Curegg." The Abbott's wood stretched from 
Crawley Green Road to Round Green and Cowridge 
End. The present highway to Stopsley from Luton 
probably passed between the Abbot's wood and Cow- 
ridge wood. The place called Cowridge (I think) must 
have been the present sites of Upper and Lower Cow- 
ridge End Farms and the open waste lands known as 
Turner's Knoll and Round Green. The second map, 
by the courtesy of the Society of Antiquaries, I have 
taken from Archaeologia, Vol. 67, p. 62, with some slight 
additions of my own to illustrate these notes. 

At Cowridge End on opposite sides of Cowridge 
End Lane are two farm houses known as Upper and 
Lower Cowridge End Farms. In 1546 Edward Crawley 
purchased the Upper Cowridge Farm, and in the deed 
of conveyance the property is described as " Courgend," 
in the parish of Luton. The place was held of the Lord 
of the Manor of Limbury, one of the numerous sub- 
manors within the Manor of Luton. At a Court of Sir 
George Berkeley in 1547, it is recorded: — " To this 
Court came Edward Crawley and acknowledged that he 
held of the lord freely by charter one tenement with 
divers lands and pastures belonging to the same tene- 
ment, formerly of William Ramrygge and now purchased 
of Thomas Ramridge, rent thirteen shillings and four 
pence and one cock yearly at Christmas. 19 Thomas Ram- 
ridge of Ramridge End, Stopsley, was a nephew of 
Thomas Ramridge, 37th Abbot of St. Albans. 

Davis, writing in 1874, 20 describes the tenement 
above referred to as it was then. It has since been 
pulled down, and a small farm house erected on the 
site. He speaks of it as having been the residence of a 
superior family; it was a large house with gable ends 
and large rooms in the upper storey. There were im- 
mense beams in the roof painted red, with inscriptions 

19. Crawley Papers. 

20. Davis, F., Luton Past and Present. Ed. 1874,. p. 97, 



114 CUTENHO, FARLEY AND KURIGGE 



in black letters ; the fireplace was raised above the level 
of the floor, the mantel-piece and its supports of 
Totternhoe stone. Over the front entrance was inserted 
a carved oak panel with the letters, " W. H. 1609, J. H." 
I think the intials were those of William Howe and of 
his son John. William Howe married a daughter of 
John Crawley of Nether Crawley, and was one of John 
Crawley's executors. He was described in 1590 as of 
" Cowridge End." The fact of this marriage is not 
recorded in the Crawley pedigree, but is mentioned in 
the Crawley Papers. 

The old name Kuruge probably meant exactly what 
its modern equivalent means — the ridge of the cow, — 
though the farm-labourer of to-day refers to Cowridge 
End as " Scurge End." 

If the reader will refer to the map he will notice 
that Cowridge End, Round Green, Turner's Knoll, 
Mixes Hill, and Ramridge End are places contiguous 
to one another. At all these places, Palaeolithic and 
Neolithic implements have been found in considerable 
numbers; Roman coins have also been picked up, and 
on Turner's Knoll quantities of Romano-British pot- 
tery and some skeletons have been unearthed. I have, 
myself, unearthed on Turner's Knoll, considerable por- 
tions of a good-sized pot of Romano-British ware. My 
attention was directed to the situation by Mr. Evans, of 
Luton. But by far the most interesting finds were made 
by Mr. Worthington Smith, and were described by him 
in a paper read before the Society of Antiquaries of 
London. 21 Mr. Smith, when examining Mr. Mardle's 
brick-field at Round Green, at a depth of fourteen feet 
from the surface, found the site of a Palaeolithic pond. 
On the margin and around the pond he found innumer- 
able implements and flint-flakes showing that Palaeo- 
lithic man had found the flints and had manufactured 
tools and implements on the margin of this pond. Here 



21. Archaeologia, lxvii. 



KURIGGE 



115 



this ancient race of men had lived and worked for un- 
told ages, until a change in the climatic conditions 
brought down floods of water and sedimentary deposits 
which effectually covered and sealed up this workshop 
of Palaeolithic man to a depth of fourteen feet, only to 
be disturbed in our own time. 

Above these deposits implements made by Neo- 
lithic men and the remains of British and later times 
are to be found. 

It is a long step from the Great Glacial Epoch to 
the transaction between Juliana Balle and William de 
Kurigge in A.D. 12 19. But in Cowridge End, Luton, 
we have an exceedingly ancient historical locality on 
the borders of a manufacturing town commonly regarded 
as a place of mushroom-growth and of uninteresting 
modernity. 



MUNITIONS IN 1224. 



BY G. HERBERT FOWLER. 

While the noise of war still echoes in our ears, the 
following records will have some interest. They relate 
to the siege of Bedford Castle, of which a lively descrip- 
tion from the pen of Mr. A. R. Goddard was published 
by the Bedford Arts Club in 1906. The Letters Close 
have been already printed in contracted Latin by the 
Record Commission (Rot. Litt. Claus., i., pp. 605-618), 
and the text is therefore not reprinted here. The extracts 
from the Pipe Roll have not been printed in any form, 
and therefore appear both in Latin and English. 

The working of the siege artillery, the engines used 
for hurling stones or quarells, may be read at length in 
Sir R. Payne-Gallwey's " Projectile-Throwing En- 
gines " (Lond. 1907 4to.). They were (1) the Mangonell ; 
this probably resembled the Roman catapult, in which the 
butt end of a beam passed vertically between tightly 
twisted ropes ; the free end of the beam was then hauled 
down by windlass to the horizontal, thus twisting the 
ropes still more tightly; on its release the detorsion of 
the ropes brought it violently again to the vertical, flinging 
a stone from a sling of oxhide or horsehide (No. 15) at- 
tached to the free end ; (2) the Balista, which resembled 
a gigantic crossbow; in this, two shorter beams were 
passed similarly between twisted ropes, but horizontally ; 
cords from their free ends met in a central sling ; this was 
hauled back by a winch horizontally against the twist of 
the ropes, and on release flung a stone or javelin by the 
sudden detorsion ; (3) the Petrary or Trebuchet ; this con- 
sisted of a vertical beam, swinging on an axle which 
divided it into a short thick lever and a long thin lever ; 



118 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



the former was nearest to the ground, and carried a huge 
receptacle of wood and metal which could be filled with 
stones or earth ; the long lever was drawn down by wind- 
lass to a horizontal position, the short end with the re- 
ceptacle rising at the same time ; when the long lever was 
released with a missile in the sling on its end, the counter 
poise on the short lever brought the whole rapidly to the 
vertical, and flung the projectile. 

To these engines seem to have belonged the targets 
(targie), screens for the protection of the artillerymen, of 
wood armoured with hide (No. 10). The ropes and cables 
commanded were mainly for the motive power of the en- 
gines (No. 12). The quarells were arrow-like javelins, 
the heads four-sided in section; they (No. 29) were 
barbed (inflecheati) and winged (impennati); in the case 
of the heavier forms the wings were probably of leather. 
The greater number of these were probably for the use 
of the crossbow men, the bow being strung by one foot 
(ad unum pedem) or by two feet (ad duos pedes) accord- 
ing to size (No. 7) ; but the heaviest forms could be thrown 
by a Balista. The crossbows themselves do not appear 
in the indents for munitions, unless they are included 
under the general term of arms (hernesium). The planks 
were for the use of the numerous carpenters, required to 
build the belfry, a great tower for archers and crossbow 
men (No. 45); to form the " tortoise " under cover of 
which the miners approached the walls ; and to shore up 
the walls when partly undermined (No. 41). The quar- 
riers (= squarers) and stone-cutters shaped the stone 
projectiles (No. 16). The charcoal was doubtless for the 
forges of smiths and armourers. The " good Gloucester 
iron " was probably the brown hematite of the Wye Val- 
ley, worked even in Roman time. The wax, which one 
requisition for 2 cwt. shows among the condiments drawn 
from household stores, was perhaps for candles; Mr. 
Goddard suggested that it was for dressing the ropes, but 
this would probably check the rapid detorsion desired. 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



119 



The King's personal requisitions for wine (in large 
quantities) oil and condiments have not been reproduced 
except when occurring in an account for munitions of 
war. The condiments however are interesting : — 
almonds, pepper, saffron, ginger, and cinnamon occur. 
The longer orders to the Barons of Exchequer, to credit 
various officials with moneys expended on the King's pre- 
cept, have been slightly recast, in order to enable costs 
to be seen clearly (Nos. 15, 17, 19, 26, 37, 39). 

CLOSE ROLL, 8 HEN. III., PT. 3. 

1. The King to the Sheriffs of London greeting. 
We command you that, as you love us. with all speed that 
you can, you send to Us to Bedford two or three cart 
loads of ropes, and 20 slings for mangonells and petra- 
ries, and targets and quarells as many as you can, and ten 
good cables, by well-armed men of the City of London ; 
and send with them to Us one of your clerks by whom 
We may send to you Our letters for allowance of the cost 
attached to this. Witness the King, at Neuport [Pag- 
nell], 20th June. 

2. The King to the Sheriffs of London greeting. 
We order you without delay, as soon as these letters have 
been seen, to cause to be made 200 picks, and to send 
them when made without delay to Us to Bedford. Also 
that you cause to be made by five or six smiths day and 
night quarells as many as you can without stay, and to 
send them to Us there with speed. And the cost incurred 
shall be reckoned to you at the Exchequer. Witness the 
King at Neuport, 20th June in the eighth year of Our 
reign. 

3. The King to the Sheriffs of London greeting. 
We command you without any delay to send to Us to 
Bedford by good and strong wagons and under safe and 
secure convoy Our pavillions and the pavillions of Our 
Justices at Our charges, and the cost incurred shall be 



120 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



reckoned to you at the Exchequer. Witness the King at 
Bedford, 21st June. 

4. Commanded to the Prior of Royston (de Cruce 
Roes') that without delay he cause to be delivered to the 
Sheriff of Essex and Hertfordshire all ropes which the 
lord King caused to be stored with him on His return 
from the army of Bytham,* to be conveyed to the lord 
King at the army of Bedford. [22nd June]. 

5. Henry by the Grace of God etc. to His Chamber- 
lain at London greeting. We order you to cause Nicho- 
las of Our chamber to have two hundredweight of wax 
to be conveyed to Us at Bedford, and it shall be reckoned 
to you at the Exchequer. [23rd June]. 

6. The King to the Sheriffs of London greeting. 
We order you, as soon as these letters are seen, to cause 
Our wax which Nicholas of Our Chamber will deliver 
to you for carriage, and Our arms (hernisium) which 
Walter de Brachel' our clerk will likewise deliver to you 
for carriage, to be carted under good and safe convoy to 
Us to Bedford, and the cost which you incur in that car- 
riage shall be reckoned to you at the Exchequer. [23rd 
June]. 

7. Commanded to Ralf Gernum that, of the quar- 
ells which are in his custody in Corfe Castle, he send to 
the Lord King to Bedford 12000 for one foot, and 3000 
for two feet, by Robert de Aundeley whom the lord King 
sends for them. [Same date]. 

8. The King to the Bailiffs of Cambridge greeting. 
We order you, as soon as these letters have been seen, 
to buy good ropes and good cables, as much as you can 
purchase, in the town of Cambridge, and cause them to 
be carted to Us to Bedford, and the cost, etc. [Same 
date]. 

9. The King to the Constable of Windsor greeting. 
We order you with all speed to cause Master Thomas 

* Revolt of William de Fortibus, Earl of Albemarle at Bytham, in 1221. 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



121 



carpenter and his fellow carpenters whom he will bring 
with him to Us to Bedford, to have horses to convey them 
with their gear there, so that they shall be able to travel 
to Us by day and by night as swiftly as may be and not 
tarry. And the cost, etc. [24th June]. 

10. The King to the Bailiffs of Northampton greet- 
ing. We command you without any delay to send to 
Us to Bedford under safe guard ten white oxen or horse 
hides, or ten or twelve tanned hides, to make slings for 
petraries and mangonells, and it shall be reckoned to you 
at the Exchequer. Also to cause to come thither to Us 
two hide-workers (sellatores) with their workmen and gear 
and nails and other necessaries of the kind, for armouring 
Our targets, and We will cause their wages to be paid 
to them when they shall have arrived. [Same date]. 

11. The King to the Sheriff of Huntingdonshire 
greeting. We order you that, as you love you and yours, 
as soon as these letters have been seen, with all the speed 
that you may, you cause Our ropes, which have come from 
the fairs of Hoiland* and are at Ramsey, to be carted in 
good and strong wagons and convoyed under safe guard 
to Us to Bedford by day and night, with the assistance 
which the Abbot of Ramsey will give you whom we have 
commanded to give assistance. And the cost etc. [25th 
June]. 

12. The King to the Sheriff of Dorset greeting. 
We order you, as soon as these letters have been seen, to 
buy ten pounds worth of ropes and without delay to cart 
them to Us to Bedford, for the use of Our mangonells 
and Our petraries. And the cost both for purchase and 
carriage, etc. [Same date]. 

13. The King to the Sheriffs of London greeting. 
We command you without delay to cause Hugh de Nevill 
to have good wagons for ten balistae and ten targets to 
be conveyed to Us to Bedford. That you also cause the 
same Hugh to have good twine (filum) to make ropes for 

* Probably the fairs of Boston and Spalding in the Parts of Holland. 



122 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



Our balistae, up to the amount of a half mark. And the 
cost, etc. [27th June]. That you send likewise by the 
same Hugh, of quarells as many as you can, to Us. 

14. The King to the Mayor and Sheriffs of London, 
greeting. We command you that, as soon as these letters 
have been seen, you send to Us to Bedford by day and 
night twenty pounds worth of ropes, and the. cost, etc. 
[Same date]. . 

15. The King to His Barons of Exchequer greet- 
ing. Credit to Our Sheriffs of London [the following 
moneys which they have paid on Our precept] : — 

li. s. d. 

Six score ropes sent to Us to Bedford ... 8 10 8 
Five great cables sent to Us there ... ... 2 12 o 

For their carriage to Bedford ... ... 6 8 

Four and a half pounds of tallow for Our 

engines ... ... ... ... 1 10 

Three pairs of traces [ ? nets] and six hurdles 
for the wagons which brought Our arms 
(hernesium) to Bedford ... ... 20 

Eight ox hides sent to us there to make slings 1 15 4 
Four horse hides sent to LTs there to make 

slings ... ... ... ... 52 

Four tools for sewing slings ... ... ... 4 

Four targets sent to Us there ... ... ... 120 

One great target sent to Us there ... ... 50 

Two horses hired for the use of Master Walter 
and of Master Simon, carpenters, to come 
to us to Bedford ... ... ... 30 

The expenses of the same carpenters at Bed- 
ford 3 41 

Two hundred picks sent to Us there ... ... 4 7 o 

Two thousand three hundred quarells sent to 

Us there ... ... ... ... 2 1 8 

A barrel and a cask for packing and loading 

the aforesaid quarrels and picks ... 9 
Their carriage and the expenses of their guard 3 o 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



123 



Loading eighteen casks of Our wine sent to Us 

there ... ... ... ... ... 46 

Carriage of the casks to Us there ... ... 1 16 o 

Repairing and hooping the casks ... ... 10 

Expenses of the guard of the casks ... ... 10 

[Same date]. 

16. The King to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire greet- 
ing. We order you without delay to cause to come to Us 
at Bedford at Our charges all the quarriers and stone- 
cutters of your jurisdiction, with levers, sledges, mallets, 
wedges, and other their necessary tools, to work stones 
for mangonells and petraries. And that you find them 
carts to bring their aforesaid tools, and their expenses 
as far as Bedford. And the cost, etc. [30th June]. 

In the same way is written to the Sheriff of North- 
amptonshire. 

17. The King to the Barons of Exchequer greet- 
ing. Credit to the Sheriffs of London [the following 
moneys which they have paid on Our precept] : — 

li. s. d. 

To the balistarii underwritten who have come 
from London to Us to Bedford, namely to 
each of them three shillings [the twenty 
names are given] ... ... ... 3 o o 

Four thousand quarells bought and sent to us 

to Bedford ... 3 6 8 

Two barrels for packing the said quarells and 

our money [ ?] ... ... ... ... 11 

Carriage of Our arms (hernesium) to Bedford 3 8 

A target sent to us to Bedford 50 

Expenses of their guard ... ... ... 10 

[Same date]. 

18. The King to his Barons of Exchequer greet- 
ing. Credit to Roger de Clifford, Constable of St. 
Briavel, the cost which he incurred for bringing thirty 
miners from Hereford to Bedford, for four days, namely 
for each of them two pence a day. Credit also to him 



124 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



the cost which he incurred for four men with four their 
horses bringing to Us there two thousand quarells on Our 
order, for four days, namely for each of them four pence 
a day. [ist July]. .1 

19. The King to his Barons of Exchequer greet- 
ing. Credit to the provosts of Lincoln [the moneys which 
they have paid on Our precept] : — 

li. s. d. 

In carriage of Our engines from Lincoln to 

Bedford 450 

[? Guard] In carrying them thither ... ... 10 

For ropes bought and sent to Us to Bedford 119 
For carriage of the same ropes ... ... 26 

For expenses of Master Henry carpenter in 

coming to Us from Lincoln to Bedford 6 8 
For expenses of five other carpenters who 

came to Us to Bedford 100 

[7th July]. 

20. The King to Hugh de Nevill greeting. We 
command you without delay to cause charcoal to be made 
in our forest of Wauberg for Our operations at Bedford. 
[Same date]. 

21. The King to the Bailiffs of Northampton 
greeting. We order you, as soon as these letters have 
been seen, to cause to come to Us at Bedford twelve good 
white hides and eight qther tanned hides, and the cost, 
etc. [9th July]. 

22. The King to His Bailiffs of Southampton 
greeting. We order you as soon as these letters have 
been seen to cause to come to Us at Bedford, two wagons 
of good Gloucester iron for our operation at Bedford, 
and the cost, etc. [nth July]. 

23. The King to his Bailiffs of Southampton, greet- 
ing. We command you that without any delay you cause 
to come to Us to Bedford the remainder of the ten pounds 
worth of ropes whereof we have elsewhere commanded 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 125 

you, and besides that remainder that you send to us there 
a hundred shillings worth of ropes with all the speed that 
you may, and it shall be reckoned etc. [15th July]. 

24. The King to His Bailiffs of Northampton 
i greeting. We order you as soon as these letters have 
been seen to cause to come to Us at Bedford two wagons 
of good Gloucester iron, and it shall be reckoned, etc. 

I [17th July]. 

25. The King to His Bailiffs of Northampton, 
[ greeting. We order you as soon as these letters have 

been seen, with all the speed that you may, that you cause 
to be made a hundred good picks of good tough iron, well 
sharpened [tempered ?], and that you send them swiftly 
to Us to Bedford. And it shall be reckoned, etc. [18th 

July]. 

26. The King to His Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing. Credit to the Sheriff of Northamptonshire 22s. iod. 
moneys laid out on Our precept] : — 

li. s. d. 

For 182 ropes bought at the fair of St. Botulf 

and sent to Us to Bedford ... ... 6 2 4 

For carriage of the same ropes from St. 

Botulf [Boston] to Bedford 70 

For carriage of fifty casks of wine from St. 

Botulf to St. Ives 190 

[19th July]. 

27. The King to His Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing. Credit to the Sheriff of Northamptonshire 22s. iod. 
which he paid for three hundred and ten planks bought 
for the use of the lord King on His precept, and 5s. 6d. 
which he paid for the carriage of the same planks to Bed- 
ford. [21st July]. 

28. The King to His Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing Credit to the Sheriff of Northamptonshire 17s. 6d. 
which he paid for the carriage of Our engines from Nor- 
thampton to Bedford .... [23rd July]. 



126 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



29. The King to His Bailiffs of Northampton, 
greeting. We command you that as you love Us and 
Our honour, as soon as these letters have been seen, that 
you cause to be made both by day and by night, by all 
the smiths of the Town of Northampton who are skilled 
in the art of making quarells, four thousand quarells, and 
that you cause them to be well barbed (inflecheari) and 
winged (inpennari), and that you send them to Us with 
all speed to Bedford. And the cost [etc.]. After the 
same manner is written to the Bailiffs of Oxford for six 
thousand quarells, and to the Sheriffs of London for ten 
thousand quarells. [24th July]. 

30. The King to His Bailiffs of Northampton, 
greeting. We order you that, as soon as these letters 
have been seen, you cause to come both by day and by 
night to Us at Bedford twenty sheaves of good steel and 
a load of good Gloucester iron, and six loads of planks, 
and twelve white hides and eight tanned hides. And the 
cost, etc. [25th July]. 

31. The King to the Sheriffs of London, greeting. 
We order you without delay that you cause to be found 
for William de Haverhull, Our Clerk, carriage for Our 
arms, which We have ordered to be delivered to him for 
carting to Bedford. And the cost [etc.]. [26th July]. 

32. The King to his Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing. Credit to the Bailiffs of Northampton 14s. yd. which 
they have paid on Our precept and on inspection by true 
and lawful men, for 103 planks bought and sent to Us 
to Bedford, and 4od. which they paid on Our precept for 
the carriage of the same planks to Bedford. [3rd August]. 

33. The King to the Bailiffs of Northampton, 
greeting. We order you that, as soon as these letters have 
been seen, you cause to be made both by day and by night 
fifty good and strong picks, and that you cause them to 
be sent to Us to Bedford. And the cost, etc. [5th 
August]. 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



127 



34. The King to the Sheriffs of London, greeting. 
We order you that you cause Godfrey de Crawecumb to 
have for Our use two hundredweight of wax, and 100 lbs. 
of almond, 20 lbs. of pepper, and two pounds of saffron, 
and that you cause them all to be carted to Bedford to- 
gether with our arms (hernesio) which We have ordered 
to be delivered to the same Godfrey. And the cost, etc. 
[7th August]. 

35. The King to the Bailiffs of Northampton, 
greeting. We order you that, as soon as these letters have 
been seen, you send to us to Bedford ten white hides. 
And it shall be reckoned, etc. [Same date]. 

36. The King to the Bailiffs of Northampton, 
greeting. We order you that without delay you send to 
us to Bedford fifty picks, good and well sharpened [tem- 
pered ?]. And the cost, etc. [10th August]. 

[The Castle was surrendered on August 14th]. 

37. The King to the Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing. Credit to the Sheriff of Oxfordshire [the following 
moneys laid out on Our precept] : — 

li. s. d. 

For ropes sent to Us from Oxford to Bedford 264 
For two tanned hides and five white hides sent 

from Oxford to Us to Bedford ... 14 4 

For carriage of mangonells and the said ropes 

for mangonells to Bedford ... ... 1 5 to 

Expenses of their guard to Bedford ... 30 

[1 8th August]. 

38. Commanded to the Constable of the Castle of 
Northampton that he receive from the Bailiffs of Nor- 
thampton 900 quarells which remained with them out of 
the 4000 quarells which the lord King ordered them to 
make, and that he store them safely in the Castle of Nor- 
thampton. Witness the King at Dunstable, 20th August. 
And it is ordered to the Bailiffs that they cause them to 
be delivered. 



128 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



39. The King to His Barons of Exchequer, greet- 
ing. Credit to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire [the following! 
moneys laid out on Our precept] : — 

For iron bought for our operations in the siege 

of Bedford Castle 1 19 10 

For charcoal bought for the same operations 9 111 
Wages of the smiths there working ... ... 80 

Repair of Biddenham Bridge ... ... 40 

Witness the King at Dunstable, 20th August. 

40. The King to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire greet- 
ing. We order you that you cause Our petraries and 
mangonells and belfry, which on Our departure from 
Bedford We left behind us, to be disjointed and carried 
to Northampton, and delivered to the Sheriff of Nor- 
thamptonshire whom we have ordered by letters which 
we send you to receive the machines at your hands, and 
to cause you to have from his county all assistance that 
he can. And the cost, etc. [19th August]. 

41. The King to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire, greet- 
ing. We order you that you cause John de Standon our 
miner, for as long as he shall have been at the under- 
mining of the walls of Bedford Castle on Our precept, 
to have for each day five pence for his wage; and each 
of his three fellows, for as long as they shall have been 
at the same undermining with him on Our precept, to have 
for each day four pence halfpenny, and the cost which 
you incur for this, together with the cost which you incur 
for the carpenters who stanchioned the said walls when 
undermined, on the inspection and testimony of lawful 
men shall be reckoned to you at the Exchequer. [19th 
August]. 

42. The King to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire, greet- 
ing. We command you that you cause to be delivered 
to Gilbert de Greinville all quarells which have remained 
in Bedford Castle, and that you find carriage for them to 
London. And the cost, etc. Witness the King at St. 
Alban's, 21st August. 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



129 



43. The King to the Barons of Exchequer, greeting. 
Credit to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire 13s. 4d. which he 
paid to two Our miners at Bedford on Our precept, namely 
to Arnulf the miner 6s. 8d., and to William son of Lambert 
6s. 8d. And credit to him 10s. which he paid to two in- 
valided miners on Our precept, namely to Roger de 
Cambridge 5s., and to Adam Brown 5s. Witness the 
King at London, 22nd August. 

44. The King to the Sheriff of Bedfordshire, greet- 
ing. We order you that you cause Nicholas de Camera 
and his fellows who are with him at Bedford to have 
wagons to carry to London Our arms and all our gear 
which are in their custody at Bedford, and the cost, etc. 
Witness the King at Bedford, 31st August. 

rot. pip. 68 bed' et buk'. 

45. Et pro ferro empto ad operaciones Regis in 
obsidione castri de Bedeford' et pro carbone empto ad 
predictas operaciones et in stipendiis fabrorum ibidem 
fabricantium lvij s. ix d. per breue Regis Et in repara- 
cione pontis de Bideham iiijs. per idem breue Et Arnulf o 
mineatori et Willelmo filio Lamberti mineatori j marc per 
breue eiusdem Et Rogero de Cantabr' et Ade Bruno 
mineatoribus Regis infirmis x s. per idem breue Et in 
liberacione Johannis de Standon' mineatoris qui habuit 
per diem v d. et iij sociorum suorum mineatorum quorum 
quilibet quilibet [sic] habuit per diem iiij d. et ob. a die 
Lune proxima post festum sancti Mathei apostoli usque 
in vigiliam sanctorum apostolorum Simonis et Jude 
scilicet per xxxv dies utraque die computata liijs et xj d. 
et ob. per breue Regis. Et in custo posito in pluribus 
carpentariis muros castri de Bedeford' minatos stancion- 
antibus lxxviij s. et ij d. et ob. per idem breue et per 
uisum Simonis Brodege et Roberti nepotis Et in carriagio 
quarellorum qui remanserunt in castro de Bedeford' 
liberatorum Gilleberto de GraenuuT et missorum usque 



130 MUNITIONS IN 1224 

Londinium j m. per breue Regis Et in carriagio hern- 
agii Regis et aliarum rerum suarum que remanserunt apud| 
Bedeford' liberatarum Nicholao de Camera et sociis: 
suis missarum usque Londinium vj s. et vj d. per breue , 
eiusdem et per uisum predictorum Et in disiunctura 
petrariarum et mangonellorum et Berefrid qui remanser- 
unt in recessu Regis et in carriagio eorum usque Nor- 1 
hant' c et xvj s. et ij d. per breue eiusdem Et pro iudicioi 
faciendo v s. 

rot. pip. 69 bed' et buk\ 

46. Et in carriagio ccc et vij baconum a Bedef'' 
usque Oxon' contra Natale anno ix Regis et liberate 
Ricardo de Ripariis constabulario castri Oxon' xxj s. et 
vj d. per breue Regis Et in carriagio cabulorum et. 
cordarum et aliarum munitarum rerum et instrumentorum | 
pertinencium ad petrarias et mangonellos et balistas a 
Bedeford' usque turrim Lond' et liberatorum Johanni de 
Bouill' tunc constabulario turris lxxij s. vj d. per idem 
breue Et in operacione cuiusdam gaiole facte apudj 
Bedef xij li. et xix s. et x d. per breue eiusdem et peri 
uisum Thome Bascot et Roberti fratris sui Et in opera- 
cione cuiusdam gaiole facte apud Ailesbir' viij li. et iiij. s. 
et viij d. per idem breue et per uisum Stephani broc et 
Henrici de Ie Et pro iusticia facienda v s. et vj d. 

EXTRACT FROM PIPE ROLL 68, BEDS. AND BUCKS. 

45.* And for iron bought for the operations of the 
King in the siege of Bedford Castle, and for charcoal 
bought for the said operations and in wages of smiths 
working there — by the King's writ 57s. 9d. 

And" in repairs to the Bridge of Biddenham — by the 
same 4 s - od. 

And to Arnulf the miner, and to William son of' 
Lambert the miner by his writ 13s. 4°"- 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



131 



And to Roger de Cambridge and Adam Brown, in- 
valided miners of the King — by the same writ... ios. od^ 

And in payment of John de Standon miner, who had 
5d. a day, and of three his fellow miners of whom each 
had 4^d. a day, from Monday next after the Feast of St. 
Matthew the Apostle [23 September] up to the Vigil of 
the holy Apostles Simon and Jude [27 October] namely 
for 35 days both days reckoned — by the King's writ...... 

53s. 1 i±d. 

And in cost incurred for several carpenters, shoring 
the undermined walls of Bedford Castle — by the same 
writ and by the inspection of Simon Brodege and Robert 
[? his] nephew 78s. 2^cL 

And in carriage of quarells which remained in Bed- 
ford Castle delivered to Gilbert de Grenvillo and sent to 
London — by the King's writ 13s. 4d. 

And in carriage of the King's arms and other his 
gear which remained at Bedford, delivered to Nicholas 
de Camera and his fellows, sent to London — by the 
King's writ and on their inspection 6s. 6d. 

And in dismantling the petraries and mangonells 
and belfry which remained on the King's departure, and 
in their carriage to Northampton — by His writ 11 6s. 2d. 

And for doing judgment 5s. od. 

EXTRACT FROM PIPE ROLL 69, BEDS. AND BUCKS. 

46.* And in carriage of 307 [ ? flitches of] bacon from 
Bedford to Oxford, against Christmas in the tenth year 
of the King [1225], and delivered to Richard de Rivers, 
Constable of Oxford Castle — by the King's writ 21s. 6d. 

And in carriage of cables and ropes and other muni- 
tions, and gear belonging to the petraries and mangonells 
and balistae, from Bedford to the Tower of London, and 
delivered to John de Boville then Constable of the Tower 
— by the same writ 72s. 6d. 



132 



MUNITIONS IN 1224 



And in work on a certain jail made at Bedford — by 
writ of the same and on inspection by Thomas Bascot 
and Robert his brother 12 li. 19s. iod. 

And in work on a certain jail made at Aylesbury — 
by the same writ and on inspection by Stephen Croc and 
Henry de Je 8 li. 4s. 8d. 

And for doing justice 55. 6d. 



THE BEGHER FAMILY 
OF HOWBURY. 



BY F. A. PAGE TURNER. 
I. 

" Henry Bechar of Bishops Morchard in com. 
Deuon gent. 1564 yongest of eleuen sons, and was heire 
to all their lands wch they had in gauel kind in Kent." 
Thus commences the pedigree of this family as recorded 
in the Herald's Visitation of the county of Beds, taken 
in the year 1634. He married, for his first wife, Alice, d. 
of Thomas Heron or Heme of Edgecombe House, Croy- 
don, and by her had issue ten children as under : — 

(1.) Henry, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) Edward, Esquire of the body of Queen Eliza- 
beth, born in the parish of All Hallows, Bread 
Street, London; admitted of Lincoln's Inn 10 
Feb. 1595-6. He married, at St. Lawrence 
Jewry [Bp. of London's Lie. dated 5 Oct. 1580] 
Frances Brooke, only d. of William, Lord 
Cobham, born at Cobham Hall 12 Jan. 1 561-2, 
twin with her sister Elizabeth, and widow of 
Thomas Coppinger of Davington, co. Kent. 

(3.) Fane, Phane or Vane married 12 May 1572, 
Susan, d. of George Dabridgecourt of Stratfield 
Say, co. Hants. By his Will, dated 26 Sep. 
1592, wherein he is described as Phane Beecher 
late of the parish of St. Olave, Silver Street, 
London, he gives to his wife Susan all his 
worldly goods, his debts being first fully dis- 
charged. As to his lands in Ireland, he wills 



BBCHBR OF HOWBURY 

that they be sold by his brother William Becher 
and the money thereof made to augment unto 
his said wife, if his goods and chattells shall 
not amount thereunto, the sum of ^500 or so 
much as may purchase an annuity of ^50 dur- 
ing her life and the life of his son Phane Becher 
or the longer liver of the two, the residue to be 
divided among his other children at the discre- 
tion of his brother William whom he appoints 
executor. Proved 17 Jan. 1592-3 by the above 
named executor [P.C.C. Nevell 3 Probate Act 
Book]. Phane Becher, the s. of this Phane, ap- 
pears to have followed a military career, for in 
his Will, made at Drogheda and dated 21 Sep. 
1649, he is described as Quarter Master General 
of all the Forces raised under the command of 
His Excellency the Lord Lieut, of Ireland. His 
wife Susanna was chief beneficiary under the 
Will which was filed in the Bristol D.P.R., but 
no Act is endorsed. 

William, under age in 1568. Admitted of the 
Inner Temple 1597. He married Judith, d. of 
John Quarles of London [Bishop of London's 
Lie. dated 12 Apr. 1578]; he therein described 
as of Old Jewry, and she of Islington, spr., at 
Islington ; and by her had issue a s. Sir William, 
Clerk of the Council. 

Bartholomew, under age in 1568. 

Elizabeth, wife of Clement Kelk [brother of 
Thomas Kelke, merchant and alderman of 
Bristol] of London, to whom married 6 Oct. 1560 
at St. Christopher-le-Stocks. 

Mary, wife of Chidiock Wardour, married at 
St. Christopher-le-Stocks 4 Sep. 1569 ; they had 
a s. Sir Edward Wardour, Knt. 



HENRY BBCHER : I. 



135 



(3.) Margaret, wife of Sir Thomas Dabridgecourt 
of Stratfield Say, Knt. ; married 23 Jul. 1 57 1 at 
Stratfield Say. He died 3 Nov. 1614 and she 
died 29 Oct. 1 62 1 leaving issue three sons and 
two daughters. 

(4.) Mabel, wife to Sir Richard Norton of Tisted, 
co. Hants, Knt. 

(5.) Dorothy. 

Henry Becher, father of the above, was Sheriff of 
London 1569-70. He married — as his second wife — Jane, 
widow of Oliver Lovibond of London. (Marriage Articles 
dated 5 May 1568). By his Will, dated 19 June 1568, 
he desires to be buried in the parish church of St. Christo- 
pher near the Stocks, being the parish wherein he now 
dwells, in the vault where the body of Alice, his late wife, 
was buried. One third of his goods to Jane his wife, 
another third to his sons Henry, Edward, Vane, William 
and Bartholomew and to Margaret and Mabel his daugh- 
ters. His eldest s. Henry to have the use of three of his 
youngest children's portions during their minorities, but 
his overseers shall have the disposition of the remaining 
portions of his children under age or unmarried. 

Recites that he by Indenture dated 5 May 1577 made 
between him. Sir Nicholas Heron of Edgcombe in the 
parish of Croydon, co. Surrey, Knt., Thomas Aldersey, 
citizen and haberdasher of London, and William Bankes 
of the same city, skinner, of the one part — and the said 
Jane then being widow and now his wife, Thomas Yale, 
doctor of the Law, and Edward Jones, citizen and mer- 
chant tailor of the City of London of the other part, for the 
payment of 1000 marks to the said Jane, his wife, he the 
said Henry Becher does make account that the said Jane 
shall not demand the third part aforesaid. He wills that 
twelve sermons be preached for him in the parish church 
of St. Christopher aforesaid, and he gives to the preacher 
£6, and to the poorest men of the said parish and of the 



136 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



parishes of St. Bartholomew the Little, St. Swithin Lon- 
don Stone, and St. Mildred in the Poultry, 40 gowns ; and 
20 similar gowns to the poor householders in Penshurst, 
Chedingston, and Lye, co. Kent, near to Tunbridge, chat 
shall be delivered ready made by the appointment of 
Richard Becher eldest s. of his late brother James Becher 
of Penshurst, deceased, and of John and James Becher, 
brothers of the said Richard. 

To every poor householder in the said parishes of 
St. Christopher, St. Swithin, St. Mildred Poultry, and 
St. Bartholomew. 2s. except those receiving the gowns. To 
every poor householder in Penshurst, Chedington, and 
Lye aforesaid, to whom no gown is given I2d. To the 
prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, Marshalsey and King's 
Bench ioli. 8s. for bread; and to the prisoners in the two 
Cumpters 5H. 4s. Bequests to the poor of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital Christ Church, and St. Thomas' Hos- 
pital in Southwark. To every of his godchildren 6s. 8d. 
To 200 poor householders in London 2s. apiece. To 
Elizabeth his d., now wife of Clement Kelkithe 400H. 
To the widow of his late brother James Becher of Pens- 
hurst 5H. ; and to each of the children of his said late 
brother ioli. To each of the children of his brother 
Richard Becher, sometime of Shorne, co. Kent, 20 nobles. 
To each of the children of his sister Joan Campe of 
Shoram, baker, also deceased, 20 nobles. To William 
Bankes, skinner, a black gown, and also to his wife. To 
each of the children of Thomas Becher, late of Tonbridge, 
who was brother to Cuthbert Becher, sometime of Lon- 
don, draper, 40s. To the wife of the said Thomas, if 
she be living, 40s. To the Company of Haberdashers, 
for a dinner, 20 marks and also three dozen silver spoons 
to be marked on the heads with the letters " HB," price 
24H., for the use of the Company at the Hall. To the 
yeomanry of the same Company, towards their dinner 
commonly kept in August, 5 marks. To Thomas Colly- 
more, late his servant, 20 nobles and a black gown. To 



HENRY BECHER: I. 



137 



them two that shalbe then his chyfe doers and have the 
chyfe charges of his bookes of Accomptes in Andwerpe 
and London 2oli., on condition they render up their ac- 
counts justly. To Thomas Webbe, his apprentice, 20 
nobles, upon like condition. To every his other appren- 
tices 3I1. 6s. 8d. To William Westbrooke, his old servant 
5H. To every his other servants, 20s. apiece. To his 
d. Dorothy's nurse 20s. To her who nursed his two sons 
Henry and Edward, called Bradley, 40s. To Nurse 
Fuller's wife, 20s. To Young Dyssett's wife, sometime 
his maid servant, 40s. To John Kelk, haberdasher, 61i. 
13s. 4d. and a black gown, and to his wife a black gown. 

Recites that his tenant, John Collins, of South- 
wealde, co. Essex, had lately mortgaged to him certain 
lands, &c, for 40 li. and more, and hath forfeited the 
same; he, testator, gives to the said John Collins 13 li. 
6s. 8d. so that his, testator's, heirs may quietly enjoy the 
same, else this legacy shall be void. To every of the 
following persons a ring of 40s. value engraved with the 
words " T)ye to lyve HB " : — The Lord Mayor; the 
Recorder; Sir William Damsell, Knt. ; brother-in-law Sir 
Nicholas Heron, Knt.; brother-in-law George Butler; 
sister-in-law, Jane Broun; Mr. John Foster of Braddes- 
ley, co. Southampton, esquire ; Sir John White, Knt. and 
Alderman of London ; William Fleetwoode of the Middle 
Temple, Esquire ; Thomas Wilbraham of Lincoln's Inn, 
gent.; Lord Mountjoy; John Smith, armourer; Thomas 
Kelke of Brystowe; John Taylor, haberdasher; Francys 
Warren; and to every of his (testator's) children, sonnes, 
and to Henry Dale. To poor householders of Brentwood 
and Southwealde co. Essex, 5 marks at the discretion of 
Robert Wright of Southwealde or of John his son. To 
the poorest householders of Croydon, co. Surrey, 5 marks. 
To Mistress Carvyll, late of Southwealde aforesaid, the 
late Vicar's wife there, 40s. To the maintenance of a 
scholar out of the new erected hospital of Christ Church, 
London, that shall be most apteste in the studye of dyvyni- 



138 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



tie within one of the universities of Cambridge or Oxford, 
20 li., 4 li. yearly. To his wife Joan, 300 marks. Resi- 
duary legatees, sons Henry, Vane, William and Bartholo- 
mew; and daughters Mary, Margaret, and Mabel. 
Executors, — sons as last above named; Overseers, Sir 
William Garrarde, Knt. and Alderman of London, Mr. 
William Allen, Alderman of London; son-in-law, 
Clement Kelk; Thomas Aldersey, haberdasher; to each 
of whom he gives 10 li. and a ring of gold. 

(Signed) — Harrye Becher. 

Codicil, dated 8 Dec. 1570 — As to the payment of 
1000 li. to Joan his wife, Desires that Henry his son shall 
make to his said wife Jane sufficient estate of all his lord- 
ships and manors of Hunspill, Marrys and Breame, co. 
Somerset for the term of her life. Recites that whereas 
by his last Will he gave to Mary his daughter, now wife 
of Chadyocke Wardure, part of his goods, and whereas 
he had settled certain money upon her at the time of her 
marriage, he now gives her 400 li., and she shall therefor 
make no further claim upon his goods. To his servant 
and late apprentice, Thomas Webbe, 5 li. ; and to his late 
wife's sister Jane Browne, now wife of William Browne, 
10 li. To John Harte, now his cook, 5 li. at the end of 
his apprenticeship. To Edward Becher, his son, 200 li. 
above his portion. To his d. Elizabeth, now wife of 
Clement Kelke, haberdasher, a basin and ewer of silver. 
To Lady Heron of Edgecombe ; to Mr. Alderman Barne- 
ham and his wife; to John Riche, grocer, and his wife; 
to Rowland Elvington, Isaacke Taylor and Nicholas 
Evett late his servants, a black gown and a ring each. He 
desires his cousin Martyn Caltrop, draper, to be assistant 
to his executors; appoints him overseer with his other 
friends, and to have a similar bequest as they have. The 
deeds he delivered to Sir William Garrard concerning 
lands devised to his (testator's) sons Vane, William and 
Bartholomew, to remain in his custody during the minority 



HENRY BECHER: I. 



139 



of his said sons ; or in the event of his death, then in the 
custody of Mr. Aldersey. He wills his son Henry to 
keep house together with his wife and son Wardure and 
with all the rest of his children. Recites that whereas 
it was agreed his wife should have the new house at the 
backside of his mansion, for her dwelling after his de- 
cease, either she or his son Wardure shall have convenient 
dwelling in his said mansion. To Robert Gittens, his now 
wife's brother, 10 li. He names as his chief doers, for 
beyond the seas, Robert Thorneton and Joyles Bain- 
brydge. To John Kelk's widow, the legacy given him 
under his said Will towards the maintenance of his chil- 
dren. To Philip Cokeram, mercer, and to his wife, a black 
gown and a ring each. The testator further gave his wife a 
basin and ewer of silver with his arms upon it, and a 
standing cup which the Earl of Southampton gave his 
said wife ; and he also forgave Thomas Wilkes, grocer, 
10 li. of the 35 li. which the said Wilkes owed him. To 
his servant Ellen Robynson, 5 marks; and to Thomas 
Webbe, 20 li. for his service since his freedom. 

(Signed) — Henry Becher. 

Witnesses : — Francis Kydd, Thomas Basford, 
Thomas Wilkes. 

Pr. 3 Feb. 15 70-1, by Henry and Vane Becher, 
executors named in the Will, with power reserved to Wil- 
liam and Bartholomew Becher now minors. Henry 
Becher was buried at St. Christopher-le-Stocks, 29 Jan. 
1 5 70- 1 , and his Inquisition post mortem held at the Guild- 
hall on the 18 Apr. 1 5 7 1 , was of the following tenor. 
It was found that Henry Becher, citizen and Alderman of 
London, was seised in his demesne as of fee of 1 capital 
messuage or mansion house situate in the parish of St. 
Christopher in the City of London, and of divers messu- 
ages, etc., in the said parish and in the parishes of St. 
Bartholomew the little, St. Margaret Moyses and St. 
Nicholas Colde Abbey; and also of certain manors and 



140 BECHER OF HOWBURY 

lordships, &c, in the counties or shires of Somerset, 
Gloucester, Wilts, Devon, Surrey, Lines., Sussex, Essex 
and Kent. That Henry Becher his s. and h. was then 
aged 26 and more. That he entailed certain estates 
in tail male upon his said s. Henry and his heirs male, and 
in default then upon his other sons, Vane, William and 
Bartholomew in succession. The said Henry Becher 
died in London in the said parish of St. Christopher on 
the 15th Jan. [1 570-1] last past. — He was succeeded by 
his eldest son. In the church of St. Christopher-le- 
Stocks is the following inscription to his memory. 

" Here lie the Bodies of henry beecher, Alderman and 
late Sheriff of London ; and of alice, his first Wife, one 
of the Daughters to thomas heron of Edgecomb in the 
County of Surry, Esquire, by whom he had ten Children, 
After whose decease he married with jane the widow of 
Oliver lovebond, of London, Gent, with whom he lived 
three Years, and died the 15th Day of January, Anno 
Dom. 1570." 



II. 

Henry Becher, of London, and Fotheringay, 
Northants, born circa 1555, Alderman of Broad Street 
Ward 1570, Sheriff of London 1569-70. He married at 
St. Christopher-le-Stocks 16 May 1566, Judeth, d. and 
sole heir of John Riche of London, gent., Apothecary to 
Q. Elizabeth, s. and h. of Thomas Riche of Marston- 
Morteyne, co. Beds. ; and by her had issue as under : — 

(1.) William, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) Edward, of Peterborough and Longthorpe. 

(3.) George, of Clavering, co. Essex. 

(1.) Jane, bapt. at St. Christopher-le-Stocks, 23 
Nov. 1572, and there bur. 16 Aug. 1575. 

(2.) Dorothy, bapt. at Southill, co. Beds., 25 Oct. 
1590; wife of George Kympton of Weston, co. 



HENRY BEGHER: II. 



141 



Herts., to whom mar. at Fotheringay 27 Nov. 
1610. 

Elizabeth, second wife of Thomas Anscell 
[bapt. 29 Jan. 1568-9, bur. 29 Aug. 1623] of 
Great Barford, co. Beds. ; to whom mar. at 
Fotheringay, 17 Aug. 1602. She was bur. at 
Great Barford, 19 Sep. 1652. By her Will, 
dated 11 Apr. 1651, she bequeathed her lease 
of the parsonage and glebe land of Barford, of 
which her son Thomas Anscell is lessee with 
her from the Master and Fellows of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, to her said son Thomas, 
after her decease; and after his decease to his 
wife as her jointure, paying unto her d. Marie, 
20 marks yearly. Recites that whereas her son- 
in-law, Thomas Cokayne of Shingey, co. 
Cambs., did, by Indenture of Feoffment dated 
30 June. 1645, grant unto her a messuage, &c, 
called the Old House Close in Tadlow, co. 
Cambs., she bequeaths the same to her d. Marie 
Anscell and her heirs for ever. To Marie An- 
scell her grandchild, the d. of her s. Henry ; to 
her cousin Thomas Carter, s. of her cousin 
Thomas Carter, deceased; to Thomas Malcott, 
s. of her cousin Elizabeth Malcott; to her sister, 
Elizabeth, Lady Becher; her brother Edward 
Becher; and her sister Kimpton; sundry be- 
quests. Residue to d. Marie Anscell whom she 
appoints sole executrix. Son Thomas Anscell 
and cousin Thomas Carter to be overseers. 
Witnesses : — William Yarway, Jo. Browne, 
William Peacock. Codicil dated 16 Sep. 1652 
in the presence of John Beaumont and Thomas 
Carter, gentlemen, and Elizabeth wife of 
Thomas Malcott. Pr. 7 May 1653 by the 
executrix [P.C.C. 44 Brent]. She was buried 
at Great Barford 19 Sep. 1652. 



142 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



(4.) Ursula, wife of Matthew Robinson, married at 
Fotheringay 26 Feb. 1608-9. 

It is recorded in the Ancestor, Vol. II., p. 175, that 
this Henry Becher and William, his son, sold a house in 
the parish of St. Christopher-le-Stocks, called the " Worm 
on the Hoop " to Peter Tryden, a deacon of the Dutch 
Church in London, in 1580, about which time he was 
dwelling in this house. 

Henry Becher was bur. at Fotheringay, 1 Jun. 1608, 
having made his Will the 23 Jan. 1606-7, of which the 
following is an abstract : — Forasmuch as Judeth my 
loving wife, out of her natural affection unto our sons 
Edward and George, hath heretofore been willing to 
assure to them for their better maintenance after her de- 
cease, all such lands, &c, as she had by inheritance from 
Master John Riche, her father, and whereas I have 
promised to leave unto her my manor house in Fothering- 
haie as it is now fully furnished, with all my stock of 
grain and cattle ; I do now bequeath the same to her on 
condition that she execute a good and sufficient convey- 
ance in the law to the said Edward and George of her 
inheritance as abovesaid. 

I give to the said Edward debts owing to me, viz : — 
^200 by one Thomas Smithe late of London, haber- 
dasher; and ^130 by one John Curtise, gent. To my 
s. George an annuity of £46 13s. 4d. out of certain lands 
in Kent now in the possession of one Henrie Finche, esq., 
which rent is payable for 16^ years from Lady Day next 
coming. If my s. die before that term be expired, half 
the rent shall remain to my daughters Ursula and 
Dorothy, and half to the children of my s. William 
Becher, my heir apparent, with the consent of Oliver, 
Lord St. John, of Bletsoe (whose d. the said William 
hath married) with whom I have covenanted that all my 
estate in Fotheringaie and all my lands, &c. in Somerset 
shall descend to the said William and his heirs, after the 
decease of my wife. Of the ^2,300 which my son-in-law, 



HENRY BECHER II. 



143 



Thomas Anscell, Esq., hath covenanted to pay me for the 
manor of Hounspell in co. Somerset, I give ,£400 to my 
s. Edward; £800 apiece to my daughters Ursula and 
Dorothy; and the other ^300, and such sums as my s. 
William doth owe me, shall be applied to the payment of 
my debts. To the said Thomas Anscell, and to my friends, 
Thomas Forde, esquier, and Thomas Ivot, merchant, I 
give a gold ring apiece, with a death's head. If either 
of my said daughters die unmarried, under age, my other 
daughter and my sons Edward and George shall be her 
heirs. I ordain my wife my executrix. 

(Signed) — Henry Becher. 

Witnesses : — William Becher, Philipp Baker, Tho. 
Aunscell, Edw. Becher. Pr. 1 5 Dec. 1608 by the executrix 
[P.C.C. 112 Windebanck]. 

Judith, widow of the above named Henry Becher, 
then living at Fotheringay made her Will 31 Apr. 161 3. 
She gave to the poor of Fotheringay 5 marks. At the 
request of her husband she had assured the reversion of 
her land of inheritance, after her death, to her two younger 
sons, Edward and George. Being minded to deal more 
liberally with her eldest s. William, whom she appoints 
sole executor, she leaves him one of her basins and a ewer 
of silver and also two gilt salts, one with a cover, 2 
trencher salts gilt, 10 gilt spoons with knobs, and 12 sil- 
ver plates with gilt rims. To son-in-law, Thomas An- 
scell, Esq., who m. Elizabeth, her eldest d. her other basin 
and ewer of silver. The rest of her plate to her other 
two daughters, Ursula Robinson and Dorothy Kimpton 
in equal shares. To her grandchildren in equal portions 
^80 in gold and £20 in ready money. To d. Anscell 
the crimson taffeta canopy and curtains with one great 
chair and 2 low chairs of plain velvet in the chamber over 
the parlor. To sons, Edward and George, £100 apiece. 
To daughters, Ursula and Dorothy, 100 marks apiece. 
To kinswomen Mary and Elizabeth Harvey £$ each. 



144 



BBGHER OF HOWBURY 



Bequests to servants. Residue to s. William Becher, sole 
executor. Witnesses : — Wm. Becher, Thos. Anscell. 

Pr. at Titchmarsh 7 Dec. 161 5 by the executor 
within named. [Peterborough Consistory Court and 
P.C.C. 92 Rudd]. She was buried at Fotheringay 4 Oct. 
1615. 

HI. 

Sir William Becher, of Fotheringay, Northants 
and Howbury Hall in the parish of Renhold, co. Beds., 
bapt. at St. Christopher-le-Stocks 12 Sep. 1574 was 
knighted at Kirby 27 Jul. 1619. It was this William who 
purchased the Howbury estate from the Gostwycke 
family about the year 1603, in which year he presented 
Henry Gale to the living of Renhold. He served the 
office of Sheriff for Beds., 1612-13. He m. at Southill, 
Beds., 25 Feb. 1594-5, Elizabeth, eldest d. of Oliver, 
Lord St. John of Bletsoe, and by her had issue 18 children 
as under : — 

(1.) Oliver, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) Henry, bapt. at Fotheringay 2 May 1602, who 
by Anne, his wife, had issue : — 
(1.) Edward, bapt. at St. John's, Peter- 
borough, 2 Dec. 1634. 

(1.) Mary, bapt. at Renhold, 7 Jan. 1635-6. 
(2.) Elizabeth, bapt. at Renhold 4 Mar. 1638-9, 

and two others whose baptisms I have not 

yet located. 

(3.) William, bapt. at Renhold 26 Jul. 1607, and 
there bur. 17 Nov. 1607. 

(4.) William, bapt. at Renhold 20 Nov. 1608. His 
godfather, Sir Alexander St. John, left him a 
legacy of £ 30. 

(5.) Edward, bapt. at Renhold 5 Aug. 1610. 



WILLIAM BEGHER : I 



145 



,) St. John, bapt. at Renhold 14 Nov. 161 1; m, 
Elizabeth. . . ., and by her had issue a s. St 
John, bapt. at St. Bartholomew-the-Less 7 
Jul. 1672, who had a legacy of £20 under the 
Will of John Hillersden, dat. 30 Mar. 1684. 
St. John, the father, was bur. at Renhold 17 
Mar. 1684-5. 

,) Francis, bapt. at Renhold, 29 May 1614; d. 
3 Jan., bur. 12 Jan. 1696-7. He had a legacy 
of £20 under the Will of Sir Alexander St. 
John, who d. in 1657. By his Will, dated 2 
Oct. 1695, he gives to his niece, Elizabeth, d. 
of Sir William Beecher, late of Reynold, 
knight, deceased all his real and personal 
estate, and appoints her sole executrix of his 
Will. The said Elizabeth to pay to George 
Beecher, her brother, whom he nominates 
overseer, £20. 

(Signed) — F. Beecher. 

Witnesses : — Anne Wills, William Marriott, 
Ger: Cobb. Pr. 26 Jan. 1696-7 [P.C.C. 3 
Pyne]. 

) Fanus, bapt. at Fotheringay, 21 Dec. 161 5. 

) Henry, bapt. at Fotheringay, 29 Jun. 1620 ; had 
a legacy of £ 20 under the Will of Sir Alexan- 
der St. John. I venture to suggest that this 
Henry may be identical with a Henry Becher of 
Weston, Herts, to whom marriage licences were 
issued, (1) to marry Barbara Nevy, spr., d. of 
.... Nevy alias Goddard; licence [F.O.] 
dated 5 Oct. 1650, he aged 24, she then aged 
about 20; (2) to marry Mrs. Elizabeth Rugg of 
St. Clement Danes, wid., licence [V.G.] dated 
10 Jul. 1 67 1, he being described as widower, 
aged about 35. The ages of the said Henry 
given in the two licences do not agree, the first 



BBCHBR OF HOWBURY 



age given putting the date of his birth in the 
year 1626, while the age recorded in the second 
licence would give his birth year as 1636, 
whereas he was bapt. at Fotheringay in 1620, 
i.e., assuming these two Henrys were identical. 
The second licence was however " alleged " 
by Oliver Becher of the Middle Temple, Esq., 
and the marriage was to take place at the Savoy. 
Henry Becher, of Weston would better have 
fitted in as a s. of Oliver Becher IV. rather than 
as his brother, and I am inclined to consider 
this a more satisfactory solution. Unfor- 
tunately Oliver Becher IV. does not appear to 
have left a Will, which might have afforded 
some clue. 

(10.) John, bapt. at Fotheringay, 9 May 1622. 

(11). Howard, mentioned in his father's Will. 

(1.) Ollife, bapt. at St. Christopher-le-Stocks, 23 
May 1596. 

(2.) Dorothy [twin with Judith next below], bapt. 
at Bletsoe, co. Beds., 15 Apr. 1600; m. at 
Fotheringay, 16 Jan. 1626-7, William Conyers, 
Sergeant-at-law, of Walthamstow, co. Essex. 
She d. 1659, he d. 1639. 

(3.) Judith, bapt. at Bletsoe, 15 Apr. 1600; and 
there bur. 5 Aug. 1600. 

(4.) Anne, bapt. at Renhold, 9 Oct. 1603; m. at 
Fotheringay, 26 Aug. 1624, Edmund Hardinge, 
of Aspley Guise, co. Beds., and was there bur. 10 
Aug. 1659. She had a legacy of £5 under the 
Will [dated 165 1] of Dame Sybilla St. John of 
Woodford, Northants. 

(5.) Elizabeth, bapt. at Renhold, 9 Mar. 1605-6. 

(6.) Judith, bapt. at Renhold, 29 Nov. 1612. 

(7.) Katherine, bapt. at Fotheringay, 23 Dec. 1618. 



WILLIAM BEGHER: I 



147 



Sir William Becher purchased the Howbury estate 
from the Gostwicke family, and apparently maintained 
two homes ; the other being at Fotheringay, where several 
of his children were born. He was buried at Renhold, 
22 Dec. 1640; and Elizabeth his wife was also there 
buried, 17 Sep. 1658. By his Will, dated 1 Nov. 1640, 
he desired to be bur. in Ronhall chancel, within the rails. 
He gave to his brothers Edward and George; his sisters 
Anscell, Robinson and Kempton, each a ring of 40s. with 
a death's head. To his butler, 40s. ; his coachman, 20s. ; 
and a like sum to his cook, bayly and chambermaid ; and 
to his other maid servants, 13s. 4d. apiece. To Kate 
Alleyne, 10s.; to the poor of Ronhall £% and to the 
Vicar of Ronhall 40s. To s. Henry, his wearing apparel, 
&c. To s. Oliver, his great seal ring, engraven in colours 
and all his books, &c, which concern him or his estate, ex- 
cept the papers concerning his wife's jointure; also 4 
acres of arable land, bought of Mr. John Ardys, beinge 
the 4 acres stand me in 29H. 10s. ; Salphoberie land, now 
in the occupation of John Smyth and William Richards ; 
also his 2>2 acres of arable land and leyes in Ronhall 
East Field, which I bought of Mr. Thomas Farclough 
of Weston, upon condition he pay my son Harry 40H. 
(these 2>2 acres stand him in 2ili. 10s.) but if he refuse 
to pay the 40H. then his gift of 7^ acres should be void. 
To s. Harry, 50H. on condition he provide a house for 
his wife and three of his children within three months of 
testator's decease. For his other two children, he will 
entreat his wife to take care of them. To s. William 40s. 
To s. St. John 50H. To s. Francis iooli. within one year 
after the expiration of his apprenticeship, and meantime 
he desires him to serve Journeyman. To his three 
youngest sons, Francis, Howard and John, 300IL apiece, 
so soon as it shall be raised out of his brother Edward's 
estate, and meantime they shall be maintained out of his 
personal estate till their ages of 24. To his three 
youngest daughters, Elizabeth, Judith and Catherine, 



148 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



300H. apiece, to be paid them so soon as his brother Ed- 
ward Beecher's land, now settled upon testator, shall be 
sold or that they shall marry. To daughters Conyers and 
Hardinge, 5H. apiece in gold. To d. Beecher, his s. Oliver's 
wife, a gold ring of 40s. To Elizabeth, his wife, a fifth 
part of all his bedsteads, &c, also the use of the lease 
of all vicarial tithes which shall hereafter issue out of her 
jointure, she paying yearly ioli. to Nathaniel Hill, clerk, 
now vicar of Ronhall. After her decease, he gives the 
remainder of the said lease to his s. Oliver, and after him 
to his eldest son. Recites that whereas his brother Ed- 
ward had settled upon him and his heirs his whole estate 
in land in England, and his annuity of £24. out of the 
lands of Sir John Rayney in Wrotham, which he values 
at ^2000, or thereabouts, and conceives that the same 
shall be sold, and the money arising therefrom to be 
divided among his 3 youngest sons and 3 youngest daugh- 
ters, he does willingly condescend thereunto, and is 
thankful for it, and wills that the same be sold, after his 
said brother's death, by Sir Rowland St. John of Wood- 
ford co. Northants, Knt. ; Sir Beauchamp St. John of 
Bletsoe, Beds., Knt.; Thomas Rolt of Milton-Ernys, 
Beds., Esq. ; Thomas Anscell, fellow of Jesus College 
Cambridge, his nephews, and Matthew Robinson the 
younger of Longthorpe, and the proceeds divided as 
above. To sons Henry, St. John, and Francis, a debt 
of £200 due from Sir Thomas Cheny of Sundon, Beds., 
Knt. All his household goods to be appraised by Mr. 
Dr. Fisher of Weilden [Wilden], his brother Edward of 
Longthorpe and Mr. Kidd of Elstowe, and sold towards 
the payment of his debts. Having settled on his eldest 
s. Oliver all his estate of land in co. Beds., excepting two 
parcels lately bought of Mr. Ardys and Mr. Thomas 
Fayreclough, he expects him to be dutiful and comfort- 
able towards his mother. Commends his s. Howard to 
the breeding of his undoubted friend Sir Beaucham St. 
John, his godfather; and if he should take to the study 



OLIVER BECHER 



149 



of divinity, he doubts not but that the Countess of Peter- 
borough, his godmother, would bestow upon him a good 
living. Appoints wife Elizabeth sole executrix, and Sir 
Rowland St. John; Sir Beaucham St. John, Knt.; 
Richard Tayler, sergeant at law; Jasper Fisher, D.D.; 
William Conyers, his son-in-law; and his said brother 
Edward; overseers. 

(Signed) — W. Beecher. 

Witnesses: — O. Beecher, Natha: Hill, Richard 
Robinson, Richard Fletcher. 

Pr. 2 Apr. 1 64 1 by Elizabeth Beecher the executrix 
named [P.C.C. 4 Evelyn]. 

IV. 

Oliver Becher, of Howbury, and Fotheringay, 
eldest s. of Sir William, was bapt. at Bletsoe, 31 Dec. 
1598, and admitted of Lincoln's Inn 8 Feb. 1616-17. He 
married at East Haddon 24 Jul. 1627, Elizabeth, d. of 
Sir William Tate, Knt., of De-la-Pre Abbey, co. 
Northants., by Elizabeth, his wife (who was d. & coh. with 
her sister Mary of Edward, eleventh and last Baron 
Zouche of Harringworth); and by her had issue : — 

(1.) William, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) Oliver, bapt. at Fotheringay. 16 Jul. 1629. 
Commission issued 15 Nov. 1680 to Sir William 
Becher, Kt., brother of Oliver Becher, late of 
Brill, co. Bucks., now at West Lynn co. Norf., 
deceased, to administer the goods, &c. of the 
said deceased; his widow Sarah Becher ex- 
pressly renouncing [P.C.C, Admon. Act Book, 
1680, fo. 162]. 

(3.) Edward, bapt. at Fotheringay, 25 Oct. 1630. 

(4.) John, bapt. at Renhold 20 Aug. 1633, an d 
there bur. 1 Mar. 1633-4. 



150 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



(5.) Francis, bapt. at Renhold, 10 Aug. 1634. 

(1.) Elizabeth, bapt. at Renhold, 22 Mar. 1631-2. 

(2.) Mary, bapt. at Renhold, 13 Sept. 1635, & 
there bur. 11 May 1659. 

(3.) Katherine, bapt. at Renhold, 17 Aug. 1640. 

(4.) Judith, bur. at St. Bartholomew-the-Great, 17 

Dec. 1655, " horn the house of the Countess 

of Bolingbrooke." 

Oliver Becher was bur. at Renhold the 12th Nov. 1680, 
and Elizabeth, his wife was also there bur. the 20th Mar. 
1662-3. 

V. 

Sir William Becher, of Howbury Hall, was bapt. 
at Fotheringay 5 May 1628; and was knighted at New- 
market, 16 Nov. 1660. He married at Renhold 15 Feb. 
1655-6, for his first wife, Frances d. of Oliver, Lord St. 
John of Bletsoe; who was bapt. at St. Bartholomew-the- 
Great 9 Apr. 1626, and was bur. at Renhold 17 Sep. 1658. 

By her he had issue : — 

(1.) St. John, bapt. at Renhold 17 Aug. 1658 and 
there bur. 20 Apr. 1659. 

(1.) Arabella, bapt. at Renhold 30 Jan. 1656-7. In 
the Vicar General's Marriage Allegations is 
recorded the issue of a licence, dated 14 Jun. 
1684, to Thomas Huxley of Edmonton, 
Middx., bach., about 45, to marry Arabella 
Becher of Reynold, co. Bedf., spr., about 26, 
at her own disposal, alleged by Robert Sores- 
by of Doctors Commons; at Bromley, Middx. 
[Not signed nor attested]. She was bur. at 
Renhold 13 Oct. 1700. Her husband, who was 
born about 1638, was brother to Elizabeth, 2nd 
wife of Sir William Becher. He was bur. at 
Renhold 11 Jul. 1694. 



WILLIAM BEGHER: II. 



151 



He m. 2ndly, at St. Peter, Paul's Wharf, 24 Dec. 
1660, Elizabeth, d. of John Huxley of Eaton Bray, co. 
Beds. s. and h. app. of John Huxley of Edmonton, co. 
Middx. and widow of Thomas Hillersden of Elstow, their 
marriage articles being dated 22 Dec. 1659 [cf. Beds. N. 
& Q. Vol. III., p. 283]. By her he had issue :— 

(1.) William, of whom hereafter. 

(2.) John, bapt. at Renhold 21 Jul. 1664, and there 
bur. 11 May 1673. 

(3.) George, bapt. at Renhold 11 Nov. 1667, and 
there bur. 18 Nov. 1740. He made his Will 
the 1 2th Jan. 1737-8, in which he is described 
as " now living in the parish of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields, co. Middx., gent., but before at 
Hammersmith and Stepney." He gives to the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts 500H. and to Queen Anne's 
Bounty 500H. for the augmentation of small 
livings. To William Becher, esq., son of his 
late brother Becher 20H. To Mrs. Elizabeth 
Jones, and Mrs. Katherine Huxley d. of his 
late sister Huxley, 50H. apiece. To cousin 
Anne Lloyd, she having been a great sufferer 
by the South Sea and otherwise, 1,500 li.; and 
releases all monies due from her to him as 
executrix of her late sister, Mrs. Sarah Keate. 
To cousin Mrs. Mary Thorp, wife of Mr. 
James Thorp, 50H., to be paid her without the 
intervention of her husband. To her sons Mr. 
Charles Thorp, 50H. ; and Mr. George Thorp, 
iooli. The residue of his goods he gives to 
Mrs. Susan Trench, d. of his late brother 
Hillersdon and wife of Mr. Samuel Trench. 
To the said Mrs. Susan Trench his copyhold 
messuage and lands in Hammersmith, co. 
Middx., held of the manor of Fulham, surren- 
dered by him to Mrs. Rebecca Griffith upon a 



152 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



forfeited mortgage to her from Richard 
Harnett. Appoints the said Susan Trench 
executrix. (Signed) — Geo : Becher. 
Witnesses : — Henry Hill, Henry Deas, Charles 
Orchard. 

Pr. 21 Nov. 1740 by the executrix named. 
[P.C.C. 288 Broune]. 

(1.) Elizabeth, bapt. at Renhold 12 Mar. 1662-3; 
d. 17 Apr. and bur. at Renhold 22 Apr. 1701. 
The following epitaph to her memory is set up 
in the chancel of Renhold church : — 

" In hope of a Resurrection to life Immortal / near 
this Marble lies Interr'd ye body / of Mrs. Elizabeth 
becher, only / Daughter of S r W m becher late of How- 
berry K* / by his Lady Elizabeth Relict of / thomas 
hillersdon of Elstow Esq r / Daughter of john huxley 
of Edmunton in / Middlesex Esq r . She was a person of 
a mild / & serene Temper; prudent, modest, courteous / 
& obliging in her conduct & conversation ; constant / & 
devout in y e exercises of Piety; strictly / observant of 
duty to her parents; kind / and affectionate to all her 
Relations / Thus decked with y e ornament of a meek / & 
quiet spirit she Resigned her soul to / God that gave it on 
y e xvii th of April in y e year mdcci." 

Sir William Becher made his Will 10 Dec. 1691, and I 
desired to be bur. in the church of Renhold with the rest t 
of his ancestors. He appoints his wife and eldest s. 
William executors. To his wife all the furniture of the 
three best rooms with remainder to grandson William, 
eld. s. of Thomas Hillersdon of Elstow, Esq. To his 
wife all the silver plate, jewels and gold, his best coach 
and 4 horses and all the best carved stone flower pots in 
the court yard ; and also cottages and land over against 
Salphobury for life, after her death to the use of the poor 
of Ronhall and Salphobury with certain limitations. To 
brother Francis £$ per ann. ; to son Huxley and his wife, 
brother [? son] William and his wife, each for 



WILLIAM BECHER: II. 



153 



mourning. To brother Francis, and to s. George the 
like sum and a ring each ; the like to his d. Betty. To s. 
Hillersdon his best horse and a ring of 20s. To brother 
George Huxley, d. Hillersdon, and cosen William 
Tate, a ring of 20s. each. To s. William all his per- 
sonal estate not bequeathed. To s. George an annuity 
of ^50 and to d. Elizabeth an annuity of ,£5. Pr. 1 
Jan. 1694-5 [D.P.R. Northampton]. He died 5 Dec. 
1694 aged 60, and was bur. at Renhold 9 Dec. 1694. 
His epitaph, in Renhold chancel, is as follows : — 

" In faelicis spem Resurrectionis spem ultra Comu- 
Tiam / Iuxta hoc Marmor Sepultus jacet / gulielmus 
becher / de Howberry in hac vicinia Eques Auratus / 
Filius oliveri Becher Armig" Nepos autem gulielmi 
becher Equitis et elizabethae uxoris ejus / Filiae 
oliveri Baronis st. john de Bletshoe / sororis Oliveri 
primi Comitis de Bullingbrook / Uxorem habuit eliza- 
betham, thomae hillersdon / de Elstow in hoc Comitatu 
Arm" Relictam / Filiam vero ioanis huxley de Edmun- 
ton / in Comitatu Middlesex Arm" / Et ex ilia Progeniam 
gulielmum ioanem et georgium / et filiam eliza- 
betham e quibus loanes defunctus. / Insigni Pietate 
Iustitia et Modestia Animi / Probitate morum, miti et 
liberali Ingenio / Deo Gratum, Regi et Patriae fideiem 
/ Suisqu' se Patrem praestitit / Omnibus charus vixit, et 
non sine luctu publico decessit / Quinto die Decembris 
Ann 0 ^Etatis Suae / Sexagesimo Annoq' Dom 1694 / In 
cujus memoriam Elizabetha / Quam moestissimam re- 
liquit superstitem / Perrene sue amoris iudicium / Hoc 
Monumentum Posuit," 

Elizabeth, his wife, made her Will 24 Jul. 1701 ; and 
bequeathed to her s. William Beecher only ^"io, having 
already given him many things when she came from How- 
bury. To her s. George Beecher £ 200, and the furniture 
of the chamber where he lieth, in her house at Bow. To 
her grandchild John Hillersdon, 2nd s. of her late s. 
Thomas Hillersdon, Esq., deed., silver salvers, &c. To 



154 BECHER OF HOWBURY 

her granddaughters Margaret and Susanna Hillersdon 
sundry legacies. To grandson Richard Hillersdon ^50] 
at age of 21. To her goddaughter Frances Huxley, d. 
of John Huxley of Edmonton, Esq., 5 guineas. To her' 
goddaughter Elizabeth, d. of her late brother Thomas; 
Huxley, Esq., deed., 5 guineas and the box that was " my 
Aunt Trion's." To her sister Lloyd 5 guineas, and to; 
her 4 daughters, Katherine, Sarah, Anne, and Elizabeth, , 
2 guineas each. To her sister Horsnell 5 guineas. To 
her tenants at Elstow and Howbury, gloves, and legacies 
to servants and to the poor, etc. Residue to her grandson 1 
William, eldest s. & h. of her late deceased s. Thomas, 
Hillersdon, and appoints him executor; he to have her' 
copyholds at Bow, co. Middx., and all her other lands. . 
Pr. 24 Jan. 1704-5 by William Hillersdon, Esq., the exe- 
cutor. [P.C.C. 3 Gee]. At her decease she was living 
at Bow, co. Middx., and was bur. at Elstow 20 Jan. 
I704-5- 

VI. 

William Becher, eldest s. of Sir William Becher, 
was bapt. at Renhold 1662. He m. at Kempston, 3 Sep. 
1695 — for his first wife — Mary, d. of Matthew Dennis of 
Kempston, born 29 Aug., bapt. at Kempston 12 Sep. 
1673 ; and by her who d. & was bur. at Renhold, 20 Nov. 
1697, he had issue : — 

(1.) William, of whom hereafter. 

(1.) Jane Rachel who m Lewis, and had issue 

a son Craven, and 3 daughters, viz : — Frances, 

Elizabeth who m Leece, and Jane, wife 

of ... . Moss. 
(2.) Mary, bur. at Renhold 17 Jan. 1702-3. 

William Becher made his Will 21 May 1723. He 
left various sums of money to his cousin Carew, his brother 
George Becher, his nephew George Huxley and his wife, 
his niece Catherine Huxley, and niece Jones. He 
desired to be bur. at Renhold in the usual burying place 



WILLIAM BECHER: III. 



155 



of his family. To Lady Craven, Lady Franklin, and 
sister Handbury, and to his other relations a gold ring 
each. To his s. and d. Lewis £20 apiece. Mentions 
Mrs. Catherine Carew, his kinswoman, deceased. To his 
cousin Carew's nephews and nieces, viz : — to his cousin 
Powell, widow, to cousins Anne Alard, Margaret Tate, 
James Tate, and William Bonner, various sums. Resi- 
due to his s. William and wife Jane whom he appoints 
executors. 

Pr. 16 Jun. 1724 by William Becher, arm., one of 
the executors, power being reserved to make a like grant 
to Jane Becher, widow, the other executor. [P.C.C. 131 
Bolton]. He m. 2ndly, at St. Bene't, Paul's Wharf, 10 
Aug. 1699, Jane, d. and coh. of George Clerke of Wat- 
ford, Northants, M.P. for that shire 1661-2, she then 

aged 30, and by her had no issue. 

P, 

VII. 

William Becher, only s. of William and Mary 
Becher, was bapt. at Renhold, 8 Oct. 1697. He m. at St. 
James 5 , Clerkenwell, 16 Jun. 1726, Elizabeth, d. of John 
Clarke of Hackney eo. Middx., and appears to have left 
issue an only d. Elizabeth who m. William Abney, Esq., 
and was sole executrix of her mother's will. He died 12 
Jun. 1 75 1 aged 54 and was bur. at Renhold 26 Jan. 1751 ; 
Elizabeth, his wife died in 1766. His epitaph, in Ren- 
hold chancel, is as follows : — 

" Under this Monument lyes the Body of / will™ 
becher Esq r / of Howberry / Son of william becher 
Esq r / By his first wife mary / Daughter of matthew 
dennis / of Kempson / in the County of Bedford / A 
man of Great humanity and Charity / and universal bene- 
volence. / He lived much Esteemed / and died 
Lamented / by all who knew him / the 12 th day of June 
I 175 1 Aged 54 years. / This monument was erected 1753 
by his / sorrowful widow Elizabeth who was the daughter 
of john clarke of the County of Middlesex Esq'." 



156 



BECHER OF HOWBURY 



In his Will, dated 5 May 1 748, he desires to be buried 
in the chancel of Renhold (where stood a pew which he 
caused to be pulled down) according to the custom of his ; 
family, viz : — his tenants and servants only to attend him; 
to his grave without pall bearers, and that none of his 1 
relations or acquaintances shall be invited to his funeral. . 
He confirms the settlement made previous to his marriage i 
with his loving wife Elizabeth. In case he has issue by 
her he desires one moiety of all his manors, lands, &c, to 
his wife for life ; the other moiety and the reversion of the 
first after the death of his wife, to the heirs of his body. 
On failure of such issue, the whole to his wife for life, and ij 
the reversion (except of his rectory and lands in Kemps- 1 
ton, Beds.) to his nephew Craven Lewis, second s. of his;, 
sister Lewis, for his life; and then to William \ 
Farrer of Cold Brayfield, Bucks., esq., and}; 
Thomas Browne of Arlesey, Beds., M.D., ini 
trust successively for the heirs male of the 
body of the said Craven Lewis, Robert Becher, eldest 
s. of John Becher, citizen and Salter of London, deceased ; I 
John, Edward and Richard Becher, 2nd, 3rd & 4th sons 
of the said John ; his cousin John Becher, s. of William 
Becher, citizen and druggist of London, deceased ; in tail 
male successively; then in trust for his nieces Frances, 
Elizabeth and Jane Lewis as tenants in common. And i 
every of his said devisees so holding shall have power too 
make leases of all the estate, excepting only his capital' 
messuage called Howbury and the lands thereto belong- 
ing. His pictures and household goods (excepting plate) 
in and about Howbury shall remain as heirlooms. The 
said Craven Lewis and his heirs to assume the name and 
use the arms of Becher, otherwise the bequest to him shall 
be void. He charges his estate with the payment of' 
£600 devised by the Will of William Becher, Esq., his 
late father, to found a free school at Renhold; and the 
owner of Howbury shall from time to time have the right 
of appointing a master thereto. He bequeaths the Rec- 



WILLIAM BECHER : IV. 



157 



tory of Kempston, after the decease of his wife, to his said 
three nieces as tenants in common. To his wife his messu- 
age in Bloomsbury Square, Middx., now in his own occu- 
pation, with the right of renewing his interest therein; 
also his coach and chariot, chaise and chair, and all the 
furniture, &c, in Bloomsbury, except his plate and 
jewells. To John, s. of William Becher, druggist, £ 100 ; 
to his said trustees and his said sister, £$o apiece. To 
the minister of the parish of Renhold who shall bury me, 
£ 20. To his said trustees the leasehold premises in the 
parish of St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, London, which 
he holds of the crown, in trust for his wife for life, rever- 
sion to his said three nieces. Forasmuch as he has shown 
no resentment to his wife on account of the ungenerous 
disposition of the estate of Mrs. Mary Clark, her late 
sister, he therefore requests her at her death to make an 
equal distribution of her estate to his nieces as well as to 
her own, and he appoints her executrix. To his trustees, 
all his government securities, &c, in trust for his wife and 
nieces as above. 

(Signed) — Wm. Becher. 

Witnesses : — Rd. Cromwell, Jas. Garnar, junr., 
Robert Cromwell. Pr. 1 Jul. 1751, by the executrix. 
[P.C.C. Busby 198]. He was bur. at Renhold 26 June 
1751. 

16 Sep. 181 1, Admon. of the goods left unadminis- 
tered by the executrix, now deceased, was granted to 
William Domville, as a fit person to act on behalf of Sir 
James Graham of Portland Place, Bart. ; Jacob Warner 
of Rood Lane, London, grocer; and Farrer Grover Spur- 
geon Farrer of Cold Brayfield, Bucks., Esq., limited only 
to the interest of the said Wm. Becher for 500 years in a 
farm in Stagsden alias Stockden, Beds, under deed poll 
dated 11 April 1738; Catherine Abney, wife of William 
Abney, esq., d. and sole executrix of the said Elizabeth 
Becher, having died intestate. 



158 



BECHBR OF HOWBURY 



Elizabeth, widow of William Becher, made her Will I 
1 8 Jun. 1766, in which she desired to be bur. in the parish 1 
church of Renhold, by the remains of her late husband, , 
William Becher, Esq., the funeral hearse to be drawn by 
six of her own horses ; a marble slab to be laid over her r 
and her husband's grave. She appoints as executrix her r 
niece Catherine, wife of William Abney, Esq., and gives? 
her her house in Red Lion Square wherein she (testatrix) ) 
now dwells, with the lease thereof and the furniture there- 
in. Should she refuse to dwell there, she gives the same 
to her daughter, Mary Clarke Abney. The said Catherine 1 
to be residuary legatee. To her four great nephews,, 
Robert, Edward, George and William Abney, ,£3,500) 
stock, each at their ages of 21. To her two great nieces, , 
Mary Clark Abney and Catherine Abney, ,£3,000 stock; 
each at their ages of 21. To her late husband's nieces,. 
Frances Lewis, Elizabeth Leece, and Jane Mose, ^1000 
each. To Mr. Dickeson of Barford, co. Beds., ,£50; and 
to his wife, £ 100. To Mr. Phipp, if he buries me, 
To Mary Smith of Elbow Lane, London, widow, an 
annuity of ^20 a year during life. To Mary Boydell 
£100. To Sarah Palmer, spr., an annuity of ^10 a 
year during life. To her butler, Charles Ellis, ,£500; 
and to his son, John Ellis, ^300. (Signed) E. Becher. 

Witnesses : — Richd. White, Daniel King, Hen. 
Major, Proctor at Doctors Commons. 

Pr. 6 Aug. 1766 by the executrix named in the Will 1 
[P.C.C. Tyndall, 292]. 

And so ends the connection of the Becher family with 
Howbury Hall for, on the failure of an heir male, the 
property was soon after this sold to Nathaniel Polhill, an 
eminent Banker, of Burwash, co. Sussex and Southwark, 
of which borough he was M.P. He was the great great 1 
grandfather of the present owner, Cecil Polhill, Esq. 
There is, preserved at Howbury, a small water colour of' 



BEGHER OF HOWBURY 



159 



the old house as it existed in the Becher period, which 
j depicts it as an interesting old building in red brick. 
Only one wing, however, of the old house now remains, 
since the greater portion of the old house was rebuilt after 
a fire in the early part of last century. 

Owing to the fact that the Parish Registers of Ren- 
hold date only from 1654 there are probably some defi- 
ciences in the foregoing account of the family, but — 
fortunately — I have been enabled by the aid of the 
Bishop's Transcripts, which commence in 1603, to supply 
many details wanting in the Parish Registers. 

Before concluding this paper I think it would be 
; desirable to insert here an abstract of the earliest Becher 
Will that has come to my notice ; an abstract of which was 
kindly furnished me together with other pertinent matter 
1 by the late Rev. H. Isham Longden, sometime Rector of 
jHeyford. The Will itself has partly perished but such 
as it came to me I herewith present it : — 

" Will of Thomas Becher, dated 1 Jan. 1525-6. To 
be buried in the churchyard of Halhalows in Hargrave. 
To the mother church of Lincoln ijd. ; to the hye altar in 
Hargrave, to the rode loft xijd, to our Lady viijd., to the 
bells xxd., to the setyn xxd. and to the torches viijd. To 
s. John a cow calf and a bullocke, to s. Christopher a cow, 
a calf, &c, to s. Thomas a bullock. Mentions his d. 
Oliphet. Lands to be parted in tweine. John & Chris- 
topher his children and his wife to sell the same. Residue 
to wife Alice and eldest s. Thomas whom he appoints 
executors, William his brother & Thomas Catlyn, ye 
Iwhich he puts in trust." The rest of this Will has un- 
fortunately perished, so that I am unable to give the date 
of probate. It was proved in the Archdeaconry of 
Northampton, 1st Series, Book A. 413. 

My principal reason for introducing this Will here is 
that Hargrave is not very far from Fotheringay in which 
parish Henry Becher II. had acquired an interest, but how 



160 



BEGHER OF HOWBURY 



1 have not yet discovered, though I think it may be pre- 
sumed that some connection existed between Thomas 
Becher of Hargrave and Henry Becher of Howbury. 
Traces of other branches of this family are to be found at 
Bedwin-Magna, co. Wilts., and at Penshurst, Wrotham, 
and Chiddingstone, co. Kent. 

In the Parish Registers of Elstow are recorded the 
baptisms of the children of John Beecher, gent., of 
Elstow, by Margaret, his wife, d. of John Barnardiston of 
Yeldon, Beds., who (in her Will dated 12 Nov. 1664, pr. 

2 Jan. 1664-5) bequeathed to her d. Margaret, wife of 
John Becher of Elstowe, gent., a gold ring. The follow- 
ing are extracted from the above named Registers : — 

(1.) John, bapt. 19 Jan. 1662-3; bur. same day. 

(2.) Charles, bapt. 31 Oct. 1664. Of Savernake, m.j 
Jane, d. of . . . Hungerford of Fifield in par. 
Milton, co. Kent; who was bur. at Bedwyn 
Magna 10 Jun. 1743. He d. 31 Oct. 1787 aet. 
73, bur. at Bedwyn Magna 7 Nov. 1737 leaving 
issue. 

(3.) Mary, bapt. 17 Jan. 1666-7. 

(4.) Francis, bapt. 10 Jan. 1667-8, bur. 8 Jan 1669. 

(5.) George, bapt. 26 May 1672. 

(6.) Barnardiston, bur. 18 Aug. 1677. 

There is probably some connection between this 
John Beecher and the Renhold family but, so far, I have 
not been able to give him a place in the pedigree. 

In conclusion I should like to take this opportunity 
of recording the ready help accorded me by my old friends 
the late G. E. Cockayne, Somerset Herald, in cordially 
supplying me with much valuable information respecting 
the foregoing family, and also by the late Rev. H. Isham 
Longden, formerly Rector of Heyford, to whose kind 
assistance I am much indebted. 



HOWBURY. 



eron, 
don. 



= (2) Jane Lovibond, 
m. 1568. 



I Riche, 
66, d. 1615. 



1. Elizabei 
1560. 

3. Mary, 
1S69. 

3. Margar 

ridge< 

4. Mabel, 

5. Doroth 



1 

2. Jane, 
b. 1571 
d. 157s 


Geo. Kyt 
of Westo 


9. Henry, 
b. 1620. 


1 

10. Jo 
b. 

11. H( 



iuxley 



I I I I 

1. Elizabeth, b. 1632 

2. Mary, b. 1635, d. 1 

3. Katherine, b. 1640 

4. Judith, d. 1655. 



(2) 



Jane Clerke, 
m. 1699. 



e Rachel, 



Mary, 
d. 1703 



160 



BEGHER OF HOWBURY 



1 have not yet discovered, though I think it may be pre- 
sumed that some connection existed between Thomas 
Becher of Hargrave and Henry Becher of Howbury. 
Traces of other branches of this family are to be found at 
Bedwin-Magna, co. Wilts., and at Penshurst, Wrotham, 
and Chiddingstone, co. Kent. 

In the Parish Registers of Elstow are recorded the 
baptisms of the children of John Beecher, gent., of 
Elstow, by Margaret, his wife, d. of John Barnardiston of j 
Yeldon, Beds., who (in her Will dated 12 Nov. 1664, pr. 

2 Jan. 1664-5) bequeathed to her d. Margaret, wife of j 
John Becher of Elstowe, gent., a gold ring. The follow- 
ing are extracted from the above named Registers : — 

(1.) John, bapt. 19 Jan. 1662-3; bur. same day. 

(2.) Charles, bapt. 31 Oct. 1664. Of Savernake, m. 
Jane, d. of . . . Hungerford of Fifield in par. 
Milton, co. Kent; who was bur. at Bedwyn 
Magna 10 Jun. 1743. He d. 31 Oct. 1787 aet. 
73, bur. at Bedwyn Magna 7 Nov. 1737 leaving 
issue. 

(3.) Mary, bapt. 17 Jan. 1666-7. 

(4.) Francis, bapt. 10 Jan. 1667-8, bur. 8 Jan 1669. 

(5.) George, bapt. 26 May 1672. 

(6.) Barnardiston, bur. 18 Aug. 1677. 

There is probably some connection between this 
John Beecher and the Renhold family but, so far, I have 
not been able to give him a place in the pedigree. 

In conclusion I should like to take this opportunity 
of recording the ready help accorded me by my old friends 
the late G. E. Cockayne, Somerset Herald, in cordially 
supplying me with much valuable information respecting 
the foregoing family, and also by the late Rev. H. Isham 
Longden, formerly Rector of Heyford, to whose kind 
assistance I am much indebted. 



161 



THE BECHER FAMILY OF HOWBURY. 



Richard Becher, 
Kent. 



eorge lieche 
Penshurst, 
ISM. 



. Elizabeth, m. Clement Kelke, 
. Mary.'m. Chidiock Wardour, 



Mabel, m. Sr. Richard Norton. 



r Win. Becher, = 



Eliz'th St. John 



Thot. Anscell « 
1568, d. 1623. j 



. Henry, = Anne. 



. St. John, = Elisabeth. 



Frances St. John = I. Sr. WilPm = Eliz'th. Huxley 
b. 1626, m. 1656, I Becher, | m. 1659, d. 1705. 
d. 1658. I b. 1628, 



1. Elizabeth, b. 1632. 

2. Mary, b. 163s, d. I 

3. Katherine, b. 1640 

4. Judith, d. 1655. 



1. Oliffe, b. 1596. 

2. Dorothy, b. 1600, d. 1639, it 

Wm. Conyers, 1627. 

3. Judeth, twin with above, b 

1600, d. 1600. 

4. Anne, b. 1603, m. 1624 Edm 

Harding, d. 1659. 

5. Eliz'th, b. 1606. 



St. John, 

b. 1658. 
d. 16S9. 



Thomas Huxley = Arrabella, 
b. circa 1638 I b. 1657, 
d. 1694. m. 1684. 



Mary Dennis, = 1. William 
b. 1673. j Becher, 



William Abney = Eliz 



] 

t 

] 

t 

1 
] 

j 



J 

r 

o 
tl 
s 
t 
I 
a 



YTTINGAFORD AND THE 
TENTH-CENTURY BOUNDS OF 
CHALGRAVE AND LINSLADE. 

BY FREDERICK G. GURNEY. 

(With Map). 

CHALGRAVE AND THIODWEG. 

The road called ' thiodweg 5 or the Highway, in the 
Chalgrave charter of A.D. 926, translated on pp. 42, 43 
above, has long interested me. There is considerable 
reason to believe that it once led directly to the ford which 
was the scene of the peace-negotiations between King 
Edward ' the Elder,' and the Danish King Guthrum- 
Eohricsson, after the collapse of the revolt in favour of 
the ' aetheling ' ^Ethelwald. The date of this event, which 
on grounds wholly unknown to me is assigned to the year 
903 by a writer in the V.C.H. Beds, (iii, 401), is given 
in the A. S. Chron. 1 as 906. The name is there written 
' Yttingaford/ and has long remained unidentified; but 
it is found to occur again as c Yttinga ford ' in a charter 
of 966, among the metse or boundary-marks of an estate 
of ten hides called Hlincgelad ; this, as I hope to show, 
is unlikely to be any other place than Linslade near 
Leighton Buzzard; and the ford therefore leads from 
Buckinghamshire to Bedfordshire. 

The coincidence of the ford-names has already been 
noticed by Mr. F. M. Stenton, 2 and Hlincgelad rightly 
identified with Linslade. But the ford itself was obviously 
not found ; it is placed much too far north and too near 
Leighton Buzzard. As little or nothing beyond the bare 

1. R.S. 23, i, 182, 183. 

2. V.C.H. Beds., iii, 401, n. 7a. 



164 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



statement of identity is given, unaccompanied by any 
attempt at proof, it may not be altogether unfair to con- 
clude that it rests upon simple recognition of the name in 
the charter. If so, it is no more conclusive in itself than 
the old guess of Hitchin(ford), which was long followed 
by historical writers ; further reference will be made to it 
below. I may anticipate matters here by remarking that 
I think that I have found both the ford and its ancient 
name still in existence. 

It will be necessary first to identify the road (' thiod- 
weg ' = theodweg, the people's road or highway), and to 
show its course. For this purpose and for others, it may 
be found not wholly unprofitable to trace the ancient 
boundary-marks of the two vills in some detail, — perhaps 
tiresome detail. Kemble long ago remarked that the 
features named in charters of Saxon date can in most 
cases still be recognised, and that their ancient names 
often persist ; but he omitted to add that, almost as often, 
the boundary-lines themselves remain unaltered. This 
is the case with Chalgrave, and I incline to think, with 
Linslade also. In reading the particulars which follow, 
the Chalgrave metae should be referred to as translated 
on p. 43 of this volume, and compared with the map 
(p. 1 80). 

The first feature named is a ' dike ' (die) shooting 
upon Watling Street, and the next a ford, also upon 
Watling Street, and undoubtedly near the present bridges 
in Hockliffe village. Since the custom in perambulating 
or describing bounds was to proceed ' the right way round 
the clock/ i.e., not 1 widdershins ' or against the sun's 
course, the * dike ' must lie south of the ford, and abut on 
the Watling Street at the southern corner of the parish. 
It is again mentioned at the end of the metae as leaving 
the ' thiodweg ' and running to Watling Street; it does so. 
still, and marks the boundary for close upon two miles in 
a nearly straight course. Near its north-eastern end, 
just north of Grove Farm, it is now represented by a 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



165 



tall bank or lince, caused by a thousand years of 
ploughing right up to it at the bottom of a hill (Lord's 
Hill). The field on the Houghton-Regis side, a little 
nearer the Chalgrave-Houghton road, has a name ' Mar- 
yards ' which refers to this ancient boundary (' gemsere '). 
After the Chalgrave-Houghton road is crossed, the 
' dike ' becomes a deep ditch, accompanied for about a 
third of a mile by a green lane, which formerly turned 
north along the present footpath to Wingfield. Like 
every other path or road found on the boundary-line, this 
lane is called Bound Way. Watling Street is reached at 
the edge of a meadow in Thorn, which from a former 
ford over the road bears the possibly Danish name of 
Beckford ; it lies a little south of the solitary cottage which 
was once the North Star Inn. 

The present central line of Watling Street is fol- 
lowed from this point nearly to the Leighton Buzzard 
turn, where the boundary swerves to the west to include 
the White Hart, etc. ; but it reaches the brook and bridge 
again within the road. Either here or a few yards east, 
where there is a second bridge upon the Woburn road, 
lay the first ford of the charter. 

The windings of the brook, which, by the way, were 
long proverbial, 3 are then followed along the west bank. 
It is still remembered that this was the route taken by 
the last ' perambulation ' of the parish. The second ford 
is found in actual existence at the end of a lane from 
Tebworth, close to Watergate Farm. The lane is 
crossed, and a tall hedge takes the boundary up a slope 
once called Tatterhill, now the name of a ruined farm- 
stead near. What seems to be the first c well ' of the 
charter is in the hedge at the second joggle seen upon the 
map. This is no longer a very noticeable spring except 
in winter, but three hundred yards or so further north- 

3. ' As str eight as Hockley brook, as the Proverb is : for it was Hockley 
brook it self,' ' The Faithful Surveyour,' p. 7, by George Atwell (1662), who 
was the son of a Leighton man. The book has many interesting local 
anecdotes. 



166 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



east and so far within Toddington parish, a much stronger 
spring exists in the centre of a large circular basin. Pos- 
sibly this is the ' well ' meant. On the right is the nar- 
row valley of a runnel coming from the Hemes, un- 
doubtedly the ' dell ' 4 next named. It is crossed at right 
angles and nearly due east ; a tall hedge marks the line for 
half a mile or more. The two ' dikes ' which come next 
are lost in the multitude of ditches and banks of all ages. 
The words used seem to imply that they were crossed 
rather than followed far, and they probably exist as hedge- 
row ditches just below the farmhouse called Warmark. 
Perhaps Frenchman's Way (the road from Toddington to 
Tebworth) follows the former bank of one of them. Be- 
tween this road and what is apparently an ancient ditch 
running parallel with it south from Warmark, the present 
boundary-line abandons the hedges and crosses an arable 
field named Little Bears'll, from a strong spring in its i 
southern corner called Bear's Well. The old * Bound 
Way ' of this section is represented by a broad ploughed- 
down bank stretching over the field. Frenchman's Way 
is then followed south for perhaps 200 yards, a fact which 
supports the idea that it represents one of the ' dikes.' 
The line now runs south along a conspicuous hedge to 
the brook (' bore ') of the charter ; it is then continued up 
the opposite slope by the side of a rill which rises in the 
spring called ' Cynburge well.' This I found and identi- 
fied long before I knew that neither its name nor its 
character as a holy or healing well is forgotten. It is now 
called Kimberwell, and lies in a large oblong basin near 
the turn of the hedge eastward. The saint whose name 
it bears is, of course, St. Cyneburh, daughter of the ' fierce 
old heathen ' Penda of IVfercia ; the name in the charter 
is the genitive of ' Cyneburh,' which by this time had lost 
its thematic vowel. 5 

4. This is a much earlier example of the word ' dell ' than any quoted in 
the N.E.D. 

5. For her story or legend I must refer the reader to Bede (ed. Plummer, 
ii. 175), Florence of Worcester, Capgrave's 'Vita Sancte Kinneburge,' &c, , 
and will only say here that she and her sister, St. Cyneswith, are still to be 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



167 



It may be worth remarking that St. Cyneburh had a 
saintly cousin called Tibba (her day the 16th Dec), who 
joined her in her monastery at ' Dermundcaster ' (Duro- 
brivae, — Castor), and whose bones are said in the late 
Peterborough version of the Chronicle to have been 
translated with those of her cousin to Peterborough in 
963. She has a holy well near the church of Ryhall by 
Stamford, still bearing a worn version of her name, and 
quite possibly she may once have had another at Teb- 
worth (Teobbanwyrth) in Chalgrave. Very much as 
' Eabba ' was a shortened form of Eormenburh, and the 
equally euphonious ' Bugga,' a pet name of St. Ead- 
burh, ' Tibba ' must have been a Latinised abbreviation 
of Theodburh 6 or the like. In West Saxon it would be 
' Teobbe,' in Mercian 7 speech ' Tibbe.' 1 Teobbanwyrth,' 
which Skeat explained by the masculine form ' Teobba,' 
i may equally well involve this feminine form, the genitive 
of both being Teobban. If the sense is then ' the farm of 
a lady named Teobbe,' she was not necessarily the 
' farmer,' and her true property in it may have been noth- 
ing more than a spring like that of St. Cyneburh. 8 

Sportsmen may be interested to learn that Tibba is 
one of their patron saints, a ' fact ' which may account for 
Stukeley's 9 quaint assertion that Tibba and Eabba, her 
cousin, ' another devout, retired person .... were at first 
wild hunting girls, at last saints.' 

celebrated by the unusually faithful on the 6th March, and that her especial 
cult was connected with Castor in Northants, where the church is dedicated 
to her, and where an old road was to a late date called 1 Lady Conyburrow'9 
Way.' Her bones were carried to Peterborough in the ioth century, and her 
cult followed. One of her bones was also kept and reverenced at Canterbury 
down to the Reformation. 

6. Cf. ' Tibber,' a local word of address to a tom-cat. It is from Sir 
Tibert in the beast-epic, the later and continental form of 1 Theodberht.' 

7. It need hardly be remarked that this district was successively West 
Saxon and Mercian. Pagan antiquities of the former people have been found 
in great number just beyond the Chalgrave boundary in Toddington. 

8. The royal Mercian saints of the 7th century seem to have been popular 
hereabout. Waerburh, a niece of Cyneburh, had a ' well ' and chapel, which 
have borne her name at least since the thirteenth century, at Brill in Bucks., 

, and there are others dedicated to kinswomen in the same county. 

9. Stukeley's 4 Diaries and Letters,' iii., 169, 170. 



168 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



Within memory the spring of Kimberwell was much 
resorted to for the cure of weak eyes, people coming, I am 
told, from considerable distances to carry away the water 
in bottles ; I was given the name of a man who still does 
so. The superstition is, of course, attached to many 
springs, but I was once warned by an Edlesborough man 
that none are efficacious but such as flow from the east. 
He named a spring in Edlesborough as the best known 
to him, and called it £ Sunrising ' water. 10 

The boundary now turns eastwards from the ' well ' 
towards Chalgrave church, continuing along the same line 
of hedge and ditch as before, the latter — the next ' die ' 
of the charter — crossing the hill-top and the Toddington- 
Chalgrave road a little north of the church. Presently, 
beyond the field in which stands the lowered ' motte ' of 
the Lorings, it becomes a rill, developing into the stream 
called in the charter, and still called the Old Brook 
(' thane ealdan broc '). Near the point where the spring 
rises, and actually in the ' dike/ a Roman intaglio ring 
was found some sixty years ago. 11 

The settlement which the charter calls East Coten 
(dat.) must have been where Chalgrave manor-house 
stands ; the name is altogether lost, but the hamlet beyond- 
is now Fencote. The line next turns south from the brook 
to the £ rithig,' 12 a word which survives locally as 

10. Other ancient observances may survive, for I have kn6wn a spring 
called Mowell in Eaton Bray to be suspiciously hung about with coloured 
rags. Such springs very often conceal antiquities. One called Shirrell 
(' scir-well '), or Shirrell Spring, in Totternhoe, yielded, among many other 
things, a Frankish brooch of the beginning of the 8th century, of a type 
which I am informed is unique in England. This was found in my presence 
and kindly given to me by my friend, Mr. E. P. Bascom. I have often made 
such finds in springs, though I do not suggest that they were always free-will 
offerings. ' Cras donaberis ' usually related to pitchers and pots, which went 
too often. In Shirrell there were hundreds of Romano-British potsherds ; 
some earlier, very likely, for a short-butted flint ' celt ' lay among them. 

11. The intaglio shows Apollo with a lyre. It was given to me by the 
finder's son, Mr. William Horley, of Luton. 

12. ' Rithig ' is a diminutive of ' rithe.' Neither the N.E. Diet, nor the 
Eng. Dialect Diet, can find a modern representative for either. McClure 
suggests that the river-name Ree or Rhee, which forms the county boundary 
at Dunton and Eyworth, represents the latter, and there can be no doubt that 
1 riddy ' represents the former. The original ' th ' (5) had already become 



THIODWEG 



169 



f riddy/ and is applied indifferently to a small or inter- 
mittent rill. There are many scores of Beds, and Bucks, 
names which involve it, and now and then one still hears 
the word used as a common noun in its old sense, though 
it is not understood everywhere. 

After hesitating among the many ' riddies ' in the 
low ground, the boundary runs up one of them to the edge 
of the ' thiodweg,' now a wide and open green-lane on the 
low (greensand) ridge. It possesses several names in dif- 
ferent parts of its course — Howe Down and Bound Way 
at this point, further east Salt Lane, further west 
Featherbed Lane, etc. At Wingfield in Chalgrave it 
serves as the present hard road, and thence continues to 
Kateshill on Watling Street as a footpath, recognisable 
here and there as a former wide road. The next section is 
partly lost, although its line is traceable ; but at Egginton 
it reappears as an unusually broad green-way, under the 
name of Ede Way; it continues as an existing though 
disused road all the way to Grovebury. Here, as I hope 
to show, it crosses the river Ousel at ' Yttingaford.' 

I have personally examined the course of this road 
from Gallows Hill, north of Luton, where it branches 
from or crosses the Icknield at Drays Ditches, to this 
point. Several sections of it serve as parish boundaries, 
and it has other characteristic features of an ancient road. 
Where possible, it keeps to high ground, seeming to ig- 
nore village and town. Along its whole course I have 
found numerous flint-flakes and rough tools, which in the 
neighbouring fields, except near the chalk, are extremely 
rare. There are round barrows above it at Gallows Hill, 
and another at Grovebury; and upon every hill near it, 
without exception, I have found Romano-British pottery. 
According to an old and remarkable day-labourer of Lea- 

* d,' by the xiiith cent., e.g. ' iElfredeswelredy,' in a Toddington charter 
(Dunstable Cartulary), which is possibly the present ' Efferiddy ' ; and 
< Suthwellredy,' near Brill, named in a xiiith cent, perambulation of the 
forest of Bernwood. (Trans, in V.C.H. Bucks., Vol. II., section upon 

* Forestry.') 



170 



BOUNDS OF CHALGRAVE 



grave named Cumberland, 13 the true name of the road is 
Salt Way, or the Old Salt Way; he added that ' we say ' 
it was anciently used as a route for the traffic in salt, and 
that the salt was carried in panniers by pack-horses. It 
may be added for what it is worth that the hill which the 
road crosses beyond the Ousel and Grovebury is called 
Salter's Hill, and that a (?) Roman road in Hampshire, 
which is supposed to run to Droitwich ( !) also bears the 
name of Salt Way. 

The boundary now follows the north ditch of the 
road for about half a mile westward, leaving it at a sudden 
dip called the Knaps, above Grove Farm, Here are some 
disused pits which I was surprised to be told are sand-pits. 
The Upper Greensand is not usually believed to extend so 
far east, but evidently the long low ridge of Howe Down 
is its escarpment. Bearing in mind Skeat's etymology of 
' Chalgrave ' [cealc-graef or -grsefa; Chalgrove in Oxford 
represents ' cealf-grsef '], I enquired whether any chalk 
overlies the sand. A shepherd told me that he frequently 
strikes hard chalk here in driving his fold-stakes, and since 
it occurs naturally nowhere else within the parish, T ima- 
gine that these pits, or the natural dip in which they lie, 
must have given name to the place. Neither chalk nor 
sand are very obvious even here, being disguised by drift ; 
but presently I saw both thrown out by rabbits. 

The line now leaves the road, and runs south under 
Lords Hill to the Houghton Regis road, and on to 
Watling Street, as already described. 

THE GRANT OF HLINCGELAD. 

The charter 14 in which the ford-name appears among 
the boundaries of Hlincgelad may be very briefly ab- 
stracted as follows: — 

[Latin]. " Our Lord Jesus Christ being Lord of 

13. Mr. Cumberland has a really astonishing collection of neoliths, all 
from his own village, and an equally astonishing knowledge of such things. 

14. Kemble : Cod. Dipl., vi, 78, no. 1257. 



GRANT OF LINSLADE 



171 



Hosts [Zabaoth] for ever ... I Eadgar, king of the 
English, and of the rest of the peoples dwelling about 
them, have, in return for her most devoted obedience, 
bestowed upon a certain noble matron who is related 
to me by affinity .... and is called by the graceful 
name ^Elfgifu, a certain estate [ruris praediolum], 
namely, ten hides [cassatae] to which the husband- 
men of that province have given the ancient name 
' set Lhincgelade/ .... to hold freely during her life, 
and to leave after her death to what heirs she pleases, 
.... the land to be free of all burdens except an ap- 
proved expedition and repair of bridge and burh 
[arx]." 

[Then follows the usual sounding curse upon such as 
i shall desire to alter this our gift," etc.] 

"This land is encompassed by the following 
bounds : [Saxon]. These are the land-boundaries to 
Hlincgelad ; from 1 Lincgelad ' along (the) stream to 
Yttinga ford ; from the ford along (the) road [straet] 
to Tumbald's tree; from the tree along (the) road 
[stret] to the midmost hill [hlaw] ; from the hill along 
(the) road to (the) seven hills [' hlawan ' for hlawum]; 
from (the) seven hills to the one hill ; from the one 
hill to ( the) barley croft to the up-headlands ; from 
the up-headlands into the middle of the boundary- 
valley [' on maerdene middewearde 5 ] to the runnel 
[rithig]; from the runnel by the acre-headlands 
[lit. ' headlands of the acres,' field-headlands] to the 
old ditch [die] ; along the ditch back again within the 
stream [i.e. to Hlincgelad]. 

The charter of this grant was written in the year 
966 from the Incarnation . . . . , these being the 
assenting witnesses whose names are inscribed 
below." 

[Here follow the names of the king, archbishops 
Dunstan and ' Oscutel,' eight bishops, four abbots 



172 



GRANT OF LINSLADE 



six earis [duces] including the famous ' Byrhtnoth,' 
and twenty thanes]. 

Like the Chalgrave charter this document is only known i 
by the thirteenth century copy in the Abingdon ' His- 
toria.' 15 There it appears under the heading, ' Carta i 
Regis Edgari de Licchelade,' although the place-name in ; 
the body of the document is Hlincgelad(e) etc., as above. . 
When the cartulary (for the £ Historia ' is hardly, in fact, , 
anything more) was put together, possibly, but not very 
probably, from the original documents, the Abbey cer- 
tainly no longer possessed either Lechlade or Linslade, , 
whichever of the two it may once have held ; there is little 
doubt that the heading is a mere addition by the late 
copyist, who may naturally have heard of Lechlade, only 
some twenty miles from his monastery, but not of Lins- 
lade. Simple comparison of the boundaries given above 
with a large-scale map of Lechlade may be found suffi- 
cient to prove that it cannot be the place meant. It is 
hardly worth while to give the results of such a compari- 
son here. 

The Chalgrave charter of 926, already discussed, is 
introduced in the cartulary by a note which also contains 
a compiler's blunder. There it is stated that Ealdred the 
grantee, himself gave Chalgrave to Abingdon. 16 But fur- 
ther on and not in its true chronological order, an abstract 
is given of the actual grant; 17 the giver is not Ealdred, 
who must have been long dead, but a lady who also bore 
c the elegant name * ^Elfgifu. By it she grants to the 
abbey Chalgrave and a place called Bultesworthe. 18 Only 
a few of the witnesses are named, and there may be a 
blunder among them ; but the date is fixed approximately 

15. Chron. Abingdon; Rolls S.(2), I., 294. 

16. 1 Eodem modo quo supra,' though I could find nothing supra to 
explain it. 

17. Chron. Abingdon; Rolls S. (2), I., 428. 

18. Identified by Stevenson with Blisworth, Northants, probably wrongly. 
The original grant of the place by ^Ethelstan is in the same cartulary, Vol. I., 
PP- 76> 77' aQ d by tne rnetae there given the vill seems to be Bloxworth in 
Dorset. The original grantee was the king's thane * Wulfusthus ' (? 
Wulfnoth). 



GRANT OF LINSLADE 



173 



by the names of Eadwine, abbot of Abingdon from 985 
to 990 [A. S. Chron.], although he is not named as a 
witness, but as having been present and 1 presiding.' 

Hlincgelad is found in a second document of some- 
what later date, the will of the same or another ^Elfgifu. 19 
In addition to the grants of it and other townships a be- 
quest is also made to the aetheling and to a bishop ' Athel- 
wold,' who cannot be ^thelweald I. of Winchester, for 
at his death on the Kalends of August 984, the King was 
still a child and could therefore have had no son. ^Ethel- 
weald II. must be meant, who was bishop from 1006 to a 
date between 1012 and 1014. No other bishop suits the 
facts. 

The i^Elfgifu of this will, whom Kemble calls 
* Queen,' has been thought to be identical with the King's 
first wife, who possibly bore that name ; but she must 
have been dead (or divorced, which is altogether unlikely) 
by 1002, when he married iElfgifu-Emma of Normandy. 20 

iElfgifu of the Hlincgelad grant of 966 is expressly 
stated to have been related to King Eadgar by affinity; 
and that ^Elfgifu of the will was closely related to his son 
/Ethelred II. is the best explanation of her rich bequests 
to him and the aetheling. Both were in possession of 
Hlincgelad, and I see no strong objection to supposing 

19. "And ic ann minsen cinaehlafordae thses landaes aet Weowungum 
[Wing, co. Bucks.] and aet Hlincgelade [Linslade] and set Hsefaeresham 
[Haversham, near Newport Pagnell] and aet Haethfaelda and aet Maessan- 
wyrthae [Masworth or Marsworth, near Tring] and aet Gyssic " [probably 
one of the places called Gussage, in co. Dorset], etc. (Thorpe : Dipl. Aevi. 
Sax., 552). To the Old and New Minsters in Winchester she left two other 
townships in co. Bucks, "aet Hrisanbeorgan " [Prince's Risborough] and 
set Blaeddanhlaewe " [Bledlow]. 

20. According to Ailred of Rievaulx (quoted for the fact in the D.N.B. 
under ' Edmund Ironside '), the first wife of yEthelred was a daughter of 
Thured (Thored), 4 Earl of Deira,' who attested the charter of Linslade, 
already translated, as dux Thured; but her name is by him given as ^Elfflaed, 
sometimes written yEthelflaed. According to Florence of Worcester, the lady 
was ^Elfgifu, daughter of an earl ' Agelberhtus,' of whom nothing seems to 

; be known. Something intermediate between these two accounts may have 
been in the mind of the Abingdon chronicler, when he chose to name Thored 
alone among the lay witnesses to ^Elfgifu's charter. But if so, his guess was 
a rash one. The fact that the will names an /Ethelflsed as sister-in-law of 
the testatrix may be merely a coincidence. 



174 



BOUNDS OF LINSLADE 



that they were the same person. Although called ' mat- 
rona ' in 966, she need not have reached middle-age to be 
so called. But it seems impossible to discover who she 
was. There is not one of the very numerous royal ladies 
known to have borne this name who is not ruled out by 
some fact or other. 21 

YTTINGAFORD AND THE BOUNDARIES OF LINSLADE. 

Upon phonetic grounds the name Lechlade cannot 
well represent Hlincgelad, except by some such phonetic 
miracle as that by which Chelsea 22 represents ' Cealchyth.' 
But when it is known that the ' s ' in Linslade ' is un- 
voiced, i.e., like that in ' rinse ' (rhyming with ' since '), 
and not like that in £ runs ' (which could be spelt runz) 
and that an earlier but quite recently forgotten form is 
' Linchlade,' I imagine that to no philologist would any 
other original form suggest itself than Hlinc-gelad. 23 In 
the will it is named immediately after Wing 24 (' Weowun- 

21. King Eadgar's mother, paternal aunt and sister-in-law, were all 
named yElfgifu. In view of the fact that the Hlincgelad grant emphasises 
that it was made to ^Elfgifu ' pro obsequio ejus devotissimo,' it is perhaps 
just possible that she was King Eadwig's unhappy kinswoman and wife, 
separated from her husband by Archbishop Oda in 958. The story of her 
murder is late and quite untrustworthy. 

22. The new village of Linslade was in my younger days also called 
Chelsea, but I do not think that it is an older name here than the con- 
struction of the Grand Junction Canal. There are only three houses remain- 
ing which are obviously older than the late eighteenth century. 

23. Mine, mod. ' lince,' &c. ; gelad, mod. ' lode ' &c. (water-course). 
A lince or lynch is a single-faced bank, either natural, or formed on a slope 
at the downward limit of ploughing by turning the sod always downhill. 
The Ousel south of the church divides into several channels ; the one referred 
to in the name is probably that nearest the church, along which the boundary 
runs. Above it on the Linslade side and south of the church, is a steep natural 
lince of bank and sand -mounds, overgrown with trees. The intermediate 
forms of the name are Lincelada (Domesday), Lyncelade (xii. cent.), Lynchlad 
and Lincelad (xiii. cent.), and lastly Linchlade. The last was used as late aa 
— indeed later than — Lady Corbet's patent of a life-peerage as Viscountess 
Linchlade in 1675. Although the analogy of such names as Edlesborough is 
now beginning to cause ' voicing ' of the ' s,' as if it marked a possessive 
(' Linzlade '), this is done in the district itself only by the ultra-refined. 

24. As it preserves a known early tribal name, "set Weowungum " is 
probably not a misreading. The Domesday forms are Witehunge and 
Withunga, with Withungrave &c. for Wingrave ; no later forms support them, 
and they must be due to the easy misreading of the runic 1 w ' (wen) as 1 th ' 
(thorn), which are much alike. The tribal name referred to is ' Woingum I 



BOUNDS OF LINSLADE 



175 



gum ' dat. of a plur. name ' Weowungas ') which is con- 
terminous with Linslade to the west ; and four other Buck- 
inghamshire vills are also named, one of which, Marsworth 
(locally pronounced Mazzurth), lies only two parishes 
away. These facts alone make the identification not un- 
likely, and as far as is known no other place in England 
bears a name in the least resembling it. 

I emphasise these points not only because I have not 
personally ' perambulated ' the bounds of Lechlade and 
know them only by the map, but also because the present 
state of the Linslade boundaries, which I have very care- 
fully examined, cannot be said to be described quite hap- 
pily everywhere by the ancient metae. But, after all, what 
was a fair description a thousand years ago is not neces- 
sarily so now. As far as I can see, Lechlade does not ' fit ' 
at all, and except for a few minor details, Linslade does. 

Starting from the old village near the church, and 
going with the sun, the bounds follow the river ['ea,' the 
Ousel brook 25 ] to within a hundred yards or so of an old 
ford (Yttingaford of the charter) between the northern 
extremity of Grove parish and Grovebury in Leighton 
Buzzard. I was told that this is an artificial gravel-made 
ford still used by hunting men, although the canal on the 
Linslade side has made it otherwise disused and useless. 
The ancient road called ' thiodweg ' in the Chalgrave char- 
ter makes directly for this ford, but stops short of it about 
half a mile east. After a very short interval, however, its 
line is perhaps indicated right down to the ford by the 
well-marked bank and ditch of an old enclosure. After 
many vain enquiries I found that although its ancient 

(pi. dative) in ' Widsith ' — c Mere-Wioinga ' (pi. genitive) in Beowulf, half- 
line 5384 ; here the context seems to show that they were connected or con- 
federate with the Hetwaras (Chattuarii). But it is curious that Nennius 
gives the personal name from which the patronymic is formed (Wewa), as 
that of his first King of the East Angles in Britain ; Florence of Worcester 
repeats it (with variants in the MSS.), as the name of the father of his first 
King Wuffa. It occurs again as Wiwaa in an inscription at Tun in Norway. 

25. The name Ousel is perh. English; it is the Whizzle (Whistle) Brook 
I at Ivinghoe, where ' whizzle ' usually = weasel. Its older and possibly 
Celtic name is ' Lovatt,' and if I can trust a faint recollection, Leland has 
4 Lovant.' 



176 



YTTINGAFORD 



name is lost to the ford itself, it has been borrowed and 
retained to this day by the hill which slopes down to the 
ford's edge on the Linslade side. It is now Tiddingford, 26 
i.e., aet Yttingaford with the ' t ' of ' aet ' (at) prefixed. 27 
In the Latin of f Anglo-Saxon ' charters, place-names are 
usually quoted in the dative with this English preposition ; 
and so common is the phrase that it seems almost 
to have had the status of an idiom. In this very 
charter the name ' given to the estate by the inhabitants 
of the district 9 is not said to be Hlincgelad, as one might 
expect, but the 4 antiquum vocabulum cet Lhincgelade? 
It is less astonishing that occasionally an obscure and 
seldom-written name such as Yttingaford should be found 
to have suffered this change than that it is actually so rare. 

Although the ford is considerably to the west of the 
Danish boundary de jure as fixed by the treaty of Wed- 
more (A.D. 878), it may very well have been on the 
boundary de facto by the time of the treaty of Yttinga- 
ford in 906. The Chalgrave charter shows that by 926 
at least, the Danes held west of the earlier line. The 
Ousel, which a thousand years ago was a considerable 
stream, 28 is still a far better-marked natural boundary than 
any line (except Watling Street) between Bedford and the 
well-head of the Lea. Here at least is an Yttingaford 
upon a demonstrated ancient 29 road crossing or branching 
from Icknield, the principal highway from East Anglia; 

26. Mr. Thomas Hopkins, of Grovebury Farm, first gave me this name 
for the hill. It is usually sounded ' Tidd'nfoot,' and even ' Tinfoot ' ; many 
who seem to say Tiddingford in full have the impression that the final 
syllable is ' foot.' 

27. The modem surname Twells = atte Welles or Atwell, may be parallel. 
Cf. also Tooley Street for St. Olave's. 

28. Some very curious fish-stews close by at Grovebury, which were prob- 
ably made by the Fontevrault colonists of Grove Priory in the xiiith or xivth 
century, show that the water in the river was then constantly 2ft. gin. higher 
than now, for all the ponds but one, which has been deepened, are quite dry 
except when the stream floods to that height. Very little more would bring 
the water to the foot of the hills on either side of the ford. 

29. In addition to my previous notes upon the road, it may be added that 
burial-' urns ' of pre-Roman make have been found on Tiddingford hill itself, 
in former excavations for sand. On the slope of Grovebury hill I have 
myself found Romano-Brit, pottery close to the line of the road. 



YTTINGAFORD 



177 



here is its name more or less preserved, and it is not too 
far from the boundary of the earlier treaty. As has been 
remarked above, the old identification with Hitchin(ford) 
seems to be due to someone who had probably heard of 
the village of Ickleford close by Hitchin. McClure 30 
suspects an error in the name, though only because it has 
so long remained unidentified, and suggests ' Ultingford,' 
i.e., Ulting in Essex. But no likelier site than the Lins- 
lade ford 31 has been found for it, and indeed a likelier 
place could hardly be found. 

The name, of course, signifies the ford of the ' Yttin- 
gas,' but I will not venture any guess about that possible 
tribe. The same patronymic occurs in the singular in an- 
other place-name in England — ' Yttingeshlaw(e) ' — a 
barrow named in an Abingdon charter of the year 942, 
among the boundaries of ^Ermundeslea, which, although 
the names have no relation, is believed to be Appleton 
in Berks. One is reminded of the Ytas of ' Widsith,' etc., 
who seem to be the Eotas or Jutes ; but the slight resem- 
blance is probably accidental. 

After crossing the river below the ford, the Hlinc- 
gelad boundary is stated to follow a 4 straet. 5 At Linslade 
it follows an old road running uphill towards Wing, south 
of Salters Hill, but now partly out of use. It is plainly 
recognisable all the way except over the first field, from 
which it has been cut off by the railway. The word ' straet ' 
by no means always indicates a via strata. In ' Beo- 
wulf 5 and elsewhere it is applied to any road and even 
j to the course of ships. There are plenty of Street Fields, 
etc., along Icknield, a road which was never paved; 
Streatley too is not upon a Roman road. 

Along this road one proceeds to the tree, ' to Tum- 
baldes treowe,' 32 which, perhaps naturally, cannot be 

30. 1 Brit. Place-Names in their Historical Setting,' p. 262x1. 

31. Many rather insignificant streams were not easily passable except at 
paved fords. The Oxfordshire Cherwell is a historically striking example. 

32. Cf Toman- weorthig ' = Tamworthy. The original name was no 
doubt ' Tunbeald.' 



178 



BOUNDS OF LINSLADE 



found. At Wing no less than six persons said they had 
heard the name, or something like it, but I failed to re- 
cover it definitely. It may have stood at the first sharp 
turn in the line to the north and north-west, where the 
Wing and Linslade boundaries first coincide. Thence 
an old roadway is still followed, which crosses the 
present high-road to Leighton at the site of the abolished 
toll-gate. 

The middle c hlaw ' may have been a vanished bar- 
row near the junction of the Soulbury-Wing-Linslade 
boundaries, or it may be the high ground itself, which here 
at the sharp angle is called ' Top o' the Parishes/ and 
further north-east ' Lord's Hill.' This ridge is followed 
for nearly two miles, a pathway accompanying the line 
more than half the distance. Precisely where the path 
finally leaves the line and, I suppose, the e straet/ the latter 
is seen at last to wear for a hundred yards or so the aspect 
of an old road. The present Leighton-Soulbury road is 
now crossed at the highest point of Mile-Bush Hill, and 
the boundary zig-zags into an arable field with nothing 
whatever on the ground to indicate it. Here may have 
been the seven c hlsewas,' if that word must mean barrows ; 
but though their former existence would well explain the 
meander ings of the boundary, there is no sign of them. 
I imagine that the bluffs which dip down into the Ousel 
valley may be meant; it is at least curious that I was 
given exactly seven names for them. The boundary 
reaches them from Mile-Bush Hill, after crossing the 
Chelmscote road, by a long and tall lince between two 
hills. But on this supposition it is difficult to identify 
the ' one ' hill or ' hlaw.' A little east of one of the bluffs 
is a small conical hill the isolation of which is not alto- 
gether due to the railway cutting between; but it is far, 
within the present boundary. There are two barrows on 
the further side of the river, but none remain on the Lins- 
lade side nearer than Wing. It is true that on the sand 
such things are swiftly destroyed by the plough ; a hun- 
dred years ago there was a Norman ' motte ' and large 



BOUNDS OF LINSLADE 



179 



castle-yard not far away on the Leighton side ; there now 
remains no trace of it at all. 

The barley croft and the * up-headlands ' are of 
course beyond recognition. They may have occupied the 
slopes. The ' boundary valley ' is that of the river 
separating both the parishes and the counties. The 
1 rithig ' exists and is readily found, rising in a little round 
patch of bog. By the ' old dike ' a natural course of the 
river itself seems to be meant, which the present boun- 
dary follows ; it has long served only as a bye-pass for the 
mill-water of Grange mill, whose impounded mill-pool, 
though widened and steeply banked on the side towards 
Linslade, perhaps represents one of the original branches 
of the stream. 33 At all events, there is no other 'dike ' or 
ditch which can be meant; and in fact several short ex- 
tensions of this piece of stream are artificial. The ' river ' 
is then reached, and followed ' within the stream ' to the 
neighbourhood of the church or the Knees, whence the 
start was made. 

It must be confessed that the latter portion of the 
boundary is not very minutely accounted for. But I sub- 
mit that the general features of the land everywhere agree, 
and that the place-name itself, the old road, the ford, the 
ford-name, and the other consonant facts which have been 
stated, are beyond the possibilities of mere coincidence. 

For much kindly help in gathering materials for 
this paper, my warm thanks are due to Dr. Fowler, Mr. 
Robert Richmond, Mr. William Horley of Luton, Mr. 
Thomas Hopkins of Grovebury, and to Adam Rickett, 
his son and grandson, shepherds of Chalgrave. 



33. A little further up stream rt divides into many channels. 



THE PAPER REGISTER 
OF ST. MARY'S CHURCH IN 
BEDFORD, 1539-1558. 

EDITED BY THE REV. A. G. KEALY. 

St. Mary's Church, Bedford, possesses its original 
paper Register of Baptisms, Marriages and Burials. The 
Order for keeping Parish Registers was issued by Thomas 
Cromwell, the Vicar General, on 29 Sep. 1538. In 1597 
it was ordered that the registers were to be transcribed on 
parchment from their beginning " or at least from the 
first year of Her Majesty's reign "; that would be 1558. 
A lazy transcriber would avail himself of that permission ; 
and that happened in the case of St. Mary's register, for 
the transcript on parchment begins with an entry of 20 
Nov. 1558. Generally, the original paper registers were 
destroyed after being transcribed, but at St. Mary's this 
was fortunately preserved. But the register shews signs 
of its age; the pages for the period 1539-1558 are badly 
dog-eared top and bottom, some are torn across, and the 
writing is faint; so that on every count it has become ad- 
visable to transcribe it; and to get the register into print 
whilst it remains possible to read the entries. It has been 
difficult to recover some of the names, and in a very few 
instances impossible, but on the whole the result may be 
regarded as very satisfactory. In every instance I have 
retained the original spelling, except in lengthening con- 
tractions. Although the first entry is for Oct. 1539 I have 
no doubt the register began in 1 538, for the first two leaves 
have been cut out, and the Oct. 1539 entry is close to the 
top edge of the page ; moreover, the year 1539 is not men- 
tioned, but it is deducible from the entry further on of 



182 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



1 540. The usual statement that it is the register of 

Church is missing. For these reasons we may safely 
conclude that it originally began in 1 538 as ordered. 

A. a KEALY. 



T539- 

17 Oct, Bap. Margaret Petye dau. of Richard Petye. 

17 Oct, Bur. Agnes Erby wife of John Erby. 

7 Jan, Bap. Nicholas Mylwarde son of John Mylwarde. 

17 Jan, Bap. Robert Dawes son of John Dawes, Junior. 
24 Jan, Bur. John Bendowe. 

31 Jan, Bur. Agnes, wife of Richard Gare. 
31 Jan, Bap. George Sawnders son of Nicholas Sawn- 
ders. 

20 Mar, Bap. Alice Wells dau. of Thomas Wells. 
1540. 

11 April, Mar. George Irelonde and Alice Wylliams. 

18 April, Bap. Elizabeth Byrd dau. of John Byrd. 
2 May, Mar. John Erby and Agnes Kyng. 

17 May, Bap. John Wylson son of Stephen Wylson. 

18 May, Bur. Thomas Wylkyns son of Robert Wylkyns. 
22 June, Bap. Wylliam Gostwyck son of Wylliam Gost- 

wyck. 

22 June, Bap. Margaret Kellyt daughter of Wylliam 
Kellyt. 

27 July, Bur. John Herman son of Robert Herman. 

28 July, Bur. Alice Wells dau. of Thomas Wells. 
1 5 Aug, Bur. Agnes aist[?] widow. 

27 Aug, Bur. Joanna Stok wife of John Stok. 
7 Sep, Bur. Alice Boyvill, nup. de monasterio de Elmes- 
tow. 

17 Sep, Bap. Margaret Dew [Dow?] dau. of Wylliam 
Dew. 

17 Sep, Bur. John Attnett[?] 

19 Sep, Bur. Wylliam Gostwyck son of Wylliam Gost- 

wyck. 



1539-1558 



183 



ii Jan, Bap. Amya Keywodd dau. of Radulphus Key- 
wood. 

16 Jan, Mar. Thomas Edmund and Alice Jonson. 

22 Jan, Bur. Thomas Richardson son of John Richard- 

son. 

4 Feb, Bap. Alice Jonson dau. of Cornelius Jonson. 
4 Feb, Bur. Robert Dent son of John Dent. 

7 March, Bur. Thomas bems, stranger. 

7 March, Bur. Margaret Ladd, dau. of Thomas Ladd. 
March, Bap. Wylliam, son of Thomas Russell and 
buried 28th. 

1 541. 

3 July, Bap. Nicholas Boowman son of Robert Boowman. 

17 July, Mar. Robert Colson and Margerie Barlye. 

23 July, Bap. Thabita Warner dau. of Walter Warner. 

4 Aug, Bap. John Spens son of John Spens. 

10 Sep, Bap. Amya Richardson dau. of John Richardson. 
14 Sep, Bap. Margaret Mylwarde dau. of John Myl- 

warde. 

26 Sep, Bur. Margaret Mylwarde dau. of John Mylwarde. 

26 Sep, Bur. William West son of John West, mercer. 
3 Oct, Bur. Margaret Collyt dau. of Richard. 

17 Oct, Bap. Thomas Mason son of Humfrey Mason. 
3 Nov, Bap. Nicolas Watson son of Thomas Watson. 
20 Nov, Mar. John Jokylp and Katherine Odam. 
20 Nov, Bur. Elyzabeth Byrde dau. of John Byrde. 

1 1 Dec, Bur. Robert Gostwyck, presbuteros. 

31 Jan, Bur. Nicholas Bowman son of Robert Bowman. 
17 March, Bap. John Petye son of Richard Petye. 

1542. 

27 March, Bur. Agnes [missing], maid. 

1 April, Bur. Thomas Mason son of Hu[m]frid Mason. 
1 April, Bap. Elizabeth Mosse dau. of John Mosse. 

26 April, Bap. Amia Sawnders, dau. of Nicholas 

Sawnders. 

27 April, Bur. Isabella Nycolse wife of Robert Nycolse. 



184 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



i May, Bur. John E stall, stranger. 

8 May, Mar. John Richardson and Joan Stok. 

5 July, Bur. Nycolas Covyngton son of Robert 

COVENGTON. 

14 July, Bap. Nycolas Russell son of Thomas Russell. 

17 July, Mar. Thomas Crayford and Agnes Foxe. 

14 Aug, Bur. Radulphus Corbett. 

14 Aug, Bur. Thomas Thornton. 

4 Sep, Mar. Robert Nycols and Rose Spery. 

7 Oct, Bur. Christiana Payn wife of Wylliam Payn. 

9 Oct, Bur. Joanna Wells wife of Thomas Wells. 
12 Oct, Mar. Ambrose oo[k] and Alice Purde. 

Nov, Bap. Helena Mason dau. of Hu[m]frid Mason. 
1 March, Bap. Margaret Wylson dau. of Stephen 
Wylson. 

1543- 

31 March, Bap. Francesca Byrde dau. of John Byrde. 

4 April, Bap. John Mylwarde son of John Mylwarde. 

5 April, Bap. Joanna Keywod dau. of Radulphus 

Keywod. 

5 April, Bap. Anna Smyth dau. of William Smyth. 
7 April, Bur. Agnes Crayford wife of Thomas Crayford. 
31 July, Bap. Robert Gostwyck son of William 
Gostwyck. 

19 Sep, Bur. Amia Reson wife of John Reson. 

20 Oct, Bap. Joanna Wells dau. of Thomas Wells. 
20 Oct, Mar. William Boughto[n] and Joanna Batt. 
23 Oct, Bur. Richard Elan[d], priest. 

23 Oct, Bur. William Payn. 

7 Dec, Bap. Nicholas Sawnder[s] son of Nicholas 

Sawnder[s]. 
7 Dec, Bur. Alice Ferley, widow. 

20 Dec, Bur. Stranger, unknown, who came from Ptnall 
[Pertenhall ?] 

26 Dec, Bur. Elizabeth Furth dau. of Thomas Furth of 

Cardyngton. 
28 Dec, Bur. John Daye. 



1539-1558 



185 



20 Jan, Mar. John Kyrb[y] and Grace Maffeild. 
20 Jan, Bur. John Wayght. 

1544- t 

4 April, Bap. Elizabeth Russell dau. of Thomas 
Russell. 

10 April, Bap. Elizabeth Spenser dau. of John Spen[ser]. 

20 May, Bur. William Dale of Elmestowe [Elstow]. 
22 June, Bur. John Brewer. 

19 July, Mar. John Resen and Margaret Smyth. 

29 Aug, Bap. Thomas Wylson son of Stephen Wylson. 

19 Oct, Mar. John Prees and Alice Ladd. 

1545. 

1 May, Bur. John Mosse. 

3 May, Bur. wife of aforesaid. 

29 May, Bur. Nycolas Joe. 

7 June, Bap. Joanna Robynson dau, of Laurence 
Robenson 

19 June, Bap. Margaret Maylard, dau. of Edward 
Maylard. 

21 ? June, Bur. Marion Myles wife of William Myles. 
7 July, Bap. William Boowman son of Robert Boowman. 

30 July, Bap. John Preese son of John Preese. 
30 July, Bur. Alice Fowler, widow. 

30 July, Bap. Robert Russell son of Thomas Russell. 
1 Aug, Bur. Thomas [missing]. 

1 Aug, Bap. and Bur. Joanna Gostwyck dau. of William 

Gostwyck. 

2 Sep, Bap. Margaret Richardson dau. of John 

Richardson. 

11 Sep, Bap. Anna Richardson dau. of William 

Richardson. 

13 Sep, Bap. Margaret Abbes dau. of Richard Abbes. 
18 Sep, Bur. Richard Hilton. 

28 Sep, Bur. Robert Russell son of Thomas Russell. 

4 Oct, Mar. John Leed and Agnes Crasshe. 

18 Oct, Mar. John Danyell and Marione Ladd. 



186 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



10 Nov, Bap. Isabella [?]Bell dau. of John Bell. 
10 Nov, Bur. Thomas Crosse. 

i 6 Nov, Bap. Joanna Wells dau. of Thomas Wells. 

9 Dec, Bur. William Boowman son of Robert Boowman. 

26 Dec, Bap. Margaret Knyght dau. of Gabriel Knyght. 

1 Jan, Bur. Joanna Nottyngham, widow. 

14 Jan, Bur. Hu[m]frid Mason. 

22 Jan, Bur. Christiana Barly wife of William Barly. 
22 Jan, Bur. John D[a]wes, senior. 

10 Feb, Bap. Robert Dawes son of Robert Dawes. 

1 1 Feb, Bur. Margaret Knyght dau. of Gabriel Knyght. 
19 Feb, Bur. Elizabeth Erby wife of John Erby. 

19 Feb, Bap. Thomas Spenser son of John Spenser. 

11 March, Bap. Elizabeth Johnson dau. of Thomas 

JONSON. 

1546. 

29 March, Bur. Agnes Saunders dau. of John Saunders. 
29 March, Bur. John Richardson. 

27 March, Bur. George Geyton. 

4 April, Bur. Joanna Morlande, stranger. 

24 April, Bap. Nycolas Geyton son of George Geyton. 

5 May, Bur. Marion Boowman dau. of Robert Boowman. 

7 May, Bur. Nycolas Geyton, son of George Geyton. 

13 May, Bur. Anna Sanders dau. of Nycolas Saunders. 

1 5 May, Bur. Robert Rand son of William Rand. 

18 May, Mar. John Wyse and Elynor Trabyll. 

14 June, Bur. Margaret Byrd wife of John Byrd. 

19 June, Bur. Agnes Pet[er]son wife of James Pet[er]- 

son. 

22 June, Bap. Edward Maybott son of William Maybott. 

2 July, Bur. James Pet[er]son. 

14 July, Bap. Jasp[er] Russell son of Thomas Russell. 
19 July, Bap. William Leed son of John Leed. 

8 Aug, Bap. Margaret Longton dau. of John Longton. 

12 Aug, Mar. Wylliam Rushe and Joanna Hatley. 
19 Aug, Bur. Joanna Hylton, widow. 

10 Sep, Bur. Thomas Dytton. 



1539-1558 



187 



16 Sep, Bur. Agnes Gybson. 

i 6 Sep, Bap. Michael Wylson son of Stephen Wylson. 

19 Sep, Bur. Helen Tomlyn, servula. 

21 Sep, Mar. Robert Bull and Agnes Lambert. 

26 Sep, Bur. Katherine Barly dau. of Wylliam Barly. 
30 Sep, Bur. Christiana Rand wife of William Rand. 
24 Oct, Mar. John Erby and Joanne Richardson. 

27 Oct, Bur. Dorothea Ma[n]ton, servant to George 

Irelande. 

5 Nov, Bur. Helena Abbes, dau. of Richard Abbes. 
8 Nov, Bur. Wylliam Abbes son of aforesaid Richard. 

8 Nov, Bur. Margery Faunt[?], dau. of the wife of John 

Richardson. 

9 Nov, Bur. Joanna Wells dau. of Thomas Wells. 

12 Nov, Bur. Joanna Watkynson dau. of Thomas Wat- 

kynson. 

13 Nov, Bur. Nycholas Russell son of Thomas Russell. 

14 Nov, Bur. Joanna Watkynson dau. of Thomas Wat- 

kynson [see above.] 

21 Nov, Bur. Elizabeth Watkynson dau. of aforesaid 

Thomas. 

22 Nov, Bur. Thomas Bull and William Bull sons of 

William Bull. 
27 Nov, Mar. John Byrd and Marie Webbe. 

27 Nov, Bur. Amy Richardson wife of John Richardson. 
29 Nov, Bur. Margaret Abbes dau. of Richard Abbes. 

1 Dec, Bur. Alice Payne, Stranger. 

8 Dec, Bur. Thomas Ladd. 

9 Dec, Bur. John Watkynson son of Thomas Watkyn- 

son. 

13 Dec, Bur. Elizabeth Edwards, servant. 

13 Dec, Bur. Elizabeth Bakar dau. of Thomas Bakar. 

16 Dec, Bur. Thomas Watkynson, Senior. 

28 Dec, Bur. Joanna Wylson dau. of John Wylson. 

17 Jan, Mar. John Gylley and Elizabeth Clerk. 

19 Jan, Bur. Elizabeth Knyght dau. of Gabriel Knyght. 
19 Jan, Bur. Joanna Dytton, dau. of Thomas Dytton. 



188 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



23 Jan, Mar. Richard Burges and Elizabeth Hall. 
30 Jan, Bur. Thomas Spenser son of John Spenser. 

3 Feb, Bur.? Anna Richardson dau. of William 

Richardson. 

4 Feb, Bap. Maria Mylwarde dau. of John Mylwarde. 
1 1 Feb, Bap. Elizabeth Inman dau. of Robert Inman. 
13 Feb, Bur. Edward Roo and Helena Roo children of 

Alexander Roo. 
13 Feb, Bap. Helena Barnes dau. of Nycholas Barnes. 

23 Feb, Bur. Anna Richardson dau. of William 

Richardson. 

24 Feb, Bur. Gabriel Knyght. 

2 Mar, Bur. Alice Corbett, widow. 

1547. 

1 April, Bap. Joanna Knyght dau. of Gabriel Knyght. 

3 April, Bap. Wylliam Bull son of Wylliam Bull. 

27 April, Mar. John Bentley and Alice Dytton. 
20 May, Bur. John Bull son of Wylliam Bull. 

28 May, Bap. Joanna Keywod dau. of Radulphus Key- 

wod. 

30 May, Bur. the aforesaid Joanna. 

29 June, Mar. Wylliam Messenger and Alice Maylerd. 
7 July, Bur. Issabella Bell dau. of John Bell. 

19 Aug, Mar. Henry K00 and Elizabeth Watkynson. 
19 Aug, Bap. Joanna Rand dau. of John Rand. 
19 Aug, Bap. John Dawes son of John Dawes. 
23 Sep, Bap. Alice Prese dau. of John Prese. 
2 3[3°- ? ] Sep, Bap. Elyzabeth Abbes dau. of Richard 
Abbes. 

1 1 Oct, Bur. Elyzabeth Abbes dau. of Richard Abbes. 
13 Oct, Bap. William Welles son of Thomas Welles. 
19 Oct, Mar. Radulphus Lanman and Margaret Abbey. 
1 Nov, Bap. Elyzabeth Byrde dau. of John Byrde. 
27 Nov, Bap. Thomas Spenser son of John Spenser. 
1 Jan, Bur. Maria Sterne dau. of Henry Sterne. 
5 Feb, Bur. Matilda Kyng, widow. 



1539-1558 



189 



8 Feb, Bap. Joanna Amoore. dau. of Agnes Amoore, 

alien. 

5 Mar, Bap. Joanna Richardson dau. of John Richard- 

son. 

1548. 

31 Mar, Bur. Agnes Armsby, widow. 
4 April, Bap. John Newman son of Lawrence Newman. 
7 April, Bap. Margaret Maybot dau. of William May- 
bott. 

10 April, Bap. Alice Roo dau. of Alexander Roo. 

19 April, Bap. Robert Wylson son of Stephen Wylson. 

28 May, Bur. John Richardson son of Wylliam Richard- 

son. 

2 June, Bur. Agnes Sherman wife of Robert Sherman. 

11 July, Bap. John Harberd son of Robert Harberd. 

18 July, Bur. Alice Presse dau. of John Presse. 

27 luly, Bap. Thomas Rosett son of John Rosett. 

29 "July, Mar. Robert Sherman and Helen Mason. 

12 Aug, Bap. Nicolas Frisbi son of Robert Frisby. 

17 Aug, Bur. John Nysse, Stranger. 

21 Aug, Bap. Margaret Bett dau. of Radulphus Bett. 

19 Sep, Bur. Nicolas Sander son of Nicolas Sander. 

6 Oct, Bap. Maria Leid dau. of John Leid. 

14 Oct, Mar. John Bull and Alice Cop. 

15 Oct, Mar. John Darling and Elyzabeth Fience. 

18 Oct, Bur. Robert Wylson son of Stephen Wylson. 
21 Oct, Mar. Walter Gaunt and Helen Prat. 

2 1 Oct, Bur. Alice Roo dau. of Alexander Roo. 
25 Oct, Bap. John Jakson son of Miles Jakson. 

28 Oct, Mar. John Lecyter and Helen Dey. 

9 Nov, Bap. John Lawman son of Radulphus Lawman. 
9 Nov, Bur. Nicolas Sander. 

1 Dec, Bur. Joanna Juner [Inner?] stranger. 

18 Dec, Bap. Thomas Alongton son of John Alongton. 

1 Feb, Bap. Robert Bull son of Robert Bull. 

2 Feb, Bap. Maria Bekett dau. of Simon Bekett. 

14 Feb, Bap. Alice Stormy dau. of Richard Stormy. 
[i]6 Mar, Bur. William Garston. 



190 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



1549- 

1 Apr, Bur. Joanna Crosse, widow. 

5 May, Bap. Agnes Mylward dau. of Thomas Mylward. 

2 June, Bap. William Prease son of John Prease. 

29 June, Bap. Margaret Byrde dau. of John Byrde. 
7 July, Bap. John Meryll son of William Meryll. 

7 July, Bap. Agnes Davy dau. of Robert Davy. 
l 9 July, Bap. William nyt son of Radulphus nyt. 

10 Aug, Bap. Maria Passell dau. of William Passell. 
19 Aug, Bap. Anna Frisby dau. of Thomas Frisby. 

19 Aug, Bur. Joanna Morland dau. of Anna Morland. 

23 Aug, Bap. Joanna Darlyng dau. of John Darlyng. 

7 Sep, Bur. Margaret Bell dau. of Radulphus Bell. 

5 Sep, Bap. Alice Myles dau. of William Mylles. 

8 Sep, Bap. Thomas Hynman son of Robert Hynman. 
22 Sep, Bap. Agnes Rand dau. of John Rand. 

30 Sep, Bap. John Mylward son of John Mylward. 

30 Sep, Bur. Alice Dawes dau. of Robert Dawes. 
2 Nov, Bur. John Mylward son of John Mylward. 

1 1 Nov, Bap. Thomas Maybott son of William Maybott. 

13 Nov, Bur. William Reynan son of Radulphus Rey- 

nan. 

22 Nov, Bur. Thomas Maybott son of William Maybott. 
2 Dec, Bap. Robert Wells son of Thomas Wells. 
8 Jan, Bap. Thomas Sherman son of Robert Sherman. 
8 Jan, Bur. Johanna Sherman dau. of Robert Sherman. 
19 Jan, Bap. Joanna Newman dau. of Lawrence New- 
man. 

[2]9 Jan, Bur. William Barley. 

31 Jan, Bur. Elizabeth Burges wife of Richard Burges. 

[A change of writing occurs here.] 

i55o. 

24 May, Bap. Thomas Sturmy son of Richard Sturmy. 

6 June, Bur. Martin Troll, servant of Mr. Leigh. 

14 June, Bap. Nicholas Bell. 

19 June, Born, John Russell son of Thomas Russell. 
22 June, Mar. Roger Brown and Margerie Kyrck. 



1539-1558 



191 



20 [?] Aug, Mar. Henry Crowche and Agnes Bredy- 

MAN. 

Sep, Mar. Symon Pope and Elyzabeth Gra[me?]. 

19 Oct, Mar. William Dynnes and Alice Browne. 

20 Oct, Bur. Barnabas, depyng[?] famulus Thomas 

Russell. 

25 Oct, Born, Agnes Coo, dau. of Henry Coo. 

26 Oct, Mar. Richard Page and Joanna Steven. 
3 Nov, Mar. John Cowpper and Alice Russell. 

10 Nov, Born, Richard Rusell son of Thomas Rusell. 

24 Nov, Bur. Elizabeth Boivill, Generosa. 

3 Jan, Bap. Agnes Coo dau. of Henry Coo. 

7 Jan, Bap. Katherine Meybot dau. of William Meybot. 

7 Jan, Mar. Robert Walkar and Alice Sawnders. 

10 Jan, Bap. Thomas Bull son of William Bull. 
16 Jan, Bap. Robert Myles. 

31 Jan, Bap. and Bur. John Pynfold. 

7 Feb, Bur. Nycolas Cowpper de Wylshamsted, in the 

cemetery of S. Mary, Bedford. 
7 Feb, Bur. Joanna Roo, dau. of Alexander Roo. 
28 Feb, Bap. Alice Gybbes dau. of Thomas Gybbes. 

I55i. 

14 Mar, Bur. William Meygot\ 

14 Mar, Bur. Elyzabeth mendica. 

20 May [March?], Mar. Thomas Knyght and Alice 

Pat[er]noster. 
31 May [March?], Bap. Anna Cray dau. of Thomas 

Cray. 

9 May, Bap. Alice Mylward dau. of John Mylward. 

11 May, Bur. John Freer. 

31 May, Bap. Thomas Becket son of Simon Becket. 
1 June, Bur. Juliana Harbord, widow. 
30 June, Bap. Margerie Lowrie dau. of Thomas Lowrie. 
14 July, Bur. Margaret Cockman wife of John Cock- 
man. 

20 July, Bur. Elyzabeth West dau. of John West, 
senior. 



192 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



24 Aug, Bap. Thomas Bowr son of Thomas Bowr. 

26 Aug, Bap. Elyzabeth Cowpper dau. of John Cowpper. 
31 Aug, Bap. Nycolas Longton son of John Longton. 
2 Sep, Bur. Elyzabeth Cowpper dau. of John Cowpper. 
9 Sep, Bur. John Waren son of William Warren of 

Goldyngton. 

4 Oct, Bap. John Edmond son of Robert Edmond. 
23 Oct, Bap. Richard Davy son of Richard Davy. 

23 Oct, Bap. Alice Preese dau. of John Preese. 

28 Oct, Bap. Joanna Wakar dau. of Robert Wakar. 
31 Oct, Bap. Prudence Pyke dau. of Edmund Pyke. 

[Entries in English begin here.] 
21 Dec, Bur. Jane Petye wife of Richard Petye. 
2 Jan, Bur. Wylliam Pettye son of Richard Pety. 
8 Jan, Bur. Henry Thorneton son of Robert Thornton. 

14 Feb, Mar. Richard Petye and Alice Kyrbye. 
4 Mar, Bur. John Erby. 

4 Mar, Bap. Edmond Tynsley son of Thurston Tynsley. 
1552. 

27 April, Bap. Yssabell Kyrfett dau. of George 

Kyrfett. 

15 May, Bur. John Russell younger son of Thomas 

Russell, the elder. 

24 June, Bur. Robert Sharman. 

30 June, Bur. Alice Irelond wife of George Irelond. 
[The next leaf is torn out except for a fragment top left 

hand bearing] 
2 July [Bap.?], Westby. 

[Two marriages were entered in the same month and a 
bap m in August.] 

1553. j 
23 April, Bap. Robert Bell son of Ralph [Radulphus?] 

Bell. 

7 May, Bap. Anne Beckett dau. of Symon Beckett. 
14 May, Bap. Margaret Haddock dau. of Robert 
Haddock. 

21 May, Bap. John Inman son of Robert Inman. 



1539-1558 



193 



5 June, Mar. Fra[n]cy[s] Dyck and [illegible/] 

io June, Bap. Sara Goodall dau. of Robert (Toodall. 
io June, Bur. Thomas Russell, 
io June, Bap. Frauncys Bull son of Wylliam Bull. 
2 July, Bap. Thomas Lawrence son of Richard Law- 
rence. 

6 Aug, Bap. Thomas Yeaman son of William Yeaman. 
6 Aug, Bur. Anne Wylliamson dau. of John Wylliam- 

son. 

8 Oct, Mar. Cornelys Jonson and [Alice?] Morys. 

20 Oct, Bur. Stevyn Wylson, tyler. 

29 Oct, Mar. Thomas Hutton and Joan Erby. 

13 Nov, Bap. Kateryn Spens dau. of John Spens. 

17 Nov, Bap. Anne Jackson dau. of Myles Jackson. 

18 Nov, Bur. John Yeaman alias Laad, who died intes- 

tate. 

23 Nov, Mar. Thomas Smyth of Cardyngton, shepherd, 
and Jane Dawes, widow. 

17 Dec, Bap. Anne Kyrfot dau. of George Kyrfot. 

20 Dec, Bap. — yam Newman son of Lawrence New- 
man. 

23 Dec, Bur. Joan Mylward dau. of John Mylward. 
St?] J an > Bur. Mary Yeaman, widow. 

14 Jan, Bap. John Bull son of John Bull, baker. 

13 Feb, Bap. Mary Knyght dau. of Thomas Knyght, 
baker. 

17 Feb, Bur. Alice [illegible] servant to Symon Beckyt. 
28 Feb, Bur. Richard Goodall, miller. 
16 Mar, Bap. Thomas Myles son of William Myles, 
tanner. 

23 Mar, Bur. Anne Kyrfott dau. of George Kyrfott, 
pewterer. 

1554. 

26 Mar, Bap. Mary Cowpper dau. of John Cowpper, 
baker. 

6 Apr, Bap. Robert Hutton son of Thomas Hutton. 
10 Apr, Bap. Mary Darling dau. of John Darling. 



194 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



8 May, Bap. Abraham Davy son of Richard Davy, 
31 May, Bap. Sara Pyke dau. of Edmund Pyke. 

12 June, Bap. Edmund Kendall son of Lawrence Ken- 

dal. 

23 June, Bur. Margaret Sturmy dau. of Thomas Sturmy. 

13 July, Bap. Elyzabeth Becket dau. of Symon Becket. 

19 Aug, Bap. Jane Else dau. of William Else. 

21 Aug, Bap. Jane Mylward dau. of John Mylward, 

smith. 

22 Aug, Bap. Katheryn Comaund[er] dau. of John 

Comaund[er] citizen of London. 
30 Aug, Bap. John Wylson son of John Wylson, weaver. 

16 Sep, Bap. Thomas Preese son of John Preese, tan- 

ner. 

11 Nov, Bap. Mary Rydge dau. of John Rydge. 
3 Dec, Bur. Alice Everat, widow. 

20 Dec, Bap. Jane Parell dau. of William Parell, 

shoemaker. 

22 Dec, Bap. Jane Godal dau. of Robert Goodall, 

miller. 

5 Jan, Bur. Elyzabeth Cowpper, widow. 

23 Jan, Bur. John Wylson son of John Wylson, weaver. 
25 Jan, Bap. Elyn Alyn dau. of Richard Alyn, baker. 
8 Feb, Bur. the said Helen. 

18 Mar, Bur. William Foster, father of Margaret 
Becked [?]. 

1555. 

7 Apr, Bur. John Cookman father to Thomas Cdokman. 

14 Apr, Bap. John Cowpper son of John Cowpper, baker. 

Item, this year was buried Henry Kyrfott son of George 

Kyrfott, pewterer. 
Item, the same year was buried Jane Parell dau. of 

Wylliam Parell. 
An° Dom 1554 was marryed Wylliam Barnes and Agnes 

A[r]ratt. 
Anno predicto. 

17 June, Mar. Robert Pety and Anne Byrch, widow. 



1539-1558 



195 



hoc anno [1555.] 

20 Oct, Mar. John Rysley and Cecile Gadsden. 
4 Nov, Mar. John Dygule and Margerie Cobbam. 
25 Nov, Mar. Martyn Kyng and Alice Stratton. 

1556. 

1 Aug, Bur. Margaret Fore wife of Nycholas Fore, 

stranger. 

2 Aug, Bur. Joanna Mylwarde dau. of John Mylwarde, 

smith. 

4 Aug, Bur. Elyzabeth Paslow dau. of Wylliam Pas- 

lowe, miller. 
14 Sep, Bur. John Pety, painter. 

21 Sep, Bap. Richard Pyke son of Edmund Pyke, 

gentleman. 

6 Oct, Bap. Edward Haddock son of Robert Haddock. 

14 Oct, Bur. Nycholas Watkynsonne son of Thomas 

Watkynsonne. 
19 Oct, Mar. Wylliam Paynter and Joan Frannces. 
10 Nov, Bur. Richard Davy son of Richard Davy. 
12 Nov, Mar. George Kytchiner and Agnes Frannces. 

15 Nov, Mar. Walter Pynfold and [blank.] 

15 Nov, Bur. Thomas Fouxe, servant to Mr. Leigh who 

died suddenly. 
21 Nov, Bur. Wylliam Eete, labourer. 
27 Nov, Bur. Abraham Darlyng son of John Darlyng. 
6 Dec, Bap. Alice Rydge dau. of John Rydge. 

5 Feb, Born and Bap. Margaret Lowrie dau. of Thomas 

Lowrie. 

6 Feb, Bur. Alice Pynfold dau. of Walter Pynfold. 
19 Feb, Bur. Margaret Stuckley, gentlewoman, widow. 

27 Feb, Born and Bap. Robert Goodall son of Robert 

Goodall, miller. 

28 Feb, Born and Bap. Nycolas Cowpper, son of John 

Cowpper, baker. 

2 Mar, Bur. Elyzabeth Beckett dau. of Symon Beckett. 

21 Mar, Bur. Alice Rydge dau. of John Rydge, shoe- 
maker. 



196 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



1557- 

27 Mar, Bur. Alice Bakar, a poor woman who died in 

Paulis parish. 
4 Apr, Bur. John Alyn, smith. 
6 Apr, Bur. Wylliam Richardson, labourer. 
12 Apr, Bur. Matthew Whyppulwhew. 

18 Apr, Bur. Margaret Darlyng dau. of John Darlyng. 

20 Apr, Bap. Johanna Varden dau. of Margaret Varden, , 

widow. 

2 1 Apr, Bur. Johanna Varden. 

23 Apr, Bur. Agnes Parell dau. of [blank] Parell, of 
Cardyngton. 

28 Apr, Bur. Sybbell Yung dau. of Thomas Yung. 

28 Apr, Bur. Johan, a forranger [foreigner?] 

6 May, Bur. Alice Roo wife of Alexander Roo. 
6 May, Bur. Johanna Bowghton, a single woman. 

19 May, Bap. Margaret Paynter dau. of Williams 

Paynter. 

20 May, Bur. Margaret Paynter. 

27 May, Bur. Christyan Bowghton, widow. 
30 May, Bur. Elyn Bakar, widow. 

2 June, Bur. Agnes Mylward, wife of Thomas Myl- 
ward, smith. 

17 June, Bur. Emma Wallys, widdow. 

18 June, Bur. Alice Knyght wife of Thomas Knyght. 
18 June, Bur. Eustace Brygg, weaver. 

18 June, Bur. Elyzabeth Kendall wife of Lawrence? 
Kendall. 

22 June, Bur. Ellyn Inman wife of Robert Inman, 

labourer. 

22 June, Bur. Johanna Brygg, widow. 

29 June, Bur. Alice Walkar wife of Robert Walkar, 

fuller. 

8 July, Bur. Agnes Wylson wife of John Wylson, car- 
penter. 

8 July, Bap. Richard Mylward son of John Mylward, 
smith. 



1539-1558 



197 



9 July, Bur. Issabell Lowghton wife of Thomas Lowgh- 

ton, weaver. 

14 July, Bur. Johanna Pynfold, wife of Walter Pynfold. 

3 Aug, Bur. Laurence Newman, labourer. 

5 Aug, Bap. Kateryn Yeaman dau. of William Yeaman 

alias Ladd. 
7 Aug, Bur. Emma Hamond, widow. 
1 1 Aug, Bap. Richard, a base born of the body of Agnes 

Everatt. 

16 Aug, Bur. Wylliam Brunton, a Scotvsh boy, servant 

to Mr. Bull. 
28 Aug, Bur. Wylliam Smyth. 
3 Sep, Bur. Robert Sandon. 

7 Sep, Bur. Johanna Newman, widow, late wife of Law- 

rence Newman. 

8 Sep, Bur. Alice Fowler, wife of William Fowler, 

labourer. 

10 Sep, Bur. William Francys, clothier. 

19 Sep, Bap. Wylliam Smyth son of Robert Smyth, 

tailor. 

30 Sep, Bap. and Bur. Johanna Jackson dau. of Myles 
Jackson. 

5 Oct, Mar. John Fag, of March in the Isle of Ely and 
[M]arie Byrd of Bedford. 

20 Oct, Born and Bap. Mary Pyk dau. of Edmund Pyk, 

gentleman. 
23 Oct, Bur. said Mary Pyk. 
5 Nov, Bur. Elyzabeth Darlyng, widow. 

8 Nov, Born and Bap. Elyzabeth Young dau. of Thomas 

Young, pewterer. 

9 Nov, Bur. said Elyzabeth. 

9 Nov, Bur. Joan East, widow. 

9 Nov, Bur. Joan Bell, foreigner. 

10 Nov, Bur. Richard Mylward son of John Mylward, 

smith. 

1 1 Nov, Bur. Joane Jacson wife of Myles Jacson. 

12 Nov, Bur. Thomas Bakar, labourer. 



198 REGISTER OF ST. MARY, BEDFORD 



13 Nov, Bur. Agnes Stanton alias Jarratt, widow. 
22 Nov, Mar. Robert Walkar and Alice Kyrck. 

29 Nov, Bur. Thomas Knyght, baker by his occupation. 

10 Dec, Bur. Dame Ann Preston, sometime nune of 

Elmestowe [Elstow.] 

24 Dec, Born and Bap. Elyzabeth Leigh, dau. of Symon 

Leigh, bachelor. 

25 Dec, Bur. Wylliam Fowler. 

27 Dec, Bap. Matthew Morland son of Martyn Morland. 
31 Dec, Bur. Elyzabeth Chrassh alias Baxter, wife of 
John Chrasshe alias Baxter. 

11 Jan, Bur. Mary Knyght. 

17 Jan, Bur. John Stockwold son of John Stockwold, 
barber. 

25[26?] Jan, Bur. Alice Sturmy, wife of Thomas 

Sturmy, mason. 
29 Jan, Bur. [Michael ?] Wylson, son of Agnes Wylson, 

widow. 

1 Feb, Bur. Amy Smyth, wife of Robert Smyth, tailor. 
3 Feb, Bap. Elyzabeth Haddock dau. of Robert Had- 
dock. 

5 Feb, Bap. Dorethe Beckett dau. of Symon Beckett. 

12 Feb, Bur. Robert Smyth, tailor. 

15 Feb, Bap. Thomas Stockwell son of John Stockwell. 

15 Feb, Bap. Frauncys Bull son of John Bull, baker. 
3 Mar, Bur. Thomas Chawley, fisher. 

3 Mar, Bur. Wylliam Edward, labourer. 

8 Mar, Bap. George Butman son of George Butman. 

16 Mar, Bur. said George Butman. 

1558. 

3 April, Bur. Robert Goodall son of Robert Goodall, 
miller. 

6 April, Bur. Kateryn Laad, alias Yeaman, dau. of 

Wylliam Laad. 

14 April, Bur. Wylliam Messenger, labourer. 

20 April, Bur. John Cowpper son of John Cowpper, 
baker. 



1539-1558 



199 



25 April, Bur. Wylliam Laad son of Wylliam Laad. 

27 April, Bur. Alexander Roo, glover. 

14 May, Mar. Thomas Sturmy, mason, and Kateryn 

Ardyn dau. of Thomas Ardyn of Havnow[?]. 

21 May, Bur. Iaan Mylward dau. of John Mylward, 

smith. 

19 June, Bur. Myles Jacson, fuller. 

25 June, Mar. Robert Inman and Agnes Cleyton. 

28 July, Bur. Richard Abbes. 

7 Aug, Bur. Alice Walkar wife of Robert Walkar. 

8 Aug, Bur. Elyzabeth Jackson, widow, mother to 

George Butman his wife. 

1 5 Aug, Bur. Dame Elyzabeth Foxe, late nun of Elmes- 

towe [Elstow]. 

17 Aug, Bur. Richard Halley son of [blank], widow. 

22 Aug. Bur. Dame Elyzabeth Napton, late nun of 

Elmestowe; pent [pensioner?]. 
22 Aug, Bur. Helen Alyn, widow. 

18 Sep, Bur. Katherine Leigh, gentlewoman, wife of 

Thomas Leigh, esquyere. 
27 Sep, Bur. Margaret Cowpper, widow. 

3 Oct, Bur. Roger [illegible] servant to John Spens. 

4 Oct, Bur. Judith Christi dau. of Thomas Christi. 
11 Oct, Bur. a base born child called Anne. 

13 Oct, Bur. Alice Preese dau. of John Preese, tanner. 

19 Oct, Bur. Elyzabeth Rychardson, widow. 
7 Nov, Bur. John Robynson. 

14 Nov, Mar. Robert Wylliamson and Agnes Whyte. 

[Queen Mary died 17 Nov, 1558, and the transcript 
Register of S. Mary's Bedford, begins with the 
following entry : 

20 Nov, Bur. Margaret Co'berland, widow.] 



CALENDAR OF INQUISITIONS 
POST MORTEM. No. I. 



BY G. HERBERT FOWLER. 

The documents which are now classed as Inquisi- 
tiones post mortem are records of enquiries held before 
an Escheator or some similar official, at the death of any 
one believed to be a tenant in chief of the King or of 
some escheated Honour, in order that the Crown might 
claim such wardships, reliefs, homages, etc., as were due 
from the estate of the deceased. A writ was issued 
from the Exchequer (' diem clausit extremum/ ' cape 
in manum/ ' uirtute officii/ etc.) to the Escheator or 
his representative, who thereon summoned a Jury of 
twelve or more ' lawful ' men of the neighbourhood to 
enquire on the spot into the extent of the deceased's 
lands, their value, the services by which they were held, 
and their next heir. These records therefore give in 
many cases invaluable detail of prices, values, tenures 
and persons, which can be obtained from no other source 
and have considerable bearing on the application of 
historical experience to the social and economic prob- 
lems of to-day. The excellent summary calendars of 
these Inquisitions issued by the Public Record Office 
necessarily omit just those details of personal names and 
manorial extents which are essential to local history and 
can only be printed by such a Society as ours. 

This first paper includes all Inquisitions post mor- 
tem which have been preserved from the reign of Henry 
III., and advantage has been taken of the opportunity 
to expand or to correct by supplementary notes several 
of the manorial accounts in V.C.H. down to the date of 
the Inquisition, especially in that dim and difficult cen- 
tury after D.B. for which records are lamentably scanty. 



202 



INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



i. Walter de Godarville 

ii. Saer de Wahull 

iii. Alina Wake 

iv. Richard de Dovoria 
v. William de Cantilupe 

vi. Reginald de Baa 

vii. Henry de Costentin 

viii. John de Trailly ... 

ix. Robert le Velu ... 
x. John de Gatesden 
xi. Margaret, Countess of Kent 
xii. Robert de Pykeshull ... 

xiii. William de Beauchamp 

xiv. Ranulf de Meperteshale 
xv. Richard de Clare, Earl of 

Gloucester 
xvi. Isabella Daubeni 
xvii. Thomas Tyrel ... 
xviii. Roger de Quency, Earl of 
Winchester 
xix. Robert de Radwell 
xx. William Mauduit, Earl of 

Warwick 

xxi. John de Pabenham 

xxii. Thomas Tyrel 

xxiii. William de Huntercumbe 

xxiv. Cristiana Ledet 



Southill 

Odell 

Gravenhurst, Wardon 

Henlow 

Eaton Bray 

Wyboston 

Sutton 

Northill, Southill, 

Chellington, Marston 

Turvey 

Stanbridge 
Aspley Guise 

Turvey 

Stanford, Hardwick, 

den, Dilwick 
Meppershall 



Yielden 



Ravens 



PAGE. 

203 

204 
206 
209 
210 
216 

217 



Battlesden, Yielden, Chellington 

Cainhoe, Ampthill 

Wilden, Bolnhurst 

Stevinton 

Radwell 

Clapham, Oakley 

Wilden, Carlton, Pabenham, 

Hinwick 

Wilden 

Wrestlingworth 

Sutton, Potton, Cadbury 



WALTER DE GODARVILLE 



203 



i. WALTER DE GODARVILLE (1250). 
SOUTHILL. 

(a) Writ to Henry de Wengham and his co-escheator 
for Beds. 8 January, 1250. 

(b) Inquisition by the oath of 



Richard le Frankelein. 
Walter de Stanford. 
Ralf, son of Stephen. 
William de Burguinun. 
Robert de la Lawe. 
Robert le Fort. 
Anselm de Stanfort. 



William Chibolle. 
Henry, son of Clement. 
Richard Guher. 
Walter, son of Wymarc. 
Simon de Holma. 
Lawrence de Forda. 
Geoffrey de Holma. 



He held the manor of Sudgyuel from the heirs of 
Walter de Traily for a rent of 6d. and a pair of gilt 
spurs. He had two daughters, Joan the elder, whom Sir 
Geoffrey Gacelin married, and Margareta of whom the 



NOTES. 

i. Walter de Godarville. 

The manor of Southill, part of the fief of Walter Espec at D.B., came by 
marriage to the Trailly family, whose fief or barony was put under the 
Honour of Gloucester. So far as has been ascertained, this manor was 
held by the Traillys in demesne until the death of Walter de Trailly, about 
1220; his heir John, being then under age, became a ward of the Earl 
of Gloucester, 1 his overlord. 

Walter de Godarville, whom Matthew Paris describes as a 1 vir 
strenuub,' was a follower of Fawkes de Breaute; as Breaute is in the 
canton of Godarville, Fawkes had probably brought him to England in his 
service. Like his chief, he was the loyal servant of an arbitrary king, and 
helped to strip St. Alban of treasure for the king's needs. 2 At the time 
of the Barons War he was put in charge of Hertford Castle; after con- 
siderable resistance, he was forced to surrender it to Louis and the French 
in I2i6, but secured all the honours of war. 3 Geoffrey fitz Peter, then 
Earl of Gloucester in right of his wife, died during this rebellion; his 
lands would naturally escheat to the Crown, and (though no record of it 
has been noticed) Southill seems to have been given by Henry III. to 
Fawkes de Breaut6, for the latter enfeoffed Walter de Godarville of the 
manor by charter.* When Fawkes himself rebelled in 1224, Walter, like 
his other adherents, was deprived of all his lands; he was only received 
again into grace and favour on payment of a fine of iooli. ; and was com- 
missioned to accompany Richard Earl of Cornwall, the King's brother, on 
the re-settlement of Gascony in 1225.5 In the mean time the new Earl of 
Gloucester, Gilbert de Clare, had recovered at least the overlordship, and, 



204 



SAER DE WAHULL 



jurors do not know whether she be alive or no. Joan is 
1 6 years of age, and answers at scutage for the fee of 
half a knight. He held in the manor of Sudgiuel 

li. 

2 carucates of land ... ... ... ... 3 

assessed rent of two arrows and 
villanage 
meadow 
aid (auxilium) 
Sum 

[Inq. p.m., Hen 



s. 
3 

4 19 
1 2 
6 

o 8 
9 19 
HI, 10 (17)]. 



d. 

4 
11 
o 
8 
o 
11 



ii. SAER DE WAHULL (1250). 
ODELL. 

(a) Writ to Henry de Wengham and his co-es- 
cheator in cos. Beds, and Northants. 18 June, 1250. 

(b) Inquisition of the lands of Saer de Wahull, by 
the oath of 



as guardian of the Trailly heir, had been farming Southill, for in 1229 
the Sheriff was to allow him to have the crops which he had snwn in, 
Suggiuel which the King caused to be restored to Walter de Godarvilla, 
and to remove his cattle and stock. 6 \t is shown by a suit of 1235-6 in 
which John de Trailly, now of age, attempted to obtain possession of the 
manor, that Walter had recovered it by an action against the Earl of 
Gloucester in the King's Court, 7 and had thus secured a permanent tenure. 

Walter's few appearances in history are unlucky. In the Welsh War 
of 1 23 1, as the result of a stratagem, the forces under his command were_ 
badly cut up. 8 In 1233 he was one of the four knights charged with the 
delicate and unpopular duty of guarding Hubert de Burgh in Devizes Gastle ; 
whether by contrivance or connivance, his prisoner escaped, to the great 
wrath of the King. He seems however to have been a thriving man, and 
appears in the Testa de Nevill of about 1242 as holding lands in several 
counties ; presumably this was largely due to his marriage with Joan 
(d. 1226), widow of Philip de Ulecot (d. 1220), one of King John's evil 
counsellors. Later he is found to have married one Hyllaria, of whom 
nothing further has been traced. 

Only two-thirds of the advowson and tithes of Southill Church were 
given to Newnham Priory by Simon de Beauchamp (II. B), at or soon 
after the Priory's foundation. 9 The remaining third, which had been 
retained by the Traillys, was granted to the Priory by Walter in 1247, 10 
a gift confirmed by the Pope eight years later. 11 



SAER DE WAHULL 



205 



John Lupus. 
Richard de Bruera. 
Robert de Parentin. 
Michael de Sarnebroc. 
Stephen de Landas. 
Walter de Hardewic. 
Robert de Broy. 
Simon Cruise. 



Nicholas, s. of Robert de 

Hynewic. 
Hugh Gleiue. 
Mathew de Mora. 
Richard de Smalden. 
Henry, s. of William de 

Pudinton. 
Gilbert, clerk of 

Radeuell. 



Saer de Wahull held the Honour of Wahull for 30 
knights' fees in all in chief, and held the manor of 
Wahull on the day that he died, thus extended. 

li. s. d. 

Two carrucates of land ... ... ... 5 o o 

Meadow 1 13 4 

Mill 300 

Fishery ... ... ... ... ... 6 8 

Market 100 

Rent assessed ... ... ... ... ... 9 14 10 

Customs ... ... ... ... ... 1 9 7 

Garden and Dovecot ... ... ... 13 4 

Sum [really 22H. 17s. 9d.] 22 17 1 

Walter is first born son and heir, aged 23 years and 
more. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 10 (11)]. 



ii. Saher de Wahull. 

Saher was son of Walter de Wahull and Albreda Taillebois, and prob- 
aby great-grandson of Walter the Fleming of D.B. ; he succeeded to the 
Barony of Wahull or Odell in 1240. The family is discussed in V.C.H., 
iii, 70. 



206 



A LIN A WAKE 



iii. ALINA WAKE (1254). 
GRAVENHURST, WARDON. 

(a) Writ to the escheator [imperfect.] 

(b) Inquisition [also imperfect] at Cravehurst 

by Robert de Nortwod, Nicholas William Pirot, 

Bartholemew de Bray, Roger Witbret, John Blun 

tissor, William de [? Befan], Stephen de Eyen, Robert 

Engelberd . She was dowered with the land of 

Crauehurst for a third part of Stiuecl and held it 

in chief from the lord Abbot of they know of no 

right heir but Barnabas son of Walter . 

(c) Writ to the Abbot of Pershore and his co-es- 
cheator. 27 May, 1254. 

(d) Inquisition before Simon Druel escheator for 
Beds, on Tuesday before the feast of St. Botulf [16 
June, 1254] by oath of 



Richard le Frankelein. 
John de Stiuenhache. 
William Valerien. 
Ralf de la Hulle. 
Richard de Tiuile. 
Hugh le Bel. 



James Wake. 
Randulf clerk. 
Clement de la Hulle. 
Henry, son of Clement. 
Reginald le Bonde. 
John le Bonde. 



v iii. Alina Wake. 

Alina was the widow of one Joscelin de Stiuecle (Stukeley, co. Hunts.), 
who had been Seneschal of Ramsey Abbey in the last part of the xijth 
Century, 12 and had served as Sheriff of Cambs. and Hunts, in 1205 — 1207. 13 
On the side of the Barons against King John in 1215, his lands were seized 
and given to Simon de Champremy, but were restored to him in the 
following year when he returned to fealty. 14 In the Testa de Nevill of 
about 1242, Alina is returned as holding half a knight's fee in Farndish 
and Hinwick, the same in Colesden and Chawston, the same in Wardon 
and Eyworth, and one fee in Steppingley, all being of the Honour of 
Wardon which was a part of the D.B. Honour of William Spech. It is 
obvious from the Inquisition, and from the ultimate fate of her manors, 
that she was dowered in Gravenhurst, but had her marriage portion in 
Wardon and elsewhere of this Honour. It is the more remarkable that 
V.C.H. 15 attributes her holding in Wardon to a second marriage with 1 
James Wake, for which no evidence is adduced and none seems to exist; 
this would have meant that Wardon was her dower, but it is unthinkable 



ALINA WAKE 



207 



She had in chief the manor 
answered for half a knight's fee. 



of Wardon, and 



capital messuage, etc., with gardens 12 acres 

in all 
dovecot 

little pasture of \ acre 
212^ acres in demesne, each acre 4d. 
13^ acres of meadow 
40 acres \ rood of pasture ... 
a fish pond of no value because dry 
pasture round the fish pond, with Stonidelf . . . 
a wood of 56 acres of no value because of 

great destruction in her time 
a Launde which lies for pasture 
free tenants for free rent (libero censu) 
from villanage for 2\\ virgates of land 

(annuo censu), 3s. 

for other services and customs, 5s. 

and aid to the lord at Michaelmas 

sum of the payments 



i 

1. 


c 


A 




13 


O 


0 


4 


O 


0 


1 


O 


1 

0 


TO 


KJ 


I 


14 






T T 

J. -L 


T 
X 






8 




I 


0 


I 


4 


1 




3 


0 




5 


0 


8 


8 


0 



that it could in that case have been transmittted to the descendants of 
her first husband. As James Wake (whoever he may have been) was one 
of the Jurors on her Inquisition and is not otherwise named in it, his 
marriage to her may be safely rejected. As a matter of fact she was an 
heir and almost certainly daughter of Hugh Wake, 16 who had acquired 
by bis marriage with Matilda de Bussi that share of the D.B. Honour of 
Espec which included Wardon and Eyworth. 

The son of Alina, Sir Walter de Stiuecie, was Sheriff of Cambs. and 
Hunts, in 1201, and succeeded his father as Seneschal of Ramsey Abbey. 17 
By hi3 wife Alice, he left three daughters and a posthumous son Barnabas, 
whose wardship and marriage were sold by his widow to Abbot Ranulf of 
Ramsey in 1237 for thirty marks. 18 Barnabas left no heir, and this manor 
of Warden fell to his sister Alice le Quoynte. He married Margery, who 
had dower in Stukeley in 1291-2. 19 

The Wake family only touches this county occasionally in early time, 
and is therefore unfamiliar ground to the present writer ; but it is believed 
that their line as shown in the appended table is correct ; it has been 
carried out to show the connection with Beauchamp cf Bedford, and with 
de Quency (No. xviii. below). Hugh Wake (Wac, Wach) held the fief of 
Bourne, co. Lines, in 1166, 20 where he succeeded Baldwin fitz Gilbert; he 
was certainly dead by 1 199, 21 perhaps earlier. His son Baldwin, who 
married Agnes, daughter of William de Humeto Constable of Normandy,22 
was dead by 1205. 23 His son, the second Baldwin, was soon in trouble, 
and with John de Humeto was banished from the realm in 1207 ; 24 he 



ALINA WAKE 



J* 



3 , 



|8| 

j- C 1) 
BP 3 O 



Wirt 

.32 13 



. D S 

2.. a 



II — 



o >> 

<u <U tA 
3 <" *S 



& £ c . 
U c g S 

C/5 w</3 m 



« O 



CO — - 



« *-> 



&2 
c c 



II 



RICHARD DE DOVORIA 209 

li. S. d. 

12 cottars owe 14 capons, besides the service 

of the land, worth id. each ... ... 10 

perquisites of court ... ... ... ... 6 8 

summa summarum [really ijli. 3s. io^d.] ... 17 2 

Barnabas son of Walter de Stiuecle is next heir 
and 17 years of age. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 15 (7)]. 



iv. RICHARD DE DOVORIA (1254). 
HENLOW. 

(a) Writ to the escheator for Hunts. 15 September 
1254- 

(b) Inquisition for co. Hunts, endorsed " memoran- 
dum that Richard de Dovor' held the manor of Henlawe 
in co. Beds., which ought to revert to the King as it is 
said." 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 15 (14)]. 



married Isabel, daughter of William de Briwerre, and was dead by 1213, 
when his father-in-law had custody of his land and heirs. 25 His son Hugh 
was pardoned in 1229 for marrying Joan, daughter and heiress of Nicholas 
de Stuteville without royal licence, 26 and died at Jerusalem in 1246. His 
son, yet another Baldwin, married Ela, daughter and coheiress of William 
(II.) de Beauchamp of Bedford, 27 and thus acquired a third share of the 
Bedford barony ; on her death he married Haweise, daughter and co- 
heiress cf Robert de Quency (No. xviii. below), by whom he was the father 
of John, first Baron Wake by writ. 



iv. Richard de Dovoria. 

The land mentioned on the endorsement of this Inquisition is described 
in V.C.H. 28 as a fifth manor in Henlow, of which the origin is obscure. 
As it is held about 1242 of the Honour of Bedford, 29 we can identify it 
with one or both of the holdings of Azelina Taillebois at Domesday. It 
reappears at the end of the xijth century, when Guy de St. Walery made 
a grant from it to Warden Abbey at a rent, for which the monks gave a 
handsel to his wife Albreda Taillebois and to his son Reginald. 30 As this 
land went for many years with the manor of Aspley Guise, it is probable 
that it accompanied the ' gift ' of that manor about 11 79 to Guy by Simon 
de Beauchamp, though it is possible that Guy had it through his wife. 
Reginald de St. Walery, son of Guy, let Aspley and Henlow at farm to 
Fawkes de BreautS; both were seized by the Crown in 1224 on the latter's 
disgrace, and the Henlow land given to Robert de Bareville while he 



210 



WILLIAM DE GANTILUPE 



V. WILLIAM DE KALNA OR DE CANTILUPO (1254). 
EATON BRAY. 

(a) Writ to the Sheriff of Wilts. 18 November, 
1254. 

(b) (Mem. 4). Extent of the manor of Eyton 
[Bray], by the oath of 1 2 free men, 

Hugh de Dagehale. Walter Neweman. 

William Peuerel. John, s. of Robert. 

John de septem hidis. William, s. of Adam. 

Peter de Grusset. Walter Berman. 

Walter clerk. William, s. of John. 

John le Neweman. Thomas de fonte. 

Philip de Wippesned. 

and of 12 customary tenants. William de Cantilupo 



should be in the King's service; 31 the resulting financial troubles seem 
to have crippled Reginald for the rest of his life. In his difficulties he 
made a grant of lands in Oxfordshire to St. Frideswide, for which the 
Canons gave him twenty marks " for the freeing of my lands of Apsele 
and Henlawe from the hand of Fulk." Eventually he pledged these lands 
to the Jews; 32 they were redeemed by Hubert de Burgh, who thus became 
their owner about 1227. When the jealous and unstable Henry III. im-i 
prisoned this faithful servant in 1232, Aspley and the ' land' (not ' manor') 
of Henlow were given to Robert Passelewe, 33 the land at Henlow being 
valued at 5IL yearly. 34 On the annullment of Hubert's outlawry and 
disgrace, Robert Passelewe sued in vain for the retention of Aspley 35 and' 
was bought off for a fine of 40 marks. 36 He was however permitted to 
retain the Henlow land, which about 1242 was rightly said 37 to be held 
" of the honour of Bedford from the King," for it had escheated more 
than once to the Crown. 

Richard de Dovoria, the subject of the Inquisition, was a yeoman 
(valettus) of Robert Passelewe. 38 He held land in Havering, co. Essex; 39 
a virgate and a mill which he had received on his marriage with Alice 
Passelewe from her uncle Hamo Passelewe, 40 some time Sheriff of Norfolk. 
She is said by her grandson John de Dovor to have received the Henlow 
land from William Passelewe, 41 presumably that King's Clerk who was dead 
by 1259 and was probably brother and heir of our Robert Passelewe; the 
latter died as Archdeacon of Lewes in 1252 ; in this reference the land 
is styled a manor, and view of frankpledge is claimed for it. As late as 
1362-3 Margery daughter of John de Dovor was concerned in an assise of 
novel disseisin for a manor and lands in Henlow and Little Barford ; 42 
John de Dovor, son of Alice Passelewe had held in the latter vill. 43 



v. William de Cantilupe. 



The history of Eaton Bray between 1086 and 1155 is still obscure, and 
the account of this manor in the xijth century given by V.C.H. 44 is both 



i: 
11. 


S. 


CI. 


4 


o 


O 


2 


IO 


o 


6 


o 


O 


2 


IO 


O 


I 


o 


o 




IO 


o 



WILLIAM DE CANTILUPE 211 

held 12 hidates in Eyton by the service of one knight's 
fee. And had in demesne 



two carucates ... 

Tallage of tenants on the 12 hidates 

Rents and services of customary tenants and 

cotters thereon 
Meadow belonging to the 12 hidates 
Pasture 
Fishery 



inadequate and inaccurate. An attempt to clear it up here will therefore 
not be out of place. At Domesday the manor was in the hands of Odo, 
Bishop of Bayeux, and was assessed at 12 hides 1 virgate. It was evidently 
underassessed, because it was returned as capable of cariying six plough- 
teams on demesne and fourteen villan teams. On the ordinary assumption 
that the hide in very early times, and the team-land in 1086, both repre- 
sented approximately 120 acres, it would seem that there were over 2000 
acres of arable land on the manor, and that something over Seven Hides 
had been added since the original assessment. On the imprisonment of 
Odo in 1082, his vast estates escheated to the Crown. 

Eaton Bray reappears in the Records in 1130, as still being Crown 
demesne. 45 In 1 155-6 it is entered, together with the royal manors of 
Wendover, co. Bucks., and Houghton Regis, among lands which had been 
granted by royal bounty (terre date). 46 The names of the grantees are not 
then mentioned, and the Pipe Roll for Beds, of 1 156-7 is missing; but in 
1 157-8 we find ' Faramus ' as holder of 6oli. worth of lands in Wendover 
and Eaton, and at the same date the name of Osbert Martel is mentioned 
in another connection. 47 Faramus continued to hold in Wendover and 
Eaton till 1183-4; Osbert is occasionally mentioned as a live man till 1161-2; 
but in 1 165-6, among lands which have fallen to the Crown, the Sheriff 
accounts for " Ehton the land of Osbert Martel in Bedefordescire." 48 Osbert 
had held also in Edlesborough and Ravenstone, co. Bucks., and was evidently 
recently dead, or had lost his lands. 

There are therefore two distinct holdings in Eaton Bray under the 
Crown, which run parallel to one another for many years through the 
Pipe Rolls. What we may call Eaton Faramusi is among the allowances 
to the Sheriff for lands granted away by the Crown (terre date). Eaton 
Martelli is administered by the Sheriff among forfeitures and escheats ; 
it was restocked by him within a year of its lapse to the Crown, with 24 
oxen, 3 affers (draught beasts), 10 cows, and 1 bull, 250 sheep, ten swine 
and a boar, and 39 yearling pigs; at a cost of 13U. 6s. 2d.; the yearly 
value of the manor was thus raised to 2oli. 49 The Sheriff administered 
Eaton Martelli for five years, after which it became the subject of a fresh 
grant to Aldulf de Braci, together with Osbert's land in Ravenstone and 
land in Mentmore, 50 and there seems to have been a re-grant in ii72-3;5i 
but the unpaid debts from Osbert's lands linger on in the Pipe Rolls for 
many years. 

Faramus of Boulogne was a grandson of Geoffrey of Boulogne, who 
was a son (probably illegitimate) of Count Eustace of Boulogne (d. 1093). 
Faramus is mentioned as early as 1130, and in 1153 was in charge of Dover 



212 



WILLIAM DE CANTILUPE 



li. s. d. 

Gardens ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Pannage and herbage in Dudeuineshei ... 13 

the same in Eyton ... ... ... 1 o 

the same in Mentemore ... ... 6 

Mill called Sfwifesmull ... ... ... 2 o o 

They say that Sir Ralf le Poer held from William 
de Cantilupo a half fee in Mentemore, and that Sir 
William Russell and Sir Hugh le Dun held there a 
quarter fee, and Roger de Argenteim one fee there. 



Castle and of the the Honour of Peverel of Dover. By his wife Matilda 
he left a son, William Faramusi, who died without issue, and a daughter 
Sibyl, who married Enguerrand (Ingerram) de Fiennes. 52 Enguerrand 
succeeded to the share of Faramus in Eaton in 1183-4. 53 

From another source 54 we have the charter by which Faramus received 
his lands from Henry II. ; they were the manor of Wendover (valued at, 
50H.), seven hides at Eaton (7IL 10s.), 3 virgates at Birchmore (8s. 4d.), 
1 virgate at Potsgrove (is. 8d.), with land at Henlow (10s.) and at Edworth 
(30s.); the total value being 60IL, the sum shown on the Pipe Roll. I 
suggest that the Seven Hides were those already mentioned, which had 
been added to Eaton between the assessment of the current hidation and the 
date of the Great Survey. Some of the others are recognisable as lands 
which in 1086 were in royal tenure, but occupied by small Serjeants or 
royal officers; in the three virgates at Birchmore it is easy to detect the 
3 virgates which Herbert the King's reeve held in Woburn at D.B. ; the 
virgate at Potsgrove may have been part of the holding either of Herbert 
reeve or of a certain royal groom there; the land at Henlow probably 
includes the virgate held by Alric in 1086, but seems rather highly valued 
for so small a parcel and may have been supplemented ; the land at 
Edworth is almost certainly the 2 hides 2 virgates held by Alwin reeve. 

Of Osbert M artel little has been found. He appears as witness to a 
charter of William Count of Boulogne (d. 1159), son of King Stephen, about 
1154. 55 At some date before 1154 he made a grant to the Priory of 
Dunstable of " the land of Sortegraua [Shortgrave in Studham] whereof 
two-thirds belong to the fee of Thoterho LTotternhoe] and one-third to the 
fee of Eytuna [Eaton Bray] " ; also of free pasturage in his wood of 
Eytuna ; this charter was confirmed by King Stephen. There is also a 
later confirmation by Aldulf de Braci of " the land of Scortegraue which 
is of my fee of Eytona . . . according as I found the aforesaid convent 
seised thereof when the King gave to me the manor of Eytona . . . accord- 
ing as Osbert Martel granted." 56 Osbert seems to have been a man of 
some consequence, as five " knights " held from him, 57 and his estate lay 
in four vills. It is probable that he was the father of Jordan Martel or 
de Stodham, who in the next generation held in Studham, Whipsnade, and 
Totternhoe; and possible that he was brother of one William Martel who 
was conspicuous on the side of King Stephen during the civil war, " a man 
of distinction, both by fealty and friendship powerfully bound to the 
King." 5 8 

Of Aldulf de Braci few traces have been found among the records. He 
was a benefactor to the Norman priory of Longueville before 1 155, 59 and 



WILLIAM DE GANTILUPE 



213 



li. S. d. 

From the fee of Nicholas de Landas of 

Toternho rent assessed ... ... 2 13 4 

And he held 7 hidates of the fee of Hugh de Gurnay, 
for which he answered to Hugh's heirs for a quarter fee. 
Out of these 7 hidates, in demesne 
One carucate, valued at ... ... ...200 

Meadow of the 7 hidates ... ... ... 50 

Tallage of tenants on these 7 ... ... 13 4 

Reliefs and heriots of all 19 hidates ... 1 o o 
From William Peuerel 12 [? geese] valued at 1 6 



seems to have enjoyed Eaton Martelli only from 1170-71 till 1176-77, when 
the Sheriff once more accounts 60 for the land ; it becomes again styled 
' Eiton which was of Osbert Martel,' and finally simply ' Eiton,' but is 
recognisable by its yearly value of 20H. Besides his confirmation to 
Dunstable Priory of the grant of Osbert Martel already cited above, he 
granted forty acres of his demesne out of the Five Hides of Totno (Tottern- 
hoe (lying between Eglemunt extra Castellariam and Dunstable. 61 He 
appears as a ' cousin ' of Fulk fitz Warine, and one of his companions in 
the marvellous adventures of the Legend ; 62 as many of the personages in 
this are real, where tested by more sober records, the relationship may 
well be true. 

He seems to have left a son, Aldulf de Braci, who appears in a fine of 
1209 63 as the father of Masceline de Cantilupe. 

Eleanor of Aquitaine, the Queen of Henry II., having promoted her 
children's conspiracy against their father, was kept under guard from 
1173 to 1185, but received in 11 89 from her son Richard I. not only her 
dower, but that of two other Queens — Matilda Queen of Henry I., and 
Alice Queen of Stephen. 64 Of one of these dowers Eaton Martelli seems 
to have formed part, for she granted it to Ingerran her pincerna or butler 
about 1 196, and he made a grant from it in that year to the Abbey of 
Fontevraud 65 (the mother church of Leighton Priory) ; he also confirmed 
the grant of Osbert Martel in Shortgrave to Dunstable Priory. 66 It seems 
to be possible that Ingerram de Fiennes and Ingerram pincerna are the 
same man, but their identity has not been proved. Queen Eleanor died 
in 1204; her interest in the manor was for life only, and naturally her 
Butler's interest lapsed with hers. In 1205 the manor of Eaton was given 
to William de Cantilupe'' 7 in exchange for 300 marks and for the manor 
of Cockeswelle which the King had previously given to him. 

The Cantilupes have been but indifferently handled by V.C.H. 68 which 
has fused three men called William de Cantilupe into one, a mistake the 
less excusable since a biography of each of them can be found in D.N.B. 
Brief notes to justify the pedigree will suffice here, since their lives have 
already been written. 

The family seems to have risen rather rapidly to eminence in England 
as churchmen and officials, and to have died out with equal swiftness. A 
Walter de Cantilupe held 4 knight's fees in Essex and Lincolnshire in 
1 166, 69 but it is unlikely that he had anything to do with this family. A 
Walter and a William made gifts to the Priory of Longueviile in or before 



214 WILLIAM DE CANTILUPE 

The rents assessed from free and customary tenants 
on all the 19 hidates were assigned to John de Montealta 
by charter with William's daughter, and are extended at 
23H. [? 18H.] yearly. And the rent of three mills was 
assigned to Lady Agnes de Verdun for her life, namely 
7li. 4s. 

Sum of the whole extent, 27H. 15s. 2d. 

A boy named George, not quite 3 years old, is heir. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 17 (15)]. 



1155; 70 and probably one of these was the father of the Walter who was 
alive in 1204 71 and who in his turn was father of William (I.) de Can- 
tilupe, 72 the first of the Eaton family. This man is described as ' Norman 
by birth,' 73 so that the family were evidently newcomers in England; he 
long served John and Henry III., and in his capacity as Seneschal or 
Steward of the Royal Household attested numerous royal writs and charters. 
Eaton was confirmed to him in 1227, 74 and his holding evidently included 
the Seven Hides, because in 121 8 the Sheriff was ordered to inform the 
King why he had disseised William of seven hides of land in Eiton. 75 
From a great squaring of accounts with the Exchequer in 1223, it would 
seem that he had acquired at least some of William Martel's land in 
' Tatenho,' which probably represents Totternhoe. 75a His wife Masceline 
was daughter of Aldulf de Braci, 76 and probably granddaughter of the 
Aldulf who held Eaton at an earlier date; she seems to have been still 
alive in 1220. 77 William died in 1239. 78 Fulk de Cantilupe, 79 who was 
employed by King John to bring the monks of Canterbury to heel about 
the election of an archbishop, was a brother of this first William. 80 Another 
brother, 81 Roger, 82 was a legist of some note, and apparently prebendary 
of St. Paul, London. 

William (II.) de Cantilupe 83 is mentioned as 'junior' in 1217, together 
with his wife Millicent ; and from this entry it appears that she was widow 
of Arriauri (II.) Count of Evreux; 84 she was sister of the last Hugh de 
Gournai of Houghton Regis. Shortly after her widowhood, she was one 
of those guardians of the youthful King and Queen of Scots whom Reginald 
de Baa accused in 1255 of lese majeste 85 (see No. vi. below). William (II.) 
succeeded his father as Seneschal, and died in 1251. Walter de Cantilupe, 8 (i 
a brother of William (II.), 87 was Bishop of Worcester from 1236 to 1266; 
and was, except for Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, the most distinguished 
cleric of his time. 

William (III.) de Cantilupe, 88 th* subject of the Inquisition, seems 
also to have been Seneschal, for he had a grant of 50H. yearly at the 
Exchequer in lieu of which the Sheriff was ordered to pay him 100 marks 
yearly at Eaton out of the issues of Beds, and Bucks. 89 By his marriage 
with Eva, daughter of William de Braose, he obtained the lordship of 
Abergavenny. He was styled also William de Kalna, from the manor of 
Calne, co. Wilts., which his grandfather held only in bail and not in fee. 90 
His brother Thomas, 91 Bishop of Hereford from 1275 to 1282, was canonised 
in 1320 as St. Thomas of Hereford, and thus gave further distinction to 
this remarkable family, which produced at least seven men of prominent 
capacity in three generations. 



WILLIAM 



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216 



REGINALD DE BAA 



vi. REGINALD DE BATHONIA OR BAA (1255). 
WYBOSTON. 

(a) Writ to the Abbot of Pershore and Elias de 
Hereford, escheators. 22 February, 1255. 

(b) (Mem. 3). Inquisition before John Bossard, es- 
cheator for Beds., on the Sunday when " letare Jerusa- 
lem " is sung [4 April, 1255], held at Wibaudeston, by 
the oath of 



Roger de Soch\ 
Walter de Stacheden. 
Richard Rungef[er]. 
Maurice de Modebroc. 
Simon, s. of Ralf. 
John Hackepenne. 



William Pinceware. 
William le Franceys 
Hugh, s. of Nigel. 
William Halueknit. 
William Mussard. 
Richard de Suburue. 



He held nothing in chief, but half a fee in Wibau- 
deston from Sir William de Bello Campo de Eton, ex- 
tended at 81i. 3s. 3fd. Reginald is son and heir, age 
unknown. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 17 (3)]. 



vi. Reginald de Baa. 

The earliest member of the family (Baha, Bada, Battonia, Bathonia) 
at present traced with certainty in the county is Osbert de Baa, who was 
amerced 10 marks for a forest plea in 1 175-6. 92 Next comes Reginald de 
Baa, who at the end of the xijth century was enfeoffed by Hugh de 
Beauchamp (II. E.) of the land of Cadbury in Eaton Socon, which he 
transferred to Robert de Braibroc; in one of these charters he is spoken 
of as a knight. 93 About the same time he made two grants of land in 
Eaton to Bushmead Priory where he founded a chaplaincy; 94 he had 
received this land from his nephew, Robert son of Robert de Meysi or 
Meisil. 95 He is traceable at various dates from a little before 1185 96 to 
"93-4- 97 

His successor was perhaps Hugh de Baa, who responded as Sheriff 
for Beds, in 1220, 98 and acted as Deputy Sheriff for this county to Fawkes 
de Breaute in 1223." No evidence has been found to connect this Hugh 
with Hugh de Battonia an officer of King John's household, and one of 
the Justices of the Jews, 100 or with a more celebrated Henry de Battonia 
(flor. 1238-1261), but the connection is probable. In 1227 we find Osbert 
de Baa in a suit for lands at Wyboston in Eaton Socon, 101 and about 
1242 he held two hides for half a fee in Eaton Socon of the Honour of 
Beauchamp of Eaton. 102 From a fine in which he warrants a third part 
to her (the fraction of the widow's dower) it seems likely that Agnes de 
Baa was his mother. 103 Osbert was succeeded by Reginald, the subject 



HENRY DE GOSTENTIN 



217 



Vli. HENRY DE COSTENTIN (1255). 
SUTTON. 

(a) Writ to the Abbot of Pershore and Elias de 
Hereford, escheators. 28 April, 1255. 

(b) Inquisition before John Bossard, escheator for 
Beds., on Monday after the Ascension [10 May, 1255] 
at Suttun, by the oath of 



Thomas, s. of Geoffrey de 

Suttun. 
John, s. of Robert de 

Sutton. 
Roger Banastre. 
Ralf Wyld. 
Hugh, s. of Henry. 
Eustace de Orewelle. 



John Cabbel. 
Robert Godulf. 
Robert Est of Hattele. 
Godwin fisher. 
Geoffrey Alured de Euer- 
ton. 

John baker of Euerton. 



of the Inquisition. The only land which he held in chief was a small 
escheat. 104 The inquisition says nothing of his tragic end, which is detailed 
in another source 105 : — " A certain physician, well skilled and clever in the 
art of medicine, namely Reginald de Bathonia, was sent to watch over the 
person of the Queen of Scotland and the King and their friends by the 
Queen of England, who eagerly desired the safety and welfare of her 
daughter. . . . When M^istei Reginald had come to Maiden's Castle which 
commonly is called Edeneburc .... he was well received. And when he 
had approached the Queen privately as is the custom for physicians, and 
asked the cause of her distress and paleness .... and had understood 
her troubles of heart and body, he blamed and threatened all the magnates 
who were Guardians of the King and Queen, accusing them as guilty of 
of lese majeste. After not many days the physician Reginald, deadly 
sick, took to his bed, and there were those who said that he had been 
poisoned (*when fleeing to Oxford). But when he saw himself irrevocably 
near the gates of death, he wrote both to the King and Queen .... that 
their daughter was traitorously and inhumanly handled among those un- 
worthy Scots, who had prepared for himself the icy snares of death." 
The King and Queen of Scotland were Alexander III., and Margaret 
eldest daughter of Henry III. and Eleanor of Provence; as Alexander was 
only fourteen years old at the time, and his ' wife ' probably younger still, 
the solicitude of her parents in sending a Court physician was natural 
enough. The chief Guardians thus impeached were Robert de Ros and 
John de Balliol, together with a lady whom we met above, Millicent de 
Cantilupe. 

vii. Henry de Costentin. 

The greater part of Sutton at D.B. was held by Countess Judith and 
passed to the Honour of Huntingdon ; a small holding ot 3 virgates belonged 
to Eudo dapifer and became part of the Honour of Eaton. The only land 



218 



HENRY DE COSTENTIN 



Henry de Costentin held in chief in Suttun 2 vir- 
gates of land and 1 quarter for half a knight's fee, thus 
extended 



He held naught of any one else. Geoffrey de Cos- 
tentin is son and heir and of lawful age. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 16 (16)]. 



in the King's service was in two holdings, respectively i hide and i£ 
virgates; from one or both of these the little tenancy in chief cf Costentin 
was probably derived, but it is too small to be traced easily in the earlier 
records. 

Like some other early Bedfordshire families, such as Caron and Perte- 
soil, the Costentins appear in connection with Eudo dapifer's foundation 
of St. John's Abbey in Colchester about 1096, and the association with 
Eudo is dimly shadowed in an entry of 1 166, 10 6 — Ralf son of Peter son of 
Costant' is among " the knights of Eudo dapifer whom I Henry fitz Gerold, 
the chamberlain, hold from the King." We have a Geoffrey Costentin, son 
of Henry and Mahault, grandson of Rannulf Costentin, all of whom granted 
or confirmed land in Tethewrde (perhaps Tetworth) to Colchester. 107 This 
is probably the Geoffrey who appears in 1153 108 as attesting the 
charter 109 of Henry Duke of Normans (afterwards Henry II.), by which 
he attempted to secure the allegiance of the Earl of Chester against King 
Stephen. We may infer that his services to Henry had been considerable, 
for he is found in 1166 to hold 2\ fees under Hubert son of Ralf, whose 
sister the King had given to him in marriage. 110 

Another Geoffrey, probably his son, was on a Grand Assise at Bedford 
in 1202, 111 and is recorded about 1212 as holding a half fee in Sutton 
which he had held from William de Humez; it is variously described as 
being of the Honour of Wallingford or of the Bishop of Lincoln; 112 
presumably being so small, although an original holding from the Crown 
at D.B., it had to be tacked on to some Honour for convenience of 
administration, but historically was not a part of any Honour. About the 
same date he seems to have held single fees, of the Honours of Lancaster 
(Thorp, co. Staffs.) and Gloucester (Orcheston, co. Wilts.). 113 About the 
same time a Geoffrey de Constantin was of some prominence in Ireland, 
but the present writer has not succeeded in connecting the two men. Though 
Geoffrey had a son Elias in 1202, 114 his heir seems to have been the Henry 
who is the subject of this Inquisition. 

Henry and his wife Annabilla were seated at Sutton in 1240, 115 and 
he served in person in the Welsh War of 1244-5. 116 He is duly recorded 
in the Testa as holding a half fee in Sutton about 1242, 117 and is stated 
to hold \ and i/i3th fee elsewhere, but it is not apparent where they lay. 
These Costentins held also a fee in Staffordshire, 118 to which they have 
bequeathed its second name, Thorpe Constantine; the connection is shown 
when Geoffrey, son and heir of our Henry, does homage in 1255 both for 
the Bedfordshire land 119 and for the Staffordshire land. 120 

Another branch of the family, the exact relations of which are not 



In demesnes ... 
In free tenants 



li. s. 



1 




JOHN DE TRAILLY 



219 



viii. JOHN DE TRAIL Y (1257). 
NORTHILL, SOUTHILL, YIELDEN, CHELLINGTON, MARSTON. 

(a) Writ to the Sheriff of Beds. 28 May, 1257. 

(b) Inquisition by the oath of 



John held in chief Norhgiuel for one knight's fee, 
and it is worth 1 5I1. And he held Suggiuel in chief 
for one knight's fee, and it is worth ioli. He held the 
manor of Gilueldene for one knight's fee by military 
service from the fief of the Earl of Gloucester, and it is 
worth 40H. He held Chelwinton from the fief of the 
Earl of Gloucester for half a knight's fee, and it is 
worth ioli. Also 3 half virgates in la Hoo, doing there- 
fore only forinsec service of the King, and each half 
virgate is worth 5s., and they are held by William de la 



yet clear, was settled in Eaton Socon. Richard Costentin held there some- 
where about 1210-1212. 121 William and Reginald Costentin, sons of Henry 
Costentin made small grants of land there to Bushmead Priory; 122 
Reginald held 1/14U1 fee in Eaton Socon about 1242 ; 123 but there is nothing 
to show that they were sons of our Henry. The Coroner's Inquest on 
another Henry, who was killed most painfully while carting wheat at 
Eaton in 1266-7, 1S a ^ so recorded. 124 These are probably of a cadet branch 
from the Sutton family. 



Geoffrey de Traillgi, probably the great-grandfather of the deceased, 
held at D.B. 10 hides in Yielden, and 4 hides in what seems to have been 
Chellington, from the Bishop of Coutances. When the Bishop's estates 
escheated, the Trailly family held these two manors and Lottegarsale (Lud- 
gershall, co. Bucks.) from the Honour of Gloucester, into which much of 
his land fell ; the closeness of Ludgershall to the royal manor of Brill 
(Brehull) explains his payment for pannage there. 

Northill and Southill, part of the fief of William Espec at D.B. came 
to the Trailly family by marriage with his (?) daughter Albreda or Aubrey 
Espec. How the family came to hold in Marston and Hoo (in Marston 
and Wootton) is not yet clear; possibly by purchase, as the Lorings seem 
to have sold the land piece meal. 



Simon le Creyse. 
Simon Tuaud. 
William, son of Robert. 
William Fortin. 
Ralf clerk. 



William Valerien. 
Gilbert, son of Walter. 
Reginald Ioce. 
Robert de Bassingbourne. 
Ralf, son of Stephen. 





de Karoun. 



viii. John de Trailly. 



220 



ROBERT LE VELU 



Suzche in the name of his wife's dower in the parish of 
Merstone. And he held a half virgate in la Hoo from 
William Beufoz of the fief of Sir William de Beau- 
champ for 2d., and it is worth 5s. Also 2 virgates in 
Admereshey in Merston parish of the fee of John de 
Morteun by forinsec service only, each virgate worth 
1 os. Also a half virgate in Rauenigge in Merstone 
parish from Hugh Churt for 8d. and a Sheriff's aid of 
3d., and it is worth 5s. In Lottegarsale he held half a 
knight's fee from the fief of the Earl of Gloucester, worth 
ioli. And he pays to the King yearly 2s. 6d. for 
toll and pannage for himself and his men in the manor 
of Brehull. John de Traily his son is next heir and 23 



years of age. 



[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 20 (8)]. 



ix. ROBERT LE VELU (1258). 
TURVEY. 

(a) Writ to the Sheriff of Beds., 28 January, 1258. 

(b) Inquisition by the oath of 

Nicholas le Blund. Adam, s. of Robert. 

Samson le Maunsel. Richard le Macun. 

William de Bosco. Nicholas Barcolf. 

Roger de Dylewyk. Richard de Couinton. 

Robert Goldston. Hugh de Bosco. 

Robert de Bosco. John de Gynnes. 

Elias de la Perere. Ralf de Northo. 



This John de Trailly was the miDor mentioned above in the notes to 
No. i. (Walter de Godarvilla). But the general descent of the Honour of 
William Espec, and the details of the Trailly and other families who shared 
it, form too large a subject for treatment in a note, and will need a separate 
article. William de la Zouche (Suzche), who is returned as holding in 
Marston Hoo, married John's widow Matilda. 

ix. Robert le Velu. 

The only land in Turvey which was in the King's hand at D.B. was 
two-thirds of a virgate (say, 20 acres) held by Alwin priest. These sixteen 
acres, being held in chief, may possibly be the same land. 



JOHN DE GATESDEN 



221 



Robert le Velu held a messuage and 16 acres in 
Turueye in chief for i/5th knight's fee, value yearly 8s. 
John his son is next heir, and is across the seas, and is 
30 years and more. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry HI., 20 (13)]. 

X. JOHN DE GATESDEN THE YOUNGER (1259). 
STANBRIDGE. 

(a) Writ to the Sheriff of Beds., 4 February, 1259. 

(b) Inquisition for co. Herts., manor of Gatesden. 

(c) Inquisition held at Stanbruge on Wednesday 
after the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin [10 September, 
1259] °f tne lands etc. of John de Gatesdene junior in 
Stanbruge, by the oath of 12 lawful men, and concern- 
ing the age of the heir. John died on the Feast of St. 
Catherine 43 Hen. III. [25 November, 1258] when his 
heir [Margaret his daughter] was 12 years old and more, 
and the King had her wardship and marriage. John held 

li. s. d. 

92 acres, of which 48 could be sown in each 

year, value each 8d. ... ... 1 12 o 



A second and fuller Inquisition of this holding, which sets out services 
and dower, was held two years later (see No. xii.), but appears to relate 
to the same death, — Robert being known either by his nickname " the 
Hairy," or from the locality of his little farm. He was son of Roger le 
Velu or de Pykeshulle who held in Turvey in 1227, 125 and he had succeeded 
his father by 1236. 126 He duly appears about 1242 127 as holding i/5th fee 
in chief; but in an entry which is apparently of 1210-1212, the i/5th fee 
was held by William son of Robert de Pykeshull of the Honour of Peverel 
of Dover. There can be little doubt that both refer to the same holding, 
and the mention of this Honour seems to enable it to be traced as follows : 

1167-8. Roger son of Wimund. 128 

1194-5. Robert son of Roger. 129 

1196-7. Robert son of Roger. 130 

1210-12. William son of Robert. 131 

1227. Roger [? son of Robert.] 

1236. Robert son of Roger. 

It is unusual that so small a holding as 16 acres should have been 
assessed as i/5th fee; and I suggest provisionally that the hide held by the 
Bishop of Bayeux in 1086 had been added to Alwin priest's 2/3rds. virgate 
to make up this Pykeshulle holding ; several of the Bishop's lands seem to 
have become attached to the Honour of Peverel of Dover, and this particu- 
lar land is not otherwise traceable. 



222 



JOHN DE GATESDEN 



li. S. d. 

in the other year 44 acres sown, of the 

same value ... ... ... 1 9 4 

these are the free tenants : 

Sir Peter de Stanbruge holds 92 acres for 2 4 6 
he also holds a half virgate for ... 6 
and owes suit of court 
Gilbert de Stanbruge holds 2% virgates for 6 4 
and owes a capon at Christmas, and id. 
at St. Peter ad Vincula 
Hugh de Buel' holds if th hides for ... 114 
John s. of Hugh holds 1 virgate and messu- 
age for ... ... ... ... 10 2 

John s. of Herbert holds 1 virgate and mes- 
suage for ... ... ... 90 

William s. of Hugh holds \ virgate for ... 36 
John s. of William holds \ virgate for ... 40 



x. John de Gatesden. 

Although the Half Hundred to which the Stone Bridge gave its 
name is conspicuous in D.B., the manor which somewhat later also drew 
its name from the bridge is not mentioned directly in the Great Survey; 
but it was almost certainly included in the 17 hides of the Saxons, Wenesi 
the chamberlain and Starcher the King's thane, which Ralf Taillebois 
when Sheriff had added to Leighton and thus became royal land. 

The first mention of the manor as yet noticed is between 1100 and 11 18, 
when Henry I. granted it to his Queen Matilda, 132 and it appears to have 
been a dower manor of two later Queens. It then disappears till 1 165-6 
when it occurs in the Pipe Roll among ' proprestures,' 133 the word ap- 
parently including in this and some following rolls all lands which had 
returned to royal control or had been escheated. In 1 166-7 the manor was 
restocked by the Sheriff, and, as prices in early times are always of 
value, since only from such records is it possible to deduce the comparative 
value of money at different periods, the cost is given in full : — " For sixteen 
oxen 32s., and for two affers 6s., and for four cows 12s., and for four young 
beasts 4s., and for 200 sheep 5 marks, and for six swine (scrofis) 6s., and 
for six young pigs 4s." It continued to be administered by the Sheriff for 
the Crown until 1 175-6, 134 after which the silence of the Roll implies that 
it had been granted away from royal control. 

The Hundred Roll of 1275-6 states that Stanbridge was given by 
1 the King ' to Adulf de Gatesden, and was charged with an alms of 4J1, 
yearly to the Priory of Newnham; 135 the Newnham Cartulary (the original 
charter having been burnt) records the 4H. as having been granted by 
Richard L, that is after 1189, and states that he enfeoffed William de 
Gatesden. 136 The fact that both of these respectable sources are incorrect 
shows once again with what care even the earlier evidence should be weighed 



JOHN DE GATESDEN 



223 



li. S. d. 



John Avenel holds one quarter for ... 40 
William s. of Hugh holds one quarter and a 

messuage for ... ... ... 24 

Aug' s. of Alie holds one quarter for ... 2 0 

William s. of Inkeran holds one quarter for 3 o 
Alward s. of Frodwyne holds 2 acres for ... 10 
John de Northale holds 1 acre for ... 6 
William de Slipton holds \ acre for ... \ 
Lawrence de Hoketon holds 1 virgate for 

1 lb. pepper 

Walter de Redenache holds 2 acres for ... 6 
Simon miller holds 1 messuage for ... 4 

and a capon at Christmas. 

Aug'Aylrig ... 5 

William de Gatesdene holds 1 messuage for 2 o 



and tested; the 4H. were charged on this manor as early as 1165-6 137 (if 
not earlier) in favour of the Canons of St. Paul Bedford (who were after- 
wards elevated into the Priory of Newnham), long before the manor was 
granted to any Gatesden so far as can be traced. It continued to be charged 
up to the Dissolution of the Monasteries. 

The seat of the family was at Gaddesden, co. Herts., from which they 
derived their sur-name. Aldulf de Gatesden married after H85 138 Ermicerda 
or Ermengarda, daughter of John de Bidun, and was thus brother-in-law 
to two Beauchamps of Eaton Socon. 139 The sole authority for the state- 
ment that he held in Stanbridge is, so far as 1 know, the Hundred Roll 
already cited, of nearly a century later. It is possible that he may have 
had an interest in it, but it is quite certain that between 1 175-6 and 1204 
Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine granted it to Agatha wife of William de Gates- 
den ; for, on the Queen's death, William and Agatha obtained permission 
on a fine of 60 marks to hold it for their several lives under the name of 
I Liston ' or ' Lefton ' (that is, Leighton), " which the Queen the King's 
mother gave to the same Agatha from her dower and confirmed by her 
charter." 140 William was dead by 1228, when his widow made a grant 
in Hemel Hempstead to the Priory' of Flamstead. 141 

Aldulf de Gatesden was dead, but his wife alive, in 1225. 142 He had 
two sons, of whom Richard was the younger; John (I.), the firstborn, was 
knighted before 1 231, 143 and was at various dates Sheriff of Surrey, Sheriff 
of Sussex, and Constable of the castles of Guildford, Hastings, and 
Pevensey. 144 He died about 1236, leaving a son John (II.) de Gatesden 
in the wardship of John de Gatesden, King's Clerk. 145 This John (II.), 
the subject of the Inquisition, was still a minor towards 1242 ; 146 he married 
one Margery, 14 ? whose parentage has not been traced. 

As John (I.) is definitely stated to be son of Aldulf, the presumption 
is that William, and John the King's Clerk, were Aldulf 's brothers, and 
that on William's death the manor was granted in fee to John (I.) by 
serjeanty, as William had held it (see below). Of these supposed brothers, 



224 



JOHN DE GATESDEN 



William de Gatesdene holds ^ virgate for a 
pair of spurs or 



li. s. d. 



Meadow is worth yearly ... ... ... 8 6 

Pasture, because he had not other his own 

(quia non habuit alia propria) ... 30 

Herbage of the Court ... ... ... 20 

The Sheriff of Bedeford and Bokyncham 
received all rents, etc., from John's 
death to Michaelmas in the same 
year, to wit 

At the feast of St. Andrew apostle 

at the feast of St. Mary in March 

at the Nativity of the blessed John Baptist 

at the feast of St. Michael 

by hay pasture and herbage 

by perquisites [of court] 

by view of frank pledge 



I 


2 


II 


I 


8 


81 


I 


2 


I I 


I 


9 






13 


6 




13 


2 




12 


0 



John the Clerk was a rather remarkable man; he was sent on a private 
embassy to secure the hand of Eleanor of Provence for Henry III., and in 
other ways was so useful to the King that he renounced his orders and was 
knighted in 1245, being " abundant in wealth and income, since he had 
rather live in wedlock than be bound by the cure of souls." 148 

Sir Peter de Stanbridge, who is named as a tenant in the Inquisition, 
is almost certainly the Sir Peter de Gatesden, who with Sir John de 
Gatesden witnessed a convention with the Missenden Abbey relative to 
a pension in Leighton between 121 8 and 1 231, 149 and was in fine for land 
in Stanbridge in 1241 ; 150 he was probably a brother of John (I.). 

The serjeanty or royal service by which the manor was held was one 
of those having charge of two of the King's falcons. 151 The date at which 
it was created has not been traced, 152 but it was evidently exercised in 
1 21 5 when William de Gatesden was allowed timber " to build mews for 
Our gerfalcons." 153 This serjeanty was arrented about the middle of the 
xiijth century, when all such tenures were overhauled in order to see hew 
far they had been alienated from their proper holders, and the falconer 
service was then commuted for a fixed rent of 3li., plus the old royal 
alms of 4li. to Newnham Priory. The record of this arrentation 154 has 
preserved a list of the tenants at the time, a list which bears but little 
resemblance to that detailed in the Inquisition ; they seem to have changed 
much in the course of (?) 10 years; the amount of land was i£ carucates, 
13I virgates, 18 (i6£) acres, and 6 (5) messuages, the arable being thus 
about 610 acres exclusive of any which might attach to the messuages; 
the Inquisition records 636$ acres. 



MARGARET COUNTESS OF KENT 225 

by 8 qrs. 7 bus. of oats [2d. per bushel] ... 11 10 
by [? 2] qrs. beans ... ... ... ... 40 

by [? demesne crop (blado intra)] from 21^ 

acres of wheat ... ... ... 2 3 o 

by timber sold and [? used for] a cart and 

plough with yokes and a hutch and 

a and a bushel ... ... 3 9 

by one weyf ... ... ... ... ... 40 

from Sir Peter de Stanbruge for a fine 

(misericordia) ... ... ... 20 

by old [?] hay (ueno) sold ... ... ... 16 

Sum of the whole manor yearly 

[7I1. us. 3|d.] 7 10 6J 

Sum of the whole receipt ... ... ... 10 12 7 

And they say that John was bound to pay to 

the House of Neuham yearly, of 

the King's alms ... ... ... 4 o o 

and to the Exchequer for chief falconer 

serjeanty ... ... ... 3 o o 

and thus remains clear to the Lord King ... 10 6|- 
beyond perquisites of court. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 23 (9)]. 



xi. MARGARET, COUNTESS OF KENT (1259). 
ASPLEY GUISE. 

(a) (Mem. 3). Writ to the escheator this side of 
Trent, or the escheator for Beds. 25 November, 1259. 

(b) (Mem. 4). Inquisition at Aspele, Thursday after 
the feast of St. Nicholas [10 December, 1259] by oath of 



xi. Margaret Countess of Kent. 

Margaret daughter of William the Lion, King of Sects 1165-1214, fourth 
wife of Hubert de Burgh who was created Earl of Kent in 1227 and died 
in 1243. 



226 



ROBERT DE PYKESHULL 



Peter Passeleue. 
Edmund de Wedn. 
Walter Beyvyn. 
William, clerk of Craule. 
Simon de Sudwod. 
Paul de Eue[re]shold. 



Walter de Ascote. 
Richard de Budewel. 
Henry, clerk of Eueres- 



Paul de Litlingtun. 
Herbert de Merstun. 
John Rachel. 



hold. 



The lands tenements and rents of Aspele are worth 
ioli. yearly. John de Burgo is next heir and of full 
age. They say that Reginald de St. Walery sold the 
manor to Hubert de Burgo, but they know not from 
whom it is held for they have never heard the charter 
of enfeoffment. 

(e) (Mem. 5). And they further say that Guy de 
St. Walery impleaded Simon de Bello Campo of the 
whole barony of Bedford. And for the sake of peace 
Simon gave to him the manor of Aspele which was of 
the barony, and it always answered [?] for forinsec ser- 
vice to William de Bello Campo. 



(a) Writ to William de Wendling, escheator. 27 
December, 1260. 

(b) Inquisition at Carltun on Sunday before the 
feast of St. Gregory Pope [6 March, 1261] by oath of 



[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 23 (16)]. 



xii. ROBERT DE PYKESHULL (1260). 
? TURVEY. 



John Haring. 
Nicholas de Montibus. 
Robert Est. 



Hugh de Montibus. 
Adam, son of Robert. 
William de Estune. 
Richard de ponte. 
John Ace. 

Peter, son of William. 



Robert Godefrey. 
Geoffrey Herbert. 
Ralf de Northo. 



Robert held in chief 16 acres of land and 3 

roods of meadow. And his wife is dowered with a third 



WILLIAM DE BEAUCHAMP 



227 



part. And he held by the service of finding one man 
with horse hauberk and lance in the army of the lord 
king wherever he go. The land is worth 8s. 6d. with 

the dower. His is 30 years of age and more, and 

is next heir. And he shall give as relief 20s. for a fifth 
part of a knight's fee. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 24 (14)]. 

xiii. WILLIAM DE BEAUCHAMP (1262). 
STANFORD, HARDWICK, RAVENSDEN, DILWICK. 

(a) Writ to William Weyland, escheator, for lands 
in Staunford. 6 October, 1262. 

(b) Inquisition [imperfect] by oath of 



PStephen de Wodho. 

le heir. 

William de Gostwyc. 
Reginald Joce. 
William le Harpur. 
John de la Brome. 



John de . 

Nicholas de Langeford, 

clerk. 
Richard Juel. 
William le [?] Burguwun. 
Drug' de Gosle. 
William le eyr. 



On Thursday after the Assumption of the B.V.M. 
[17 August, 1262], before his death, came his attorney 
bearing his letter patent and seised Geoffrey le Rus of 
all William's land in Staunford, and he was in seisin 
till the following Monday when the men of Lady Ida 
de Beauchamp came and took a plough of Geoffrey over 
the land, and his heirs were in seisin till the Escheator 
came on the following Friday. William de Beauchamp 



xii. Robert de Pykeshull. 

See No. ix. above. 

xiii. William de Beauchamp (II. B.). 

The table of the Beauchamps of Bedford already published*" will 
sufficiently show the relation of the parties named in the Inquisition. The 
fine for the manor of Dilwyck in Stagsden has been calendared. 156 



228 



WILLIAM DE BEAUCHAMP 



died on Sunday after the Assumption [20 August, 
1262]. 

(c) Writ to the same Escheator for lands in Herd- 
wik. 15 October, 1262. 

(d) Inquisition by oath of 

Henry de Stepingleg'. Robert de Merston. 

John de Stauenhache. Paulinus de Lintlington, 

Miles Bernard. William, son of Robert. 

William, son of Payne. Richard le venur. 

Roger Andrew. Henry Scapelory. 

Robert Heldeward. John le Plummer. 

Walter Beynyn. William de Aspele. 

The attorney of William came as before and seised 
the attorney of Gilbert son of Walter of all William's 
lands in Herdwik, and he was in seisin till the Escheator 
came. 

(e) W T rit to the same for lands in Rauenesden. 6 
October, 1262. 

(f) Inquisition by oath of 

John Wyldebof . Ralf de Weldebof . 

John le Sauuauge. Hugh Pipard. 

William de Ponton. Thomas le Dipere. 

Reginald de Sok. John Agu. 

Robert del Brok. Robert le Broy. 

John le Engleis. William Pinceware. 

The attorney of William came as before and seised 
the attorney of Richard de Braham of the lands and 
mill belonging to William in Ravensden, and he was in 
seisin till the Escheator came. 

(g) Writ to the same for the manor of Dilewyk, on 
petition of Ida de Beauchamp claiming the manor as 
her maritagium together with the services of certain free 
tenants. 26 October, 1262. 



RANULF DE MEPPERSHALL 



229 



(h) Inquisition by oath 

Richard de la Riuere. 
John le enfaunt. 
John le Lew. 
Nicholas le Blund. 
Robert Ammori. 
Hugh Heyrun. 
Robert de Bosco. 
Simon de Holewell. 



of 



Robert de Broy, of Rade- 
well. 

Henry, s. of William de 

Scarnebroc. 
Robert de Gymices. 
Richard de Couintone. 
Robert de Bulho. 
Robert de Parentin. 



The Lady Ida held the manor of Dilewick for her 
life by fine ; the services of the free tenants 



Geoffrey Burdelys. 
Simon de Buelles. 
Peter de Glodington. 
Walter de Stacheden. 
William Passelewe. 
Robert Galston. 



Geoffrey, son of Robert. 
Matthew le Blund. 
Gilbert Murdac. 
Simon Harlewyne. 
Roger de Dilewick. 



are appurtenant to the manor. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 26 (11)]. 



xiv. RANULF DE MEPERTESHALE (1262). 
MEPPERSHALL. 

(a) Writ to the same Escheator, 10 June, 1262. 

(b) Inquisition on the day of the Translation of 
St. Thomas Martyr [3 July, 1262] by oath of 12 legal 
men [not named]. Nicholas his son is heir, being 22 



xiv. Ranulf de Meppershall. 

The history of the serjeanty and of its early holders has been thoroughly 
discussed by Mrs. Jenkinson. 157 During the tenure of this Ranulf it was 
arrented by Robert Passelewe, and the service of Laiderer commuted for 
the service of i/ioth knight. A list of the tenants of Ranulf 's grandfather 
Gilbert at the time of the great carucage of 1198 158 shows that he held in 
Meppershall 1 carucate in demesne, and that about 6£ carucates had been 
already alienated, 159 D.B. showing 7 hides 1 virgate, which is precisely 
the same amount, a carucate at this period being taken as equal to a hide. 

The holding in Felmersham from Henry de Hastings (Honour of 
Huntingdon) is traceable to the Countess Judith's holding of 3 hides 2 



230 



RANULF DE MEPPERSHALL 



years of age and more. He held a carucate of land [in 
Meppershall] by the serjeanty of finding one man in 
the army with the King for 40 days at his own cost, 
and the land is worth 100s. yearly. And he held from 
Henry de Hastingis in Felme[re]sham 20s. of rent 
yearly, and I4d. rent of the term of St. John Baptist, 
and 1 2d. from pasture in Meperteshal. His wife claims 
a third part of the said tenement. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 26 (20)]. 



virgates there at D.B., of which Gilbert [son of Salomon] was sub-tenant; 
that it was supplementary to the land held in virtue of the serjeanty is 
shown by two fines in 1205; 160 in these 10 out of the 11 D.B. hides were 
alienated by a later Gilbert equally between Almeric de Landes and 
Richard de Piencurt, accounting for 6h. 2v. of the serjeanty, and 3I1. 2v. 
of the Honour of Huntingdon ; either a hide of the serjeanty was retained 
in demesne, which has not been traced, or D.B. credited the vill with a 
hide too many. 

The succession of the family appears to be as shown in the table. John 
de Meppershall, the father of Ranulf, died about 1230 when his wife Sabina 
was to have her dower, and Nicholas de Nevill to have custody and the 
marriage of the heirs; Ranulf was then evidently under age, 161 but was 
active by 1239. 162 Sabina seems to have had her portion in Beeston and 
Budnoe. John left also a son Robert, a benefactor to Wardon Abbey by land 
in Clifton in 1257. "3 



in Meppershall and Felmersham, 1086. 



Gilbert, son of Salaman, 
I 
l 
I 

William de Meppershall. 



Robert de Meppershall, benefactor of Chicksand and Merton Priories before 1168; gave churches 
of Meppershall and Felmersham to Lenton Priory. 



Gilbert de Meppershall, flor. 1198-1212. 



John de Meppershall = Sabina 
d.c. 1230. 



Ranulf or Ralf de Meppershall 
anq. p.m. 1262. 



Robert de Meppershall, benef. to 
Warden Abbey, 1257. 



Nicholas de Meppershall, b.c. 1240. 



CLARE EARL OF GLOUCESTER 



231 



XV. RICHARD DE CLARE, EARL OF GLOUCESTER AND HERT- 
FORD (l26l-I262). 
BATTLESDON, YIELDEN, CHELLINGTON. 

(a) (Mem. 42). Extent of lands. — Ralf falconarius 
holds one fee in Badeliston. 

(b) (Mem. 43). Extent of knight's fees. — John 
Traylay holds four fees in Hiueldon and Chelfiston. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. HI., 27 (5)]. 



XVI. ISABELLA DAUBENI (1263). 
CAINHOE, AMPTHILL. 

(a) Writ to the Escheator. 22 January, 1263. 

(b) Inquisition at Caynho, ix. Kal. Febr. [24 
January, 1263] before Nicholas] Peyuere by oath of 



Richard, son of Ralf. 
Batholemew [? le Bray]. 
Nicholas de Boweles. 
Thomas de Grauntcourt. 
Roger Blaunpayn. 
Richard Wvscard. 



John de Flitte. 
John de Bray. 
Hugh Blundel. 
John Blundel. 
William Trauail. 
Robert de Norwode. 



xv. Richard de Clare. 164 

Battlesden was of the land of Walter Giffard at D.B., but on the 
death of his son Walter Giffard, Earl of Buckingham, in 1164 without male 
heir, the overlordship of part of the Giffard Honour, including Battlesden, 
seems to have passed to the Clares in right of his aunt Roheise, who married 
Richard fitz Gilbert, first Earl of Clare (d. 1090), from whom this Richard 
was the fifth generation, eighth Earl of Clare, sixth of Hertford, and 
seventh of Gloucester. 

For the Traillys of Yielden and Chellington, see No. viii. above. 

It seems probable that Battlesden remained with the descendants of the 
D.B. undertenant as immediate lords for at least 150 years. In 1086 
Richard Talbot held the manor under Walter Giffard; in 1166 a later 
Richard Talbot had held two fees of the third Walter Giffard, then recently 
dead; 165 shortly afterwards we find Battlesden belonging to one Hugh 
Talbot, 166 who had let 1 Badelesdonia ' and his lands in Normandy 167 at 
farm to Robert Hacket, and received them again by this deed, given at 
some date between 1166 and 1189. At an uncertain date in the reign of 
Edward I. the Jurors' of the Hundred Roll, who are confessedly rather 
vague about the matter, return that Henry III. gave the manor to War in 
fitz Gerold, that on his decease William Talbot entered upon it but they 



232 



ISABELLA DAUBENY 



She held the manor of Cayho as the moiety of a 
barony, with two carucates, value 15H. And she held 
one carucate in Amethulle, worth 100s.; held in chief 
by homage and relief for the moiety of the whole barony, 
by the service of one knight or two Serjeants when the 
King personally goes in the army. And there are con- 
tained in the moiety 12^ fees. William Daubeney her 
son is heir and 30 years and more of age. And 15 
carucates have been given in alms by antecessors in the 
barony. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 28 (1)]. 



Xvii. THOMAS TYREL OF WYLEDON (1264). 
WILDEN, BOLNHURST. 

(a) Writ to the Escheator of Beds., 21 July, 1264. 

(b) Inquisition at Wilden on Monday after St. 
James' Day [28 July, 1264] by oath of 

Richard le Chanu. Henry Wigod. 

Walter de la Haye. [? John de Within]. 

William Andrew. Simon [? clerk]. 

William le Blund. Robert Dipere. 

John Agu. Ralf le Boler. 

Hugh [? Wigod]. John le Engleys. 
Walter Wigod. 



know not by what right, and that on William's death the Earl of Gloucester 
came in, and this ' before the time of the war ' [of 1215]. William Talbot 
however is returned about 1242*68 as holding a fee in Battlesden, and 
Paulinus Peyvre as holding from him in guardianship. It is possible that 
this refers to William Talbot of a Gainsborough family, who spent many 
years in Normandy in the service of John and Henry III., returned to 
England about 1232, and died in 1246. But it has not been found possible 
as yet to connect all these Talbots together., 

Ralf falconer has not yet been identified. The date of the Inquisition 
falls between the tenure of the manor by Talbot and its acquisition by 
Passelewe.16 9 

xvi. Isabella Daubeny. 

The position of Isabella Daubeny and of her heir in the family of 
d'Albini of Cainhoe is shown in the table prepared by Dr. Morris. 170 



THOMAS TYREL 233 

He held in chief half a knight's fee in Wilden and 
Bolehurst, by finding one esquire (armiger) with hauberk 
sword and lance for 40 days at his own cost in the King's 
army. He held 

messuage 

[100] acres of land in demesne, each acre 6d. 
meadow 

9 acres of wood 

assessed rent of 2 cloves, 1 root of ginger, 
and 

6 customary tenants with 6 quarters of land 
sum 

Ralf his son and heir is 2 1 years of age and more. 



li. 


s. 


d. 




6 


8 


2 


10 


0 




6 


8 




4 


6 


2 


0 


3t 


3 


0 


0 


8 


8 


if 



xvii. Thomas Tyrel. 

The manor of Wilden at D.B., as well as a hide in Bolnhurst, was held 
by Odo bishop of Bayeux. On the escheat of his fief, these with some other 
of his lands became attached to the Honour of Peverel ' of Dover.' 171 As 
there are at least three Peverel Honours, two of which are represented in 
Bedfordshire, a word on them will not be misplaced. The Honour of 
Peverel 'of London,' or 'of Hatfield Peverel,' formed from the D.B. fief 
of Ranulf Peverel, 172 does not concern this county and may be set aside. 
The Honour of William Peverel 1 of Nottingham ' 173 touches us at Tillsworth, 
at the Bedfordshire part of Rushden, and perhaps at Farndish ; it may be 
left for the present. 

William Peverel ' of Dover ' seems to have acquired his style as one 
of the lieutenants in the Castle Guard of Dover, either for Odo bishop 
of Bayeux or for some later Constable of the Castle. His Honour 174 appears 
to have been erected mainly out of a part of the lands of this Bishop, who 
was imprisoned in 1082, and finally banished in 1088 for joining with 
Robert Duke of Normandy against William Rufus. William Peverel 
attested, as 'of Dover,' two charters of Henry I. to St. Alban between 1107 
and 1 1 19, and is probably also the William Peverel who attested the charter 
by which Biscot was granted to St. Alban in 11 16; several other witnesses 
are Bedfordshire land holders. 175 To the confirmation charter of Henry I. 
to Bath in 1111 he was also a witness; 176 he seems to have been still alive 
in 1130, 177 and belongs therefore to a generation later than the Conquest. 
He presumably died without issue, as he was succeeded in the Honour by 
his nephew William Peverel of Brunne (Bourne, co. Cambs.), who granted 
lands " in Oddewic in my vill of Wildene " to Thorney Abbey, and was 
party to a composition with Abbot Robert of Thorney (1113-1151) respecting 
the church of ' Bolehirst.' 178 William of Brunne died on the second 
Crusade in 1148, 179 leaving four sisters and coheiresses; and the Honour 
appears not long afterwards to have fallen to the Crown. Unlike some of 
the manors in this Honour, the Bedfordshire lands do not seem to have 
been charged with the duty of castle guard at Dover. No reference to these 



234 



THOMAS TYREL 



(c) Found by inquisition that he had alienated from 
the half knight's fee during his life 2 virg. 3^ acr. 1 rood, , 
whereof the heir is bound to warrant a third part to those 
enfeoffed, for his mother's dower. Further he alienated 
47 s - 32^- °f tne assessed rent, and one quarter of land, , 
whereof the heir is bound to warrant a third part. Also 1 
a half virgate of his wife's marriage portion in Crowele, 
which he sold, and his heir must warrant, so that little 
will remain in the King's hand. 

[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 30 (4)]. 



lands has been found in the second half of the xijth century, but they 
reappear at the Inquisition of Knight's fees in 121 0-1212, 180 the lands being 
recognisable only by the names of the tenants ; in the case of Wilden these 
are Peter de Malo Lacu and William de sancto Remigio. In the Inquisition 
post mortem of Thomas Tyrel, no reference is made to the tenure of Wilden 
from the Honour of Peverel ' of Dover,' but the Exchequer had not for- , 
gotten the fact, and it reappears at a later date. 18 1 

The first undertenant of Wilden noted after D.B. is Robert de St. 
Remy, 182 who had apparently elected to be a Norman after the loss of 
Normandy in 1204, and had therefore forfeited his English lands. We 
know from another source 183 that he had been deprived for that reason 
of the lands which he received with his wife, the daughter of Thomas 
Bardulf ; and in 1204 the lands which had been of Richard and Robert 
de St. Remy in Wilden were to be extended (surveyed) and a payment of 
15K. to be made from them. 184 Very early in its history we find two joint 
tenants in Wilden; a valuable list of vills in 1 166-7, which unfortunately 
gives only the Christen names of the tenants, 185 shows " Wileden of Robert 
and John." Robert was the family name of St. Remy; as far back as 1105 
a Robert de St. Remy did useful work in capturing the notable men of 
Caen for Henry I. 186 As to the personality of ' John,' there is no present 
evidence. The original holding seems therefore to have been held jointly 
just before 1204 by Richard and Robert de St. Remy; Robert's land was 
assigned to Peter de Maulay, 187 so that we may infer that Richard's share 
was that which appears among the Terre Normannorum in 1205 as held by 
William de St. Remy (probably Richard's son or brother) valued at ioli. 
yearly, the stock for which was 6 oxen, 2 affers, and two swine. 188 William 
continued to hold it for half a knight's fee of the Honour of Dover, 189 and 
died about 1224, leaving a widow Cecily 190 and at least two daughters — 
Agnes, who married Ralf Ridel, and Eleanor who married John de Paben- 
ham (see No. xxi. below), each of whom received a quarter fee in Wilden. 

Peter de Maulay (de Malo Lacu), a Poitevin who received the land of 
Robert de St. Remy in 1206, obtained the Barony of Mulgrave by marriage 
with Isabel daughter of Robert de Turnham, and was the first of a series 
of Barons by tenure and writ. 191 He is said to have owed his fortunes 
and marriage to having undertaken the murder of Prince Arthur in 1203, 
but it is not even certain that the Prince was in fact murdered. 192 Both 
under John and Henry III., Peter was a trusted servant of the Crown; and 
Constable of the important castles of Corfe and Sherborne, although he took 
a part in the rebellions of 1220 and 1224. 193 The date of his death is 
uncertain. 194 



QUENCY EARL OF WINCHESTER 



235 



Xviii. ROGER DE QUENCY, EARL OF WINCHESTER (1264). 

STEVINTON. 

(a) (Mem. 2). Extent of the manor of Styuenton 
made on Sunday before the Exaltation of Holy Cross 
[7 September, 1264] before Richard de Heremington, 
by 



Matthew Knit de Stake- 
den. 

Benedict de Baleham. 
Adam, s. of Robert de 

Thorvey. 
Richard le Machun. 
William de Burdelys. 
Nicholas Barcolft. 



Elias del Perir de Thor- 
veye. 

Gilbert le Champiun de 

Carleton. 
John Hareng de Carleton. 
Robert Goldstan. 
Adam Anelok. 
Robert de Hampslap. 



li. s. d. 

Capital messuage with vineyard garden and 

dykes ... ... ... ... 10 o 

In demesne 400 and 40 acres of arable (by 

the greater hundred), per acre 6d., 13 o o 



In 1224 the land which Peter had held in Wilden was granted to Ralf 
Tyrel in bail, while in the King's service; 195 and it was confirmed to him 
and his heirs in 1232, as a half fee in Wilden and Bolnhurst, with the 
usual qualifying phrases employed when dealing with land of forfeited 
Normans. 196 Towards 1242 Peter Tyrel held this half fee, 197 and served 
in person for a half knight in Wales in 1244-5. 19 8 In 1246 the homage of 
Thomas Tyrel brother of Ralf Tyrel was accepted; 199 it seems possible that 
' brother ' is a slip for ' son,' for Thomas Tyrel son of Ralf Tyrel about 
the same time confirmed a grant of land in Wilden to Bushmead Priory; 200 
Peter may therefore have been uncle and guardian of this Thomas with 
whose Inquisition we are dealing. The Inquisition was repeated six years 
later, when the heir came of age (No. xxii. below). 

xviii. Roger de Quency. 

The overlord of Steventon at D.B. was Count Eustace of Boulogne, 
whose descendants held his fief as the Honour of Boulogne till 1214, when 
their English rights escheated to the Crown. 

The undertenant at D.B. was Ernulf (II.) de Ardres, son of Ernulf (I.) 
Lord of Ardres in the County of Guisnes. 201 Ernulf's grand-daughter and 
heiress Cristiana married Baldwin (II.) Count of Guisnes (d. 1205-6), who 
thus came to hold the Ardres land of the Honour of Boulogne. 202 Baldwin's 
grandson, 2 °3 Robert de Guisnes, apparently received Steventon as a cadet's 



236 QUENGY EARL OF WINCHESTER 





li. 


s. 


d. 


T i 1 r 1 

In demesne 24^ acres of meadow, per acre 








2S., 


2 


9 


0 


T 1 r 1 . 

In demesne 12 acres 01 several pasture, per 






acre 2s., 


1 


4 


0 


A 11 1 j-1 ' ±A < 1_ 1_ J 

A small park, worth with herbage 




6 


8 


Warren (conegera) 




6 


8 


rishery 




4 


0 


Pleas and perquisites of Court with view of 








frankpledge 


2 


0 


0 


Assessed rent of free tenants 


5 


13 


1 


In villanage 31 virgates, each virgate with 






works worth 17s., ... 


26 


7 


0 


41 cottars, tenants at will, worth with works 


1 




741 


Water Mill 


2 


0 


0 


Sum total 


55 


H 





William, Nicholas, and Stephen, reeves, have re- 
ceived the farms and perquisites since Rogers death. 
Joan wife of Sir Humfrey de Bourn the younger, of full! 
age, and Hawise daughter of the late Robert de Quency,j 
under age, are next heirs. 

(b) (Mem. 3). Inquisition of the manor of Styven- 
ton before Richard de Heremington on Tuesday before 
the feast of St. Dionysius [7 Oct., 1264], DV oatn of 



portion, while his elder brother had the Norman County; Robert was 
holding there in 1237 when he confirmed the advowson of its church to 
Harrold Priory, 204 and about 1242, 205 for two knight's fees in which 
Parva Wahull or Little Odell was included. Somewhat later he farmed the 
manor to Adam de Bentley, citizen of London, for 40H [yearly]. 206 Since 
we find him selling other lands and honours to Enguerrand de Fiennes and 
to Fulk bishop of London about this time, although the transaction has 
not been traced it is reasonable to suppose that he sold Steventon also to 
Robert de Quency (d. 1257), who in 1253 transferred it 207 to his elder 
brother Roger, the subject of the Inquisition. 

The people therein named are shown in the accompanying table. 208 
Margaret de Lacy was his niece, daughter of his eldest brother Robert 
(d. 1 21 7). Roger himself, through thrice married, left no male heir, and? 
the Earldom died with him. 209 By the fine already cited, his heirs for 
this manor were to be Joan and Haweise, daughters of the younger Robert 
(d. 1257); and the manor was to be partitioned between them when the 
Countess of Winchester had had her dower. 2 * 0 



QUENCY 



EARL OF WINCHESTER 



S 

it 



l v . 



5 . 

2 2 

« - 
CO 



jo ~ 

o . 



•g o o C O £ 
« jg w 

B . O 3 

* S o 2 
* ° g*g 2£ 



II II H 



M 

I 
W 
/ ^ 

\ ° 



o - 

tier 
05 u 2 



1° s 



S 

ii 

-! 

11 
as 



*-3 



u O 



238 



ROBERT DE RADWELL 



Nicholas le Blund of 

Stacheden. 
Robert Amory of Karle- 

ton. 

Geoffrey de Karleton. 
Stephen de Laundres of 

Felmeresham. 
William le Champium of 

Karleton. 



Gilbert Berenger of the 
same. 

Benedict de Pabeham. 
Simon de la More. 
Robert de Broy. 
Nicholas de Pyncurt. 
James, s. of Richard de 

Bruham. 
Geoffrey le Ros de 

Bruham 



Robert de Quency shortly before his death granted! 
the manor to Roger de Quency late Earl of Winchester ii 
and his heirs male of his body; in default of such male:' 
issue, the manor to revert to Robert and his heirs, who i 
are Joan aforesaid, 19 years of age, and Hawise afore- 
said, 14 years of age. The manor was taken into the;! 
King's hand on Sunday next after the Nativity of the I 
B.V.M., [14 September, 1264] by Richard de Hereming- 
ton and Richard de Wyk, before which it was in the 
hand of Margaret de Lascy, Countess of Lincoln, and I 
Sir Humfrey de Boun the younger. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 31 (2)]. 



xix. ROBERT DE RADEWELL (1266). 
RADWELL. 

(a) Writ to the Sheriff of Beds. 2 July, 1266. 

(b) Inquisition at Felmeresham on the day of the 
Translation of St. Benedict Abbot [11 July, 1266] by 
oath of 



Richard de Ripa. 
Stephen de Laundres. 
Gilbert Berunger. 
Walter de Herduyc. 
Nicholas Peincurt. 
Benedict de Pabbeham. 
Simon de Mora. 



Robert le Broy. 
Richard, son of Nicholas. 
Richard Lemfaunt. 
Richard de la Grene. 
William de Stanbrugge. 
Hugo de Herduyc. 



MAfTniTTT PART OF WARWIfK 






239 


He held from Ralf Pirot in Radeuell 










li. 


s. 


d. 


10 virgates of arable, each containing 18 








acres, per acre Ad., per virgate 6s., 








sum of rent 


3 


0 


O 


17 acres of meadow, per acre 3s., 


2 


1 1 


O 


rent from free tenants 


1 


3 


6i 


fishery 




2 


0 


2 cottars 




2 


6 


pasture 




6 


8 


court [perquisites] 




10 


0 


x virgates in villanage, each 4s., from 








ploughings 2s. from fixed dues 2s., 








sum 


1 


4 


0 


he had in all yearly with dower 


8 


19 




[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 




(20)]. 


XX. WILLIAM MAUDUT, EARL OF WARWICK 


(1268). 





CLAPHAM, OAKLEY. 

(a) (Mem. 16). Writ to the Sheriff of Bucks, and 
Beds, to enquire as to the lands alienated by William 
Maudut, whereof his wife Alesia claims her dower. 9 
February, 1268. 



xix. Robert de Radwell. 

Robert was not a tenant in chief in this county so far as has been 
traced, and it is not easy to see why an Inquisition should have been 
directed by the Sheriff. The record tells us that he held from Ralf Pirot, 
and we learn from other sources, summarised by Dr. Morris, 211 that this 
Radwell land went to make up the four fees which Ralf held of the Honour 
of Cainhoe. Yet Robert appears in the Distraint for Knighthood in 1255 
as being worth 2oli. yearly, 212 though his Radwell land was worth less 
than gli. ; it is possible therefore that an Inquisition held in some other 
vill has been lost. 

xx. William Mauduit. 

In its account of Clapham. V.C.H., 213 never very strong on the earlier 
centuries, leaves an unexplained gap of nearly 200 years between D.B. and 
the appearance of this William Mauduit, a gap which can only be filled by 
a discussion of some length. 



240 



MAUDUIT EARL OF WARWICK 



(b) (Mem. 17). Inquisition by oath of 

John Heyron. 



Hervey de Risle. 
William Babbe. 
Robert del Broc. 
John le Sauuage. 
Walter del Haye. 
Robert Pikot. 
John de Engayne. 



Walter de Godricheshey. 
Richard Dreu. 
John Rolt. 

William, clerk of Acle. 
Geoffrey Brokk. 



Without daring to pronounce on the vexed question of the relationship^ 
between the D.B. magnates Robert d'Oilli and Miles Crispin, 214 we may) 
believe as certain that they succeeded to the lands of the Thane Wigot of ] 
Wallingford and other Saxons, and that the greater part of their lands:, 
eventually escheated to the Crown and constituted the Honour of Walling-' 
ford. The story usually accepted, which is summarised in the following^ 
pedigree, would explain the union of the two fiefs into one Honour. 



Wigot : thane of Wallingford 
T.R.E. and T.R.W. 



Matilda = Robert d'Oilli 



Brian fitzCount : = 2. Matilda 1. = Miles Crispin 
firmarius of Wal- died without 
lingford 11 27. issue. 

The Bedfordshire lands properly included in this Honour are thus 
recorded in D.B. : — 

(a) In chief from the King 

Clapham 5 h. o v. held by Miles Crispin in demesne. 
Thurleigh o h. 1 v. held by Miles Crispin. 

Thurleigh o h. 3 v. held by Robert d'Oilli : undertenant Richard 
Basset. 

(b) By undertenancy from Countess Judith 
Oakley 1 h. o v. held by Miles Crispin. 

As Dr. Round points out, 215 there is evidence that Robert d'Oilli 
preceded Miles Crispin at Clapham, which was then a single manor. 

These four holdings were formed, at some date before 1284, into two 
manors ; the larger of Clapham proper, the smaller in Clapham, Oakley 
and Thurleigh (styled in V.C.H. Ocle-cum-Clapham or Clapham-Bayeux) ; 
both were held of the Honour of Wallingford from the Crown. 216 The 
hide in Oakley 217 seems to have become detached from the Honour of 
Huntingdon to which it properly belonged, and annexed to the smaller 
manor; it does not appear separately in the Feudal Aids. 

The only clear statement of the Honour in this country at an early date 
is in the Inquisition of Knights' fees made for King John in 1210-1212; it 
enumerates only the men liable to scutage and not their lands. These are 



MAUDUIT EARL OF WARWICK 



241 



He had enfeoffed William le Brun in Clopham 
and Acle of 17s. 6d. in rent of free tenants, with fishery, 
and of 50s. from customs works etc. of the villanage, and 
of 4H. 12s. 6d. from demesne lands woods and pastures; 
sum total, 81i. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 35 (13)]. 



Turstan Basset — a half knight. 
Warin fitz Gerold — a half knight. 
Henry de Teydene — a third of a knight. 

Armed with this, we can trace the early descent of at least a part of 
the manor of Clapham, through the Bassets and down to the William Mauduit 
of the present Inquisition. 

Ralf Basset, 218 a justiciar of Henry I., is classed by Orderic 219 among 
the men whom the King raised from a low origin to the rank of nobles. 
This only means that, because they were net descended from D.B. tenants 
in chief, "they were despised by the great feudatories as nobodies"; 220 
at any rate he was evidently a very capable judge who held Eyres in at 
least six counties; and Henry archdeacon of Huntingdon, his contemporary, 
designates Ralf and his son Richard as " viros clarissimos." 221 Ralf Basset 
is supposed to have died about 1127. 222 He gave the advowson of Clapham 
Church (then a chapel under Oakley) to his son Ralf Basset, a clerk, who 
gave it to Oseney Priory; 223 the Priory however did not long retain it. 

This enables us to place him as the successor and perhaps the son of 
that Richard Basset who held 3 vir gates at Thurleigh as undertenant and 
'knight' of Robert d'Oilli; both names are preserved in the village of 
Ouilly le Basset in Calvados. 

Turstin Basset, Ralf's son, appears in 1166 (or earlier 224 ) as holding 
6§ fees of the Honour of Wallingford. 22 ^ He and his wife Eustacia 
granted a messuage in Clapham to Oseney Priory. Richard Basset, his 
son and successor, claimed from the Abbey of Abingdon certain lands; on 
the monks appealing to Henry II. for protection, Richard gave to them a 
charter confirming the gift of his father Turstan and of his grandfather 
Ralf, 226 thus fixing his place in the family. Whether Richard were old 
and feeble in 1176-1177, or had entered a monastery, does not appear : at 
any rate not he himself but his son Turstin on his behalf answered to the 
Sheriff on the Forest Amercements of this date; 227 I suggest that an entry 
of the previous year by which " Turstan Basset owes 20 m. for a fine of 
land " may record that he entered on his inheritance in his father's life- 
time. 228 He held 6 knights of the Honour of Wallingford in 1205-6, 229 and 
thus brings us down to the date of the return of the Honour above cited. 
It was probably this man, not his grandfather, who made a grant to 
Wardon Abbey in the adjoining manor of Putnoe ; 230 this is witnessed by 
William Basset cleric. Turstan died about 1223, leaving six daughters; 
of these, Isabel, the eldest, married Robert Mauduit, 231 and was grand- 
mother of William Mauduit, Earl of Warwick, the subject of the Inquisition : 
these men were the representatives of the well-known Mauduits of Hanslope, 
co. Bucks., hereditary Royal Chamberlains as far back as the reign of 
Henry I. 

While the Basset holding in Clapham is thus accounted for, and be- 
came, according to V.C.H., 232 the manor of Clapham Greenacres or Fitz 
Jeffry's manor, the origin of the fitz Gerold holding, which presumably 
became the manor of Ocle cum Clapham or Clapham Bayeux, is still to 



242 



MAUDUIT EARL OF WARWICK 



Richard Basset : undertenant in Thurleigh, 1086. 



Ratf Basset : justiciar of Henry I., d.c. 112; 



Matilda, dau. of = Richard Basset of Turstan Basset: hell of Hon. Wallingf., u66. 
Geoffrey Ridel. Wefilon, Sheriff Beds. 

1130, d.c. 1154. 



✓ \ 



Richard Basset, alive 1176-77. 



Turstan Basset, held of Hon. Wallingf. 1205-6, 
d.c. 1223. 



Isabel = Robert Mauduit, 

d.C. I224. d. 1221. 



Alice, dau. of = William Mauduit 
Waleran, Earl 



of Warwick. 



William Mauduit, d. 
1 256, Earl of War. 
wick in right of his 
mother. 



-Joan = Robert de Burnebu. 



— Egelina= Richard Burdun. 



-Alice ss John te Brun. 



-Matilda =Bartholemew de Rakington. 



— LaurenctassRalf de Wedon junior. 



JOHN DE PABBNHAM 243 

Xxi. JOHN DE PABENHAM (1269). 
WILDEN, CARLTON, PABENHAM, HINWICK. 

(a) Writ to John le Moyne, escheator, 12 April 1269. 

(b) Inquisition on Monday before the Ascension [29 
April, 1269] before Robert de Creuequor, subescheator 
for Beds., by oath of 

Richard Chanu. John Anglicus. 

John de Bretteuill. Henry Coynterel. 

Ralf Tyrel. Robert Pycot. 

Henry Wygeyn. Henry Frankeleyn. 

John Engayne. Robert le Buler. 

John Rolt. 

He held the manor of Wylden in chief by service 
of a fourth of a knight's fee. 

li. s. d. 

Granges and other buildings with messuage 

and garden ... ... ... 30 

144 acres, each acre 8d. ... ... ... 4 16 o 



seek in the mirk of the xijth century. The separation of these two seems 
to go back a long way, for in a return of 1166-1167 233 we find " Clapham : 
the whole vill, 2 marks. And pardoned to Henry fitz Gerold, 1 mark " ; 
so that it would seem that Henry already held a moiety of the vill. The 
only explanation at present possible is that Henry fitz Gerold, who was 
keeper of the Castle of Wallingford under Henry II., 234 had obtained this 
moiety by purchase or exchange; there is as yet no trace of a marriage; 
he was father of the Warin fitz Gerold, who appears in the entry of the 
Honour for 1210-1212 already cited, by Matilda de Chesney. 

Both the origin and fate of the third holding in Clapham, that of 
Henry de Teydene, are still obscure. We find Henry de Taidene and his 
father Robert as parties to a fine of 1197; 235 and as far back as 1162-1163 
it appears from the Sheriff's allowances under * terre date ' in Essex that 
Robert de Taidene received 10s. worth of land in Havering in exchange 
for the wood of Taidene, needed to make up the Royal Park of Havering ; 239 
this brings us to Theydon, co. Essex, as his name-place, and to the manor 
of Theydon Gernons, 237 in which the family were considerable benefactors 
of St. Bartholomew's Hospital.238 

xxi. John de Pabenham. 

The first member of this family mentioned by V.C.H. 239 is John de 
Pabenham (I.) in 1203-4, holding a knight's fee in Bucks, or Beds. 249 
But he occurs earlier, as attesting the charter by which Simon de Beau- 
champ gave the chapel on Bedford Bridge to be governed by the Hospital 
of St. John ; this was in the shrievalty of William Rufus sometime between 



244 



JOHN DE PABENHAM 



li. 


s. 


d. 




1 1 
A j 


o 




A 


8 




I 2 


o 


I 




o 




4 


o 




19 


o 


9 


7 


8 


3 


6 


8 



j\ acres [of meadow], each acre 2s. ... 
3^ acres of swath (pratum falcabile), each acre 
is. 4d. 

2\ acres of pasture, 2s.; and common of 

pasture 10s., 
assessed rent of free tenants 
services reliefs and suits of court 
2 customaries for works and tallages, etc. ... 
sum 

moiety of the advowson of the church 

John son of John de Pabenham is next heir, and 
of full age. 

(c) Inquisition on Tuesday before the Ascension 
[30 April, 1269] before Robert de Creuequer subes- 
cheator for Beds., by oath of 

John West. West. 

Simon West. John Franceys. 

Elyas del Perer. Ralf, son of Reginald. 

Richard Tappe. Nicholas Bardulf. 

Ralf de Estende. Richard Cosyn. 

Ralf ad fontem. John le Rue. 

William Ha William, son of Henry. 

John held in chief in Carelton by the service of the 
tenth part of a knight's fee. 



1179 and 1189; 241 he also is mentioned in the Eyre Roll of 1195. 242 In 
1210-1212 he is returned as holding an eighth of a fee of the Honour of 
Dover, 243 apparently in Carlton; from an entry of about the same date 
we learn that he was son of Hugh (I.), 244 and yet earlier references seem 
to show that Hugh was a son of Alan. 245 In 1213 Hugh de Pabenham 
(II.) paid relief on succeeding his father in Carlton, 245 * being presumably 
son of John (I.) ; he was excused knighthood and scutage in 1229, 246 and 
died about 1237, when the homage of his son John (II.) was accepted for 
the Carlton land. 247 This John served by deputy in the Welsh War in 
1224-25, the service being afoot with bows and arrows for a fifth of a 
knight's fee (probably for Pavenham and Hinwick.) 248 By his marriage 
with Eleanor, daughter and coheiress of William de St. Remy, 249 he obtained 
a share of the manor of Wilden (see No. xvii. above) ; she died about 
1248, 250 and he had predeceased her by about a year, 251 leaving an heir 



JOHN DE PABENHAM 245 

li. S. d. 

messuage with buildings ... ... ... i o 

4-2 virgates of land ... ... ... ... 2 o o 

6 acres of meadow ... ... ... ... 60 

12 acres of wood ... ... ... ... 40 

sum ... ... ... ... ... ... 211 o 

And he held from William de Beauchamp of Bed- 
ford in Pabenham 

messuage with buildings and garden ... 3 o 

7 virgates of land ... ... ... ... 3 o o 

25 acres [of meadow] ... ... ... 2 2 o 

fishery ... ... ... ... ... 10 

rent of free tenants ... ... ... ... 12 n| 

common of pasture ... ... ... ... 10 

sum 5 19 n| 

And he held from William de Beauchamp the manor 
of Hynewyk. 

messuage, garden, buildings, dovecote ... [4 o] 
1 hide 3 virgates of land ... ... ... 3 o o 

common of pasture ... ... ... ... 20 

sum ... ... ... ... ... ... 3 6 o 

And he held Pabenham and Hynewyk by service of 
a quarter of a knight's fee. 

He held in Carelton from Ralf Moryn by free 
maritagium 



under age, John (III.) de Pabenham, the subject of the Inquisition. He 
was respited for knighthood, though of age, in 1266-67, 252 and seems to 
'have been quite young when he died. 

Of the various lands which he held — (i) the acquirement of that in 
Wilden has been already explained (No. xvii. above) ; as the coheiress who 
brought it was described by her maiden name about 1242, 253 she probably 
married John (II.) after that date; (ii) the holding in Pavenham and 
Hinwick was from the Honour of Bedford; 254 at D.B. these lands were 
assessed at 4 hides 1 virgate, and were held by Turstin chamberlain from 
the King; their annexation to the Beauchamp Barony has not been traced, 
(iii) The holding in Carlton belonged to the Bishop of Bayeux in 1086, 
but, together with some other of his lands, became attached to the Honour 
of Peverel of Dover, (iv) Lastly, it seems to be implied by the Inquisition 
that John had married a daughter of Ralf Morin of Harrold, who brought 
2 virgates in Carlton as her marriage portion. 



246 



THOMAS TYREL 



2 virgates of land 
20 acres of wood 
sum 



li. s. 
[10 
4 



d. 

o] 
o 

o 



[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 36 (7)]. 



Xxii. THOMAS TYREL (1270). 
WILDEN. 

(a) Writ to John le Moyne, escheator. 14 February, 
1270. 

(b) Inquisition at Wilden on the Vigil of St. 
Matthias Apostle [23 February, 1270] before Robert de 
Creuequor, escheator for Beds., by 



Ralf de Oyldebef. 
Baldwin de Flanuyll. 
Walter de la Haye. 
Roger, son of Richard. 
John, son of Petronill. 
Roger, son of Nicholas. 
Richard Bastard. 



Robert de Broy. 
Walter de Broy. 
Robert Pycot. 
John Agu. 
Richard Chanu the 

younger. 
William Auenel. 



Thomas held the manor of Wylden in chief 

li. s. 

messuage ... ... ... ... ... 5 

80 acres of arable (lucrabilis), each acre 8d. 2 13 

meadow and pasture ... ... ... 2 

rent of free tenants ... ... ... ... 1 18 

[ ? 3] virgates in villanage ... ... ... 4 o 

9 acres of wood ... ... ... ... 5 

sum [really 9H. 4s. 9§d.] ... ... ... 9 3 

He had sold 46s. of rent and several other lands. 
Ralf Tyrel is next heir and was 21 years old last 
Michaelmas. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 37 (19)]. 



d. 
o 

4 
8 

9* 
o 



9t 



xxii. Thomas Tyrel. 

See No. xvii. above. 



WILLIAM DE HUNTERCUMBB 247 

XXiii. WILLIAM DE HUNTERCUMBE (l27l). 
WRESTLINGWORTH. 

(a) Writ to William de Clyfford, escheator. 27 
March, 1271. 

(b) (Mem. 4). Inquisition before R[obert] de 
Creueq[uer] at Wrastling wurj>e on Tuesday in Easter 
Week [26 April, 1271] by 

William le child. John Gabel. 

Elias Kethel. John le Palmere. 

Nicholas de Sutton. Reginald smith (faber). 

Eustace de Sorwell. Thomas, son of Geoffrey. 

Geoffrey de Stratton. Walter smith (faber) of 
' Augustin de EdwurJ?e. Eywur)?e. 

Simon Sap de Holma. 

They knew nothing of William's death, nor when 
and where he died. He held in chief 

li. s. <L 

mansion, 1 carucate of land, manor, garden, 

dovecote ... ... ... ... 60 

mill ... ... ... ... ... ... 12 o 

assessed rent of free tenants ... ... 28 

from customary tenants for 11 virgates ... 2 15 o 
and for their works ... ... ...140 



xxiii. William de Huntercumbe. 

Wrestlingworth is not recorded by name in D.B., but seems to have 
been recorded under Hatley, and was part of the fief of the Countess 
Judith. This manor therefore fell into the Honour of Huntingdon, but 
was granted by Simon (I.) de St. Liz, Earl of Huntingdon (d. 1153), to 
Odo de Danmartin; and was regranted by Simon (II.) de St. Liz (d. 1184) 
to Alberic (II.) de Danmartin, Odo's brother. 253 From him it passed to 
his son Reginald de Danmartin, who became Count of Boulogne in right 
of his wife, and the manor thus became part of the Honour of Boulogne. 
Reginald was long an active and loyal supporter of England in Normandy 
against Philip, King of France, but, like many others, turned against 
King John in 1202, and his English lands naturally were forfeited. In 
1212 however he returned to fealty, and rendered homage to John, 256 and 
his lands were restored or value given for them. 257 At the battle of 
Bouvines in 1214, which broke the English power in France, Reginald all 
but killed King Philip of France, and was the last to surrender in the 
general rout ; he was thrown into prison for life by the French, and the 
Honour of Boulogne in England escheated to the Crown. 



248 GRISTIANA LEDET 

li. S. d. 

129 acres of arable, each acre 90!., ... ... 4 16 8 

1 acre of meadow ... ... ... ... 26 

pasture ... ... ... ... ... 26 

Sir Walter de Huntercumbe is next heir and of 
full age; and holds in chief by the service of half a 
knight's fee. 

[Inq. p.m., Henry III., 39 (8)]. 

Xxiv. CRISTIANA LEDET (1271). 
SUTTON, POTTON, CADBURY. 

(a) Writ to Richard de Clifford, escheator. 8 Sep- 
tember, 1 27 1. 

(b) Inquisition [a large part of the membrane has 
been torn away] before Master Richard de Clifford, 
escheator, by oath of 



Temporary grants of the manor were made to Joldewin or Jolland le 
Doe 258 in 1228; and to Sir Stephen de Salinis, a King's yeoman, in 
1246 ; 259 the King wished to marry the latter to Joan, the widow of 
Paulinus Peyvre of Toddington, but the lady ran away with John de 
Grey. 260 Wrestlingworth was finally granted in 1235 to William de Hun- 
tercumbe, the subject of the Inquisition. 261 The manor of Huntercumbe 
from which he took his name, was a ' member ' of the Royal manor of 
Bensington; its overlordship had been given in 1232 by Henry III. as 
endowment to the Church of St. Mary in Carlisle, 262 from which William 
held as mesne tenant. He married Isabel, daughter and coheiress of 
Robert de Muschamp, and did homage for her purparty in 1250. 263 

xxiv. Cristiana Ledet. 

This lady was the daughter and heiress of Wiscard Ledet and Margery 
Foliot, wife of Henry de Braibroc, afterwards wife of Gerard de Furnival. 
These families, reaching back to the Conquest, are too important for 
treatment in a brief note. 

The original manuscript is in a very bad state, but the story of the 
manors of Sutton and Potton can be made out. They were both of the 
Countess Judith at D.B., and fell to the Bruce share of the Honour of 
Huntingdon. Wiscard Ledet, the undertenant, pledged Sutton to the Jews ; 
Robert de Braibroc redeemed it, and gave it to his son Henry on his 
marriage with Cristiana. Potton was obtained in exchange for Baddow 
and Totham, co. Essex ; Cadbury was a manor in Eaton Socon. As to 
the heirs mentioned, Wiscard Ledet the son of Cristiana Ledet, who died 
on Crusade 1240-1, left by his wife Mamoria a son Walter; the latter died 
in or before 1256, leaving two daughters and coheiresses, Alice who 
married William le Latimer, and Cristiana who married his brother John 
le Latimer. 



CRISTIANA LEDET 



249 



William Valerian. 
John 

William de Somerford. 
Ranulf de Hulf . 



Roger le Sok. 
Osbert de Carun. 
Geoffrey Oliver. 

L Temeseford. 

Reginald Gery. 
Peter chaplain (capel- 



Elias Cupelin of Sutton. 
Walter de Bayeue', of 



Temeseford. 
William le Grant of 



lanus). 
Roger Jord[an] of Ford. 
Richard Astil. 
John, son of smith of 



Wardon. 

Richard, clerk of 

Noble of Wylden. 

Thomas Wytrich of 



Eton. 

Elias, son of Walter de 



Duuelho. 



Eton. 



Alexander Wodelok of 
Eton. 

Cristiania held the manors of Sutton and Potton 

from Sir Robert . the manor of Sutton was 

held from the predecessors of the said Robert de Brus, 

and Wiscard Ledet held the said Robert de Bray- 

broc and he acquitted it of the mortgage to the Jews 
and gave it to Henry his son and Cristiana daughter of 

the said [Wiscard] and it [Sutton] answers for 

half a knight's fee to the lords of the fief. And the 
manor of Potton is held of the same fief by ex[change] 

Scotland for Badewe and Toteham co. Herts. 

[rectius Essex] . She held also the manor of Cade- 
bur' as dower whereof she was dowered by Wyscard 

her son it is held of the Barony of Eton, and is 

worth ioli. next heir of the said Henry and Cris- 
tiana, and the said Wyscard begat a son by name 

Wa firstborn begat two daughters who are next 

heirs of the aforesaid Henry and Cristiana and 

Cristiana the younger aged 15 years. 



[Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 40 (14)]. 



250 



INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM 



REFERENCES. 

1. Exc. Rot. Fin. (R.C.), i, 47. 

2. Gesta Abb. St. Alban (R.b. 28, iv), i, 296, 297. 

3. Matt. Paris: Chron. Maj. (R.S. S7h 6 5 ^ si - An g!- ( R - s - 44K 
ii, 1 72. 

4. Bracton ; Note Book, iij, 152. 

5. Rot. Litt. CI. (R.C.), i, 616, 640; ii, 6, 20, 120. 
b. Cal. CI. (R.S.) Hen. III., i, 196. 

7. Bracton : Note Bookj iii, 152. In this report Southill (Suthgiuele) 
is disguised as Suchgmere. 

8. Matth. Paris, Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57), iii, 203. 

9. Cart. Newnham : Harl. MS. 3656, fo. 8, i4d. 

10. B.H.R.S., vi, 138, No. 497. 

11. Cal. Pap. Letters (R.S.), i, 134. It may be noted that this 
Calendar prints Sugmele for Sugiuele, and its editor, being thereby! 
naturally confused, regards the church concerned as that of Edworth,i 
which had quite a different history. 

12. Cart. Rames. (R.S.), ii, 278; iii, 10. 

13. R. Obi. Fin. (R.C.), 382. 

14. R. Litt. CI. (R.C.), i, 250, 323. 

15. V.C.H., iii, 252. 

16. Cal. CI. Hen. III. (R.S.), v, 407. 

17. Cart. Rames. (R.S.), i, 322; iii, 315. 

18. Cart. Rames. (R.S.), i, 107. 

19. Feet of Fines, Hunts., Camb. Ant. Soc. Svo. xxxvii, 45. 

20. Lib. Rub., 378-380. 

21. Rot. Obi. Fin., 35. 

22. Rot. Litt. Pat., i, 70. 

23. Rot. Obi. Fin., 272. 

24. Rot. Litt. Pat., i, 69b. 

25. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C.), 146. 

26. [Reference lost !] 

27. B.H.R.S., i, 25. 

28. V.C.H., ii, 283. 

29. Testa de Nevill, 249b. 

30. Warden Cartulary, f. i5d. 

31. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C.), ii, 6. 

32. Details and references as to St. Walery will be found in Genealogist 
(N.S.), xxx, 1-17. 

33. Cal. Close Rolls, Hen. III., ii, 188, 359. 

34. Min. Ace, 1 1 17/13. 

35. Bracton's N.B., iii, 126. 

36. B.H.R.S., vi, 116. 

37. Testa de Nevill, 249b. 

38. Cal. Close R., Hen. III., iv, 423. 

39. Cal. Close R., Hen. III., iii, 168. 

40. Ch. Inq. p.m., Hen. III., 44 (16). 

41. Plac. de Q.W., 21, 22. 

42. Ass. R. 1458, m. 32. 

43. B.H.R.S., vi, 184. 

44. V.C.H., iii, 370. 

45. P.R. 1130 (R.C.), 104. 

46. P.R. 1155-1158 (R.C.), 27, 24. 

47. P.R. 1 155-1158 (R.C.), 140. Compare Lib. Rub., 17, 34. 



REFERENCES 



251 



48. P.R. Soc., ix, 13. 

49. P.R. Soc., xi, 104. 

50. P.R. Soc., xvi, 57. 

51. P.R. Soc., xix, 71. 

52. Round: Genealogist (n.s.), xii, j 45; and Geoffrey de Mandeville, 

53. P.R. Soc., xxxiii, 112. 

54. Abbr. Placit. (R.C.), 79; Cal. Chart. (R.S.), ii, 34. 

-55. B.M. Facsimiles of Charters, No. 37; a reference kindly given by 

Mr. ki J. Ellis. ' 

56. Dunstable Cart., Harl. MS., 1885, f. 25d. 

57. P.R. Soc., xviii, 52. 

58. Gesta Stephani (R.S. 82, iii), 94. 

59. Cal. Doc. France, 77. 

60. P.R. Soc., xxv, 25 ; xxvj, 163. 

61. Harl. MS., 1885, f. 3 id. 

62. In Ralf de Coggeshall (R.S, 66) : saepe. 

63. B.H.R.S., vi, 39; Harl. MS., 1885, f. 34. 
64- Benedict. Peterb. (R.S. 49), ii, 99. 

65. Cal. Doc. France, 388; confirmed by John in 1200. 

66. Harl. MS., 1885, f. 2 5 d. 

67. Lib. Rub. 138; Cart. Ant. M12; Rot. Litt. Chart. (R.C.), 147 

68. V.C.H., iii, 370. ' 1 

69. Lib. Rub., 345, 377. 

70. Cal. Doc. France, 77. 

71. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C.), 28b. 

72. D.N.B., viii, 454. 

73. Matth. Paris, Hist. Angl. (R.S. 44), ii, 410. 

74. Cal. Chart. (R.S.), i, 5. 

75. Rot. Litt. CI. (R.C.), i, 359b. 
75a. Rot. Litt. CI. (R.C.), ii, 37b. 

76. B.H.R.S., vi, 39, fine 168. 

77. Bracton's N.B., ii, 76, case 86. 

78. Exc. Rot. Fin., i, 314. 

79. D.N.B., viii, 447. 

80. Cal. Chart. (R.S.), i, 66. 

81. Rot. Obi. Fin., 195. 

82. D.N.B., viii, 447. 

83. D.N.B., viii, 454. 

84. Rot. Litt. Claus., i, 325; Rot. Obi. Fin., 538; Art de verifier les 
pes, xii, 473, 474. 

85. Matth. Paris, Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57), v. 502, calls her Matilda, 
ut by dates and description almost certainly means this lady. The Oseney 
knnals (R.S. 36, iv, p. 127) also call her Matilda, chronicling her death in 
260 ; she may have borne both names. 



D.N.B., viii, 452. 
Matth. Paris, Hist. Angl. (R.S. 44), ii, 419. 
D.N.B., viii, 455. 

Cal. Pat. (R.S.), 1247 58, 253. 

Exc. Rot. Fin., i, 324. 
D.N.B., viii, 448. 
P.R. Soc, xxv, 24. 
Braibroc Cartulary, f. 37. 
Bushmead Cartulary, ff. 11, 24. 
Add. Chart., 5686. 
Cart. St. John, Colchester, f. 148. 
Madox : Formulare, 218. 



252 



INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM 



98. Lists and Indexes, P.R.O., ix. 

99. Bracton's Note Book, iii, 489. 

100. Foss : Judges of England, 60, 61. 

101. B.H.R.S., iii, 37. 

102. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 250a. 

103. B.H.R.S., vi, 124. 

104. Exc. Rot. Fin. ii, 57. 

105. Matth. Paris, Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57), v, 502. 

106. Liber Rubeus, 355. 

107. Cart. St. John, Colchester (Roxburghe Club), 234, 235. 

108. Round : Eng. Hist. Rev., x, 87. 

109. Rymer : Foedera, i, 16. 

110. Liber Rubeus, 344. 
in. B.H.R.S., i, 19. 

112. Liber Rubeus, 136, 539; Testa de Nevill, 261a. 

113. Liber Rubeus, 485, 569. 

114. B.H.R.S., i, 231. 

115. B.H.R.S., vi, 121. 

116. B.H.R.S., ii, 246. 

117. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 243a. 

118. Liber Rubeus, 160, 569. 

119. Exc. Rot. Fin. (R.C.), ii, 209. 

120. Rot. Orig. (R.C.), i, 15. 

121. Braibroc Cart., f. 37b. 

122. Bushmead Cart., f. 28. 

123. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 250a. 

124. Sel. Cor. Rolls : Selden Soc, ix, 7, 8. 

125. B.H.R.S., iii, 101, case 250. 

126. B.H.R.S., vi, 98, fine 364. 

127. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 242a. 

128. Lib. Rub., 36; and P.R. 14 Hen. II. 

129. Lib. Rub. 90. 

130. Lib. Rub. 109. 

131. Lib. Rub. 538, 592; Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 261a. 

132. Harl. MS., 3656, f. 31 (27). 

133. P.R. Soc, xi, 103, 104. 

134. P.R. Soc, xxv, 16. 

135. Hundred Rolls (R.C.), i, 1. 

136. Harl. MS., 3656, f. 27. This entry can be dated as of about 1252 
by Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., iv, 149. 

137. P.R. Soc, ix, 12, 13. 

138. She was still maritanda in the Ladies Roll : P.R. Soc, xxv, 45. 

139. B.H.R.S., ii, 91. Ermicerda is the daughter unnamed in thi9 
pedigree. 

140. P.R. 50, 6 John, Beds, and Bucks., Essex and Herts. ; Rot. Obi. 
Fin., 218. 

141. Cal. Close (R.S.), Hen. III., i, 50; charter in full, Mon. Angl., 
iv, 300. 

142. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., i, 586. 

143. Cart. Missenden, Harl. MS., 3688, f. i96d. 

144. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., ii, saepe. 

145. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., iii, 150, 172; Ch. Inq. p.m., 39 Hen. 
III., 16 (18); Cal. Inq. p.m. (R.S.), i, 86, No. 323. 

146. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 243a. 

147. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., v, 46. 

148. Matth. Paris, Hist. Angl. (R.S. 44), ii, 385, 498; iii, 293, 346; 
Chron. Maj. (R.S. 57) saepe. 



REFERENCES 



253 



81i. 



149. Harl. MS., 3688, f. i 9 6d. 

150. B.H.R.S., vi, 114, fine 423. 

151. Assise Roll, 4, m. 3 (31 Hen. III.). The manor was valued at 



152. It does not occur in a list of Beds, serjeanties returned between 
1210 and 1212 : Liber Rubeus, 539; but negative evidence is an unsafe guide 
in such matters. 

153. Rot. Litt. CI. (R.C), i, 191b. 

154. Testa de Nevill (R.C), 256a, 257a. 

155. B.H.R.S., i, 25. 

156. B.H.R.S., vi, 180; fine 641. 

157. B.H.R.S., iij, 251. 

158. Round : Eng. Hist. Rev., iii, 501. 

159. Testa de Nevill, 262b. 

160. B.H.R.S., vi, 32, 34. 

161. Exc. Rot. Fin., i, 200, 204. 

162. B.H.R.S., vi, no, No. 407. 

163. Wardon Cart., f. 76, 76d. 

164. For his life see D.N.B., x, 393. 

165. Liber Rubeus (R.S.), 312. 

166. Harl. Cart., in, G. 50. 

167. Richard and Hugh Talbot held each a knight's fee in the bailiwick 
of Caux in 1172. Lib. Rub. (R.S.), 632, 633. 

168. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 243a. 

169. V.C.H., iii, 343. 

170. B.H.R.S., ii, an. 

171. Liber Rubeus, 538, 592. 

172. Round : Introd. to D.B., V.C.H., Essex. 

173. For this family see Planche : Journ. Archaeol. Ass., viii, 198. 

174. The writer is collecting materials for a brief history and tabular 
statement of the various Honours in the county, in which this will be treated 
with more detail. 

175. Matth. Paris (R.S.), vi, 37, 38. 

176. Mon. Angl., ii, 267. 

177. Pipe Roll, 1 130 (R.C.), 49, 67, 104. 

178. Mon. Angl., ii, 601, 602. 

179. Liber de Bernewelle (ed. Clark), pp. xxxv, 47. 

180. Liber Rubeus (R.S.), 538, 592. 

181. Feudal Aids, i, 15 (1302-3), 34 (1346). 

182. Presumably owing to faulty expansion of Rem', there is often 
confusion between St. Remy (de sancto Remigio) and St. Romain (de sancto 
Romino) as far back as the xiijth. century. 

183. Liber Rubeus, 499. 

184. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C.), i, 12. 

185. Pipe Roll Soc, xi, in, 112. 

186. Bouquet : Hist. France, xiii, 251. 

187. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C), i, 75b. 

188. Rot. Normann (R.C), 130. 

189. Liber Rubeus, 538, 592. 

190. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C), i, 592b. 

191. Chron. Melsa. (R.S. 43), i, 105, 106. 

192. Norgate : John Lackland, 90-92. 

193. Matth. Paris, Hist. Angl. (R.S. 44), ii, 244, 261. 

194. D.N.B., xxxvii, 90. The crusader who died in 1241, is more likely 
to have been a son. 

195. Rot. Litt. Claus. (R.C), ii, 6b, 10. 

196. Cal. Chart (R.S.), Hen. III., i., 145. 



254 



INQUISITIONS POST MORTEM 



197. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 242b. 

198. B.H.R.S., ii, 246. 

199. Exc. Rot. Fin., i, 452. 

200. Bushmead Cart., f. 43d. It is equally possible that my transcrip- 
tion is incorrect, but the original is not available at the moment. 

201. Round : Feudal England, 462-464. 

202. Liber Rubeus, 501. 

203. Baker : Northamptonshire, ii, 273. 

204. B.H.R.S., vi, 107, fine 397. 

205. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 242a, 251b. 

206. Testa de Nevill (R.C.), 257b. 

207. B.H.R.S., vi, 152, fine 543. 

208. Compiled from G.E.C.'s Peerage, and Diet. Nat. Biog. 

209. For his life, see D.N.B., xlvii, 115. ] 

210. Exc. Rot. Fin. (R.C), ii, 416, 417. 

211. B.H.R.S., ii, 212, 213. 

212. B.H.R.S., ii, 251. 

213. V.C.H., iii, 129. 

214. V.C.H., i, 202 j compare Testa de Nevill (R.C), 115; Bracton's 
N.B., iii, 535. 

215. V.C.H., i, 202. 

216. Feudal Aids, i, 8, 25. 

217. A note of warning must be given to other students : there is also 
a manor of Oakley by Brill in Bucks., which was also of the Honour of 1 
Wallingford, and, to add to the confusion, was also held by a branch of 
the Basset family. — The Bassets of Milton Ernest were another branch, 
presumably descendants of William Basset, undertenant of Beauchamp there 
in 1086. 

218. Foss : Judges of England, s.n. 

219. Ordericus Vitalis, lib. xi, cap. 3; ed. Forester, iii, 328. 

220. Ramsay : Foundations of England, i, 323. 

221. Hen. Huntingdon (R.S. 74), 318. 

222. D.N.B., iii, 385. 

223. For this and other references to Bassets, I am indebted to the 
Rev. H. Salter. 

224. Mr. Salter believes the Carta of the Honour to refer to a date 
before 1151, about which year one of the men mentioned in it died. 

225. Lib. Rub., 309. 

226. Chron. Abingdon (R.S. 2), ii, 188-190. 

227. P.R. Soc., xxv, 24. 

228. P.R. Soc., xxiv, 20. 

229. Lib. Rub., 144. 

230. War don Cart., fo. 40 (John Rylands Library). 

231. Exc. Rot. Fin. (R.C), i, 98, 100. 

232. V.C.H., iii, 129. 

233. P.R. Soc, xi, in, 112. 

234. Chron. Abingdon (R.S. 2), ii, 207. 

235. P.R. Soc., xxiii, 43. 

236. P.R. Soc., vi, 22. 

237. Morant : Essex, i, 158. 

238. Moore : Hist, of St. Bartholomew's Hospital (pedigree, i, 196). 

239. V.C.H., iii, 76. 

240. Liber Rubeus (R.S.), 136. 

241. Harl. MS., 2101, p. 238 (76). 

242. Pipe Roll Soc, xiv, 120. 

243. Liber Rubeus (R.S.), 538. 

244. Liber Rubeus (R.S.), 592. 



REFERENCES 



255 



245. Liber Rubeus, 36, 90, 109. 
245a. Rot. Obi. Fin. (R.C.), 470. 

246. Cal. CI. (R.S.), Hen. III., i, 214. 

247. Cal. CI. (R.S.) 

248. B.H.R.S., ii, 247. 

249. Abbrev. Placit. (R.C), 347a. 

250. Close Roll, 33 Hen. III., m. 7. 

251. Exc. Rot. Fin. (R.C), ii, 24; Rot. Orig. (R.C), i, 9; Close R. 
32 Hen. III., m. 2, nd., 10. 

252. Close R., 51 Hen. III., m. 8d. 

253. Testa de Nevill (R.C), 242b. 

254. Testa de Nevill (R.C), 248b. 

255. Add. Ch., 1 1233. 

256. Ramsay : Angevin Empire, 393, 431 ; Matt. Paris, Hist. Angl. 
(R.S. 44), ii, 125; Chron. Maj., ii, 580. 

257. Add. Ch., 1 1 239. 

258. Cal. Chart. (R.S.), Hen. III., i, 57. 

259. Cal. Chart. (R.S.), Hen. III., i, 205, 366, 408. 

260. Dunstable Chron. (R.S. 36, ii), 182, 183. 

261. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., iii, 84. 

262. Cal. Pat. (R.S.), Hen. III., ii, 464; Cal. Chart. (R.S.), Hen. III., 
i, 212 ; Hundred Rolls (R.C), ii, 758, 

263. Exc. Rot. Fin., ii, 90. 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



SOME SAXON CHARTERS (pp. 39-57 SUpra). (a) 

Mr. Austin has kindly pointed out that, according 
to the accepted authorities, the five hides granted to St. 
Alban by King Offa should not have been identified 
with Dallow Manor (p. 41); they are considered to have 
been in Biscot (Cobbe : History of Luton Church, 
93-96, 128 seq.). — (b) I plead guilty to a worse error, to 
which Mr. J. H. Round has courteously called my atten- 
tion. The whole of charter xii. (pp. 52, 53) should be 
expunged, as not relating to Bedfordshire. In spite of 
the collocation of three familiar names, it deals with 
another Barton, another Holme, and another abbey of 
St. Benedict, than those to which I assigned it. (c) In 
a charter to Westminster Abbey, professing to have been 
granted by King Edgar in 969, but really a Norman 
forgery, Holewelle (Holwell) is rightly included among 
the Abbey's possessions ; it was the only manor which it 
held in this County at D.B. But Holwell does not occur 
in the genuine charter by St. Dunstan dated 959 (Napier 
and Stevenson, Crawford Collection of Early Charters, 
pp. 15, 98). (d) In a grant of land by King ^thelred in 
1007 to St. Alban, dealing with Norton, co. Herts., 
Stotfold is mentioned in the boundaries : — " Fram wilig- 
byrig andlang Stotfald dices : swa andlang stodfald 
gemaerfes]." — that is, From Wilbury Hill along Stot- 
fold dyke, then along Stotfold boundary (Napier and 
Stevenson, pp. 25, 135). — (e) The name printed on p. 52 
above as Wolga should apparently be read as Polga, the 
P having been mistaken for the Saxon letter wen (Napier 
and Stevenson, p. 131). — G.H.F. 



258 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



ancient parish maps. — The Editor would be 
greatly obliged for information as to the existence and 
ownership of any maps of Bedfordshire parishes made 
previously to the Enclosure Awards, showing the strip 
holdings in the Open Fields. For the comparative 
study of medieval agriculture such maps are invaluable. 
It is believed that several are in private hands in the 
county. 

simon fitz. — Wanted, the family and arms of 
Simon Fitz, Escheator for Bedfordshire, and a consider- 
able landholder in the County in the first half of the 
1 6th century. There was a family of that name at 
Northill, but I have not found any account of them. 
Simon was a kinsman ( <£ cousin ") of Gostwyke of 
Willington.— O.H. 

healing wells. — I shall be glad of any informa- 
tion on Healing and Holy Wells in Bedfordshire. — 
H.U.G. 



INDEX 



(a) Patronymics and metronymics are arranged under " Son of " or 
" Daughter of." Similar entries (in default of a place-name or occupativt: 
name) are " Brother of," " Wife of," etc. 

(b) Ecclesiastical titles will be found under a general heading of " Church 
Men and Women." 

(c) Occupative names, which may or may not have been meant as fixed 
surnames, are spelt with a small initial to emphasise their uncertain character. 

(d) Modern names of vills, manors, and hamlets (not field-names) which 
are or were in Bedfordshire, are set in capitals. 

(e) The figures of the Index refer to pages. 



Abbes, Eliz., 188 (bis). 

,, Helen, 187. 

,, Marg., 185, 187. 

„ Rich., 185, 187 (ter), 188 (bis), 199. 

„ Will., 187. 
Abbey, Marg., 188. 
Abergavenny, Honour of, 214. 
Abingdon Abbey, co. Berks. 

,, Eadwine, abbot of, 173. 

„ grant to, 44, 241. 

,, Historia, 172. 
Abney, Cather. w. of Will., 157, 158. 

„ Edw., 158. 

„ Eliz. w. of Will., 155. 

„ Geo., 158. 

„ Mary Clarke, 158. 

„ Robt., 158. 

„ Will., 158. 
Accle, see Oakley. 
Ace, John, 226. 
Acersce, see Ashridge. 
Acleia, see Oakley. 
Acleya, see Oakley. 
JEHe (Affa) declaration of, 47, 48 ; 50- 
52. 

^Eilwin, see ^Elfwine. 

^Elfflaed, i73n. 

^Elfgar monk, 48. 

^Elfgifu (Alfgiva), 44, 171-174- 

^Elfgifu-Emma, Qu., 173. 

^Elfhelm, 48, 52. 



yElfhelm Wolga of Wratting, declara- 
tions and will of, 47-49 ; 50-52 ; 
rectius Polga, 257. 

yElfmaer, 48. 

yElfredeswelredy in Toddington, 169^ 
yElfric bishop, 53. 

yElfric Modercop, will of, 52, 53, 257. 

^Elfsige priest, 48. 

^Elfstan, 49. 

yElfstan sheriff, 55. 

^Elf weald thane (Alfwold), 46, 47. 

^Elfwen, 52. 

vElfwin abbot of Ramsey, 49. 
^Elfwine ealdorman (Ailwin), 47, 51, 
56. 

^Elfwine Suerte, 56. 
^Elfwold s. of ./Elfhelm, 48, 52. 
jElmaer cild, 48. 
jEpslea, see Aspley Guise. 
^Ermundeslea, 177. 
jEthelflaed, 17311. 
yEthelgifu, will of, 45. 
^Ethelhard, Archbp., notification, 42. 
iEthelitha, w. of Oswulf, grant by, 54, 
55- 

^Ethelred, duke, 43, 44. 
^Ethelred II., King, 173, i73n, 257. 
^Ethelric of Hernicwell, 48. 
^Ethelric s. of ^Elfhelm, 48, 52. 
^Ethelstan 1 Half-King,' 51, 52. 
iEthelstan, Kg., charters, 42-44, 172. 



260 



INDEX 



iEthelstan Mannesunu, 50-52. 

^Ethelwald aetheling, 163. 

^Ethelweald (II), Bp. Winchest, 173. 

yEtheric bp. of Dorchester, 56. 

^Etheric monk of Ramsey, 50, 52. 

Agelberhtus, 17311. 

Agu, John, 228, 232, 246. 

Ailesbir', see Aylesbury. 

Ailwin, see ^Elfwine. 

Alard, Ann, 155. 

Albemarle, Earl of, see Bethune. 

Albert of Lorraine, 2-4, 7, 20. 

Albini, see Daubeny. 

Aldersey, Thos., 135, 138, 139. 

Alexander III., Kg. of Scots, 217. 

Alfgiva, see ,-Elfgifu. 

Alfwold, see JEK weald. 

Alice Qu. of Stephen, 213. 

Allen, Will., 138. 

Alley ne, Kate, 147. 

Almond, Marg. wid. of John, 26. 

Alongton, John, 189. 

„ Thos., 189. 
Alric (D.B.), 212. 
Alriches Eia, see Arlesey. 
Alured, Geoff., 217. 
Alwin reeve (D.B.), 212. 
Alwin priest (D.B.), 220, 221. 
Alyn, Ellen, 194 (bis), 199. 

,, John, 196. 

„ Rich,, 194. 
Amethulle, see Ampthill. 
Ammori, see Amory. 
Amoore, Agnes, 189. 

„ Joan, 189. 
Amory (Ammori). 

,, Robt., 229 ; of Carlton, 238. 
Ampthill (Amethulle). 

,, bequest to poor, 77. 

„ lands in, 232. 

,, Little Park, 76, 77. 
Andeville (Aundeville, Audeville). 

,, family, 72. 

„ Hugh de, 67, 71, 73. 

,, John de, 64, 67. 
Andrew, Roger, 228. 

,, Will, 232. 
Andrewe, John, 77. 
Anelok [? Auelok], Adam, 235. 
Anglicus, see Engleis. 
Anscell, Elizab., 141, 147. 

„ Hen. s. of Eliz., 141. 

„ Marie, dau. of Eliz., 141. 

„ Thos., 141, 143, 144, 148. 

,, Thos. s. of Thos. and Eliz., 141. 
Antiquities found in Beds., 114, 115, 

168-170, 176. 
Antwerp (Andwerpe), 137. 



Appleton, co. Berks., 177. 
Ardres, Cristiana de, 235. 

,, Ernulf de, 235. 
Ardyn, Kath., 199. 

,, Thos., 199. 
Ardys, John, 147, 148. 
Argenteim, Rog. de, 212. 
Arlesey (Alriches Eia). 

„ grant in, 57. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Arlewine, Sim., 14. 
armiger, Miles, 64. 
Armsby, Agnes, 189. 
Arnold, Thos., 79. 
Arnulf miner, 129 (bis). 
Arratt, Agnes, 194. 
Arrows as rent, 204. 
Arthur, Prince, 234. 
Ascote, Walt, de, 226. 
Ashridge, co. Herts. (? Acerse). 

„ grant in?, 45. 
Aspele, see Aspley Guise. 
Aspley |_ Guise] (iEpslea, Aspele). 

„ bequest to poor, 77. 

,, charter of, 45-47. 

„ kt. service, 18, 20. 

„ manor of, 209, 210, 225, 226. 

,, meaning of, 40. 

„ Will, de, 228. 
Assandune, battle of, 51. 
Astil, Rich., 249. 
Astwick (Estwic). 

„ kt. service, 20, 21, 23n. 

„ Walt, de, 21. 
Atsere Suerte, 41, 42. 
Attnett?, John, 182. 
Aundely, Robt. de, 120. 
Austin, W. ; on a Late Example of a 
Deodand, 59-60; on Cutenho, Farley 
Hospital, and Kurigge, 101-115; 257. 
Avenel, John, 223. 

„ Will., 246. 
Aylesbury (Ailesbir') gaol at, 130, 132. 
Aylewike, see Dilwick. 
Aylrig, Aug., 223. 
Aylwin, see ^Elfwine. 



Baa, Agnes de, 216. 

,, Henry de, 216. 

,, Hugh de, 216. 

„ Osbert de, 216. 
, „ Regin de, 214; inq. p.m., 216, 217. 
Babbe, Will., 240. 
Baddow, co. Essex, 248, 249. 
Badeliston, see Battlesden. 
Bainbridge, Joyles, 139. 



INDEX 



261 



Baker (Bakar), Alice, 196. 

„ Eliz., 187. 

„ Ellen, 196. 

„ Joan w. of Thos., 77. 

» Phil-, 143. 

,, Thos., 187, 197. 
baker (pistor), Hugh, 61, 63. 

„ John, 217. 
Baleham, Benedict de, 235. 
Balista, 117, 121. 
Balistarii, 123. 
Balle, Juliana, m, 
Balliol, John de, 217. 
Banastre, Rog., 217. 
Bankes, Will., 135, 136. 
Barcolft (Barcolf), Nich., 220, 235. 
Bardulf, Nich., 244. 

„ Thos., 234. 
Bareville, Robt. de, 209. 
Barford, Great (? Beranford, Bere- 
ford), ? 41, 42. 

„ Hen. de, 18, 19. 

„ kt. service, 18, 19. 

,, warren in, 97, 99. 
Barford, Little. 

„ lands in, 210. 
Barley, co. Herts. (Berlai, ? Beranlea). 

„ grant in, 53, 54. 
Barlye (Barly), Christiana, 186. 

„ Kath., 187. 

,, Margerie, 183. 

„ Will., 186, 187^ 190. 
Barnardiston, 28. 

,, Marg. dau. of John, 160. 
Barneham, alderman, and w., 138. 
Barnes, Agnes, 194. 

„ Helen, 188. 

„ Nich., 188. 

» Will., 194. 
Barton, co. Norf., grant in, 52, 53. 
Barton [in the Clay]. 

„ grant in, 56, 257. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Bascom, E. P., i68n. 
B ascot, Robt., 130, 132. 

„ Thomas, 130, 132. 
Basford, Thos., 139. 
Basset of Clapham, pedigree, 242. 

,, of Milton Ernest, 254 (n. 217). 

,, Eustachia, 241. 

„ Ralf, 241, 242. 

„ Rich., 240-242. 

„ Robt. 14. 

„ Sibyl, 15. 

,, Turstan (Turstin), 241, 242. 

„ Will., 15, 241. 
Bastard, Rich., 246. 
Batt, Joan, 184. 



Battlesdon (Badlesdon, Battleston, 
Badeliston). 

„ bequest to poor, 77. 

,, kt. service, 22. 

,, lands in, 82, 84, 85, 231, 232. 
Battleston, see Battlesdon. 
Baxter, see Crasshe. 
Bayeue, Walt, de, 249. 
Bayeux, fief of Odo Bp. of, 211, 221, 
2 33> 2 45- 

Bay ley, Frances dau. of Lawrence, 76. 
Beaton, Ambrose, 89. 
Beauchamp of Bedford. 

,, assessment of barony, 1-26. 

,, carta of Barony, 6. 

,, Ela dau. of Will, de, 208, 209. 

,, Honour of, 209. 

,, Ida de, 227-229. 

,, Payn de, 23. 

,, pedigree of coheirs, 13. 

,, Simon de (II B), 204, 209, 226, 
243. 

,, Will, de, 24, 220. 

,, Will, de (I B), 226, 245 ; inq. p. 

m., 227-229. 
Beauchamp of Eaton. 
,, barony, 67-69, 72, 216, 217, 249. 
„ Hugh de (II. E), 69, 70, 216. 
,, John de (I E), deed, 69, 70. 
,, Oliver de, 69, 70. 
,, Philippa w. of Hugh de, 63, 64, 

68, 69. 
„ Roger de, 71. 
„ Will, de, 216. 
Beaumont, John, 86, 141. 

Marg. dau. of Robt., Earl Leic, 

2 37- 

Becher of Elstow. 

,, Barnadiston, 160. 

,, Chas., 160. 

,, Francis, 160. 

,, Geo., 160. 

,, Jane w. of Chas., 160. 

,, John, 160. 

„ Marg. w. of John, 160. 

,, ,, d. of John, 160. 

,, Mary, 160. 
Becher of Howbury, 133-160; pedi- 
gree, 161 ; see also Beecher. 

,, Alice w. of Hen., 133, 135, 140. 

,, ,, w. of Thos., 159. 

„ Ann d. of Will. (I), 146, 148. 

,, „ w. of Hen., 144. 

„ Arabella d. of Will. (II), 150, 152. 

,, Barbara w. of Hen., 145. 

,, Barth. s. of Hen., 134, 135, 138, 
139, 140. 

„ Christ., 159. 



262 



INDEX 



Becher of Howbury. 
s , Cuthbert, 136. 
„ Dorothy d. of Hen., 135. 
„ „ d. of Hen. (II), 140, 142, 143, 

„ „ d. of WiU. (I), 146, 148. 

Edw. s. of Hen., 133, 135, 138, 144. 
„ „ s. of Hen. (II), 140-143* J 47" 
149. 

„ „ s. of Will. (I), 144, i47> MS- 

„ „ s. of Oliver, 149. 

„ ,, s. of John, 156. 

„ Eliz. d. of Hen., 134, 138, 144. 

„ d. of Hen. (II), 141, 143, 147. 
,, ,, w. of Will. (I), 141, 142, 144, 

147-149, 153. 
,, „ w. of St. John, 145. 
„ „ d. of Will. (II), 145, 147. 
,, ,, w. of Hen., 145. 
„ „ d. of Will. (I), 146. 
,, „ w. of Oliver, 148-150. 
„ ,, d. of Oliver, 150. 
„ „ w. of Will. (II), 150-153. 
„ „ d. of Will. (II), 152. 
„ „ w. of Will. (IV), 155-158. 
„ „ d. of Will. (IV), 155, 157- 
„ Fanus s. of Will. (I), 145. See also 
Phane. 

,, Frances w. of Edw., 133. 
„ w. of Will. (II), 150. 
„ Francis s. of Will. (I), 145, 147, 
148. 

„ „ s. of Oliver, 150, 152, 153. 
,, Geo. s. of Hen. (II), 140, 142, 143, 
147. 

„ „ s. of Will. (II), 145, 151, 153, 
154. 

„ Hen. (I), 133-140, 160. 

„ „ (II), 133, 135, 138-144. 

„ „ s. of Will. (I), 144-148. 

„ Howard s. of Will. (I), 146-148. 

,, James bro. of Hen. (I), 136. 

„ „ s. of Jas., 136. 

„ Jane (Joan), w. of Hen. (I), 135, 

138, 139, 140. 
„ „ d. of Henl (II), 140. 
„ „ Rachel d. of Will. (Ill), 154. 
„ w. of Will. (Ill), 155. 
,, Joan sis. of Hen .(I), 136. 
,, ,, see also Jane. 

John s. of Jas., 136. 
„ „ s. of Will. (I), 146, 147- 

,, s. of Oliver, 149. 
„ „ s. of Will. (II), 151, 153. 
,, „ s. of John, 156. 
,, „ s. of Will., 156, 157. 
„ „ s. of Thos., 159. 



Becher of Howbury. 
,, Judith w. of Will., 134. 
,, ,, w. of Hen. (II), 140, 142, 143. 
„ „ d. of Will. (I), 146 (bis), 147. 
„ „ d. of Oliver, 150. 
„ Katherine d. of Will. (I), 146, 
147. 

„ ,, d. of Oliver, 150. 

,, Mabel d. of Hen., 135, 138. 

„ Marg. d. of Hen., 135, 138. 

„ Mary d. of Hen., 134, 138, 144. 

„ ,, d. of Oliver, 150. 

„ „ w. of Will. (Ill), 154, 155. 

„ „ d. of Will. (Ill), 154. 

,, Oliphet d. of Thos., 159. 

,, Oliver, 146. 

,, ,, s. of Will. (I), 144, 147-149. 

,, s. of Oliver, 149. 
„ Olliffe d. of Will. (I), 146. 

Phane (Fane, Vane) s. of Hen., 

i33> 135, 138-140. 
,, „ s. of Phane, 134. 
,, ,, see also Fane. 

Rich. s. of Jas., 136. 
„ ,, bro. of Hen. (I), 136. 
,, ,, s. of John, 156. 
„ Robt. s. of John, 156. 
,, Sarah w. of Oliver, 149. 
„ St. John s. of Will. (I), 145, 147 

148. 

,, „ s. of vSt. John, 145. 
„ „ s. of Will. (II), 150. 
„ Susan w. of Vane, 133, 134. 
„ Thomas, 136. 
„ „ will of, 159, 160. 
„ ,, s. of Thos., 159. 
„ Ursula d. of Hen. (I), 141, 143 
147. 

„ Will. s. of Hen., 134, 135, 138-140 
„ „ kt., s. of Will., 134. 

„ (I) kt., s. of Hen. II, 140, 142 

149, i53- 

„ s. of Will. (I), 144, 147- 

,, ,, (II), s. of Oliver, 149-154. 

„ „ (III), s. of Will. (II), 151-155- 

„ „ (IV) s. of Will. (Ill), 151 
154-158. 

,, ,, bro. of Thos., 159. 
Becked, see Beckett. 
Beckett (Bekett, Becky t, Becked). 

,, Ann, 192. 

,, Dorothy, 198. 

„ Eliz., 194, 195. 

„ Marg., 194. 

,, Mary, 189. 

,, Sim., 189, 191-195, 198- 

„ Thos., 191. 

,, Thos., Archbp., 106, 107. 
Beckford, perh. Danish, 165. 



INDEX 



263 



Bedford ( ? Beodeforde, 42). 
,, Barony of, see Beauchamp of 

Bedford. 
,, bequest to poor of, 81. 
,, castle, siege of, 1 17-132. 
„ chapel on bridge, 243. 
,, gaol made at, 130, 132. 
,, lands in 79. 

„ letters close dated at, 120-127. 

,, St. John, bequest to poor of, 77. 

,, Rector of, 81. 

„ St. John's Hospital, 243. 

,, St. Mary, register of, 181-199. 

,, St. Paul, danons of, 223. 

Vicar of, 81. 
,, warren in, 97-99. 
Bedfordshire, Sheriff of ; letter close 
to, 123, 128, 129; credit to, 128, 129; 
stocks royal manors, 211, 222, 234; 
receives rents, 234. 
Bedwin Magna, co. Wilts., 160. 
Beecher, see also Becher of Howbury, 
Becher of Elstow. 
„ Arrabilla, 84. 
„ Elizab., 84, 87. 

„ Elizab. w. of Sir Will., 83, 86, 87. 

,, Francis, 84. 

„ Geo., 84, 87. 

„ John, kt., 83, 84. 

„ Will., 84, 87. 

,, Will., kt., 83, 84, 87, 88. 
Beeston in Northill and Sandy, 54. 

,, kt. service, 20, 21. 

lands in, 230. 
Befan?, Will, de, 206. 
Bekett, see Beckett. 
Bel, Hugh le, 206. 

Belfry, a siege engine, 118, 128, 130, 
131- 

Bell, Isabella, 186, 188. 

„ Joan, 197. 

„ John, 186, 188. 

„ Marg., 190. 

,, Nich., 190. 

„ Ralf, 190, 192. 

,, Robt., 192. 
Bellay, Eliz. w. of John, 76. 

„ Frances dau. of John, 76. 

„ John, 76. 
Belvoir, Barony of, 24. 
Bendowe, John, 182. 
Bengeo, co. Herts., 5, 22, 23m 
Bennett College. Camb., 84. 
Bennett, Isaack, 93. 
Bensington, co. Oxon. ; 248. 
Bentley, Adam de, 236. 

„ Alice, 188. 

„ John, 188. 



Beodeforde, see Bedford. 

Beranford, see Barford, Great. 

Beranlea, see Barley. 

Bereford, see Barford, Great. 

Berefridum, see Belfry. 

Berenger (Berunger). Gilbt., 238; of 

Stagsden, 238. 
Berkeley, Geo., kt., 113. 
Berlai, see Barley. 
Berman, Walt., 210. 
Bermondsey Abbey, 23n. 
Bernard, Miles, 228. 
Bethune, Baldwin de, E. of Albemarle, 

104, 105, in. 
Bett, Marg., 189. 

„ Ralf, 189. 
Beufoz, Will., 220. 
Beynyn (Beyvyn). 

„ Walt., 226, 228. 
Beyvyn, see Beynyn. 
Bicleswde, see Biggleswade. 
Biddenham (Bidenham). 

,, bridge, repair to, 128-130. 

,, kt. service, 14, 22n. 

,, warren in, 98, 99. 
Bidun, Ermicerda dau. of John de, 
223. 

Bidwell (Budewelle) in Houghton 

Regis. 
,, Rich, de, 246. 
Biggleswade (Biclewade, Bicleswde, 

Bikeleswade), see also Stratton, 

Holme. 

,, commoning by, 61-64, 68, 71. 

,, fee of Bp. of Lincoln, 61-63. 
Hundred, 61, 68, 71. 

,, mill, 72. 
Bikeleswade, see Biggleswade. 
Billington in Leighton Buzzard. 

,, lands in, 93. 
Birchmore in Woburn, 212. 
Biscot in Luton, 41, 233, 257. 
Bissei, see Bushey. 
Bissopescote, see Biscot. 
Bitlesden Abbey, co. Bucks., 23. 
Blacfront, see Blancfront. 
black (niger), Adam, and w. Sara, 101, 

102, 104, 105. 
Blackman, Elizabeth, 35. 

„ Lucey, 35. 

„ Susan, 35. 

Blasddanhlaswe, see Bledlow. 
Blancfront (Blacfront), Hen., 22. 
Blaunpayn, see Whitbread. 
Bledlow (Blasddanhlaswe), co. Bucks. , 
i73n- 



264 



INDEX 



Bletsoe, kt. service, 5, 10, 16, 17. 
Blisworth, co. Northants., 17211. 
Blois, Will, de, bp. Lincoln, 62, 63. 
Bloxworth, co. Dors., charter of, i72n. 
Blundel, Hugh, 231. 

„ John, 231. 
Bhmdus (de Blund, le Blount, le 
Blund). 

„ Hugh le, 15. 

„ Matth. le, 14, 229. 

„ Nich. le, 220, 229; of Stagsden, 
238. 

„ Will, le, 232. 

Blunham, Hugh s. of Hen. de, 65. 
„ seneschalcy of, 65-67, 73. 
Boeles, see Bueles. 
Bohun (Bourn). 

,, Humfrey de, kt., 236, 238. 
,, Joan de, 236. 

„ Maud dau. of Humfrey de, Earl 

of Essex, 237. 
Boivill, see Boville. 
Bolehirst, see Bolnhurst. 
Boler (Buler), Ralf le, 232. 

„ Robt. le, 243. 
Boles, see Bueles. 
Bolingbroke, Ctess. of, 150. 

Oliver, 1st Earl, 153. 
Bolnhurst (Bolehirst). 

,, kt. service, 10, 22n. 

„ lands in, 233-235. 
Bonde, John le, 206. 

„ Regin. le, 206. 
Bondi staller, 55. 
Bonner, Will., 155. 
Bordelys, see Burdelys. 
Bordelys (Burdeleys). 
AHce de, 19. 

,, Geoff, de, 14, 15, 229. 

„ John, 15. 

,, Will, de, 235. 
Borgred (Burhred), 55. 
Borraston, Mary, 89. 

,, Susanna, 89. 
Bosco, Hen. de, 17. 

,, Hugh de, 220. 

,, Robt. de, 220, 229. 

,, Will, de, 220. 
Bossard, John, 216, 217. 
Boston fair, see St. Botulf. 
Botiller, Ralf le, 21. 
Bottetort, John, de, 13, 15, 25, 26. 
Boughton (Bowghton), Christiana, 
196. 

,, Joan, 184, 196. 
„ Will., 184. 



Bouill, see Boville. 

Boulogne, Faramus de, 211, 212. 

,, Geoffrey de, 211. 

,, Honour of, 235, 247. 

„ Matilda, 212. 

,, Regin., count of, 247. 

„ Sibyl de, 212. 

,, Will., count of, 212. 

Boulot, Rev. Fath., 105. 

Bourn, see Bohun. 

Bound Way, 165. 

Bounds described clockwise, 164. 

Bourne (Brunne), co. Cambs. 

,, Will. Peverel of, 233. 
Bouvines, battle of, 247. 
Boville (Boyvill), Alice, 182. 

„ Eliz., 191. 

„ John de, Const, of the Tower, 130, 

Boweles, see Bueles. 

Bowman (Boowman), Marion, 186. 

„ Nich., 183 (bis). 

„ Robt., 183 (bis), 185, 186 (bis). 

„ Will., 185, 186. 

Bowr, Thos., 192. 
Boy dell, Mary, 158. 
Boyvill, see Boville. 
Brace, Francis, 88. 
Br ache in Luton. 

„ Rich, de la, 101, 102. 
Brachel', Walt, de, 120. 
Braci, Aldulf de, 211-215. 

,, Masceline de, 213-215. 

Bradley, nurse, 137. 
Braham, Rich, de, 228. 
Braibroc, see Braybrooke. 
Braose, Eva dau. of Will, de, 214, 215. 
Bray (of Silsoe and Pulloxhill), see 
also Broy. 

,, Barth, de, 206, 231. 

,, John de, 231. 

Bray of Stagsden, 8 (see also Broy). 
„ Robt. le (de), 228, 238. 
„ Rog. de, 15. 

Braybrooke (Braibroc). 
„ Cristiana w. of Hen. de, 247-249. 
,, Henry de, 61, 63, 68, 69, 70, 248, 
249. 

,, Joan de, 19. 

,, Robert de, 62, 63, 69, 216, 248, 
249. 

Breame, co. Somers, manor, 138. 
Breaute, Fawkes de, 203, 209, 216. 
Bredyman., Agnes, 190. 
Brehull, see Brill. 



INDEX 



265 



Brentwood, co. Ess., bequest to, 137. 
Bretteville, Hugh de, 18. 

,, John de, 243. 
Bretun, see Brito. 
Brewer, John, 185. 
Brian (Brien), Peter, 21. 

„ Robt., 21-23. 
Briggs, Dr., 84. 

Brill (Brehull), co. Bucks., 219, 220. 
Brito (Bruton, Bretun, Brytone). 

,, Will, 20, 21. 
Briwerre, Isabel dau. of Will, de, 209. 
Broc (Brokk), Geoff., 240. 

,, Robt. del, 228, 240. 
Brodege, Simon, 129, 131. 
Bromham (Bruham). 

,, Jas. s. of Rich, de, 238. 

„ kt. service, 12, i2n, 16, 17, 23n. 
Bromsall, Elizab., 89. 
Brooke, Will., Ld. Cobham. 

,, Alice dau. of, 133. 

„ Elizab. dau. of, 133. 
Broom in Southill, 28. 

,, John de la, 227. 
Brown (Broun, Browne), Alice, 191. 
Jane w. of Will., 137, 138. 

„ John, 141. 

,, Margerie, 190. 

u Reuben, 79. 

„ Rog., 190. 

„ Thos., 89, 156. 
Broy [fam. incert.], Robt. de, 246. 

,, Walt, de, 246. 

Broy (of Sharnbrook and Bletsoe), see 
also Bray. 

,, Robt. de, 205 ; of Radwell, 229. 
Bruce, Lord, 79. 

,, Robert de, 248, 249. 
Bruera, Rich, de, 205. 
Bruham, see Bromham. 
Brun, le (Brunus), Adam, 129 (bis). 

„ Alice w. of John le, 242. 

„ Will., 241. 
Brunton, Will., 197. 
Bruton, see Brito. 
Brygg, Eustace, 196. 

„ Joan, 196.. 
Brytone, see Brito. 
Buel' [? BuelesJ, Hugh de, 222. 
Bueles (Boeles, Boweles, Boles). 

,, Adam de, 19. 
John de, 14. 
Nich. de, 19-21, 231. 

,, Sim. de, 229. 
Bugga, see St. Eadburh. 
Bulho, Robt. de, 229. 



Bull, Agnes, 187. 

,, Alice, 189. 

,, Francis, 193, 198. 

,, John, 188, 189, 193, 198. 

„ Mr., 197. 

„ Robt., 187, 189. 

,, Thos., 187, 191. 

„ Will., 187, 188 (bis), 191, 193. 
Bullingbrook, see Bolingbroke. 
Bultesworth, see Bloxworth. 
Bunyan, John, 102. 
Burdun, Egelina w. of Rich., 242. 

,, John de, 243. 
Burges, Eliz., 188, 190. 

,, Rich., 188, 190. 
Burgh, Hubert de, Earl of Kent, 204, 
210, 225, 226. 

,, Margaret, Ctess. of Kent, inq. 
p.m., 225, 226. 

,, John de, 226. 
Burgo, see Burgh. 
Burguinun (Burguwun). 

,, Will, de, 203. 

„ Will, le, 227. 
Burguwun, see Burguinun. 
Burhred, see Borgred. 
Burnebu, Joan w. of Robt. de, 242. 
Bush, James, 35. 
Bushey, co. Herts., (Bissei), 54. 
Bushmead Priory, 14, 15. 

,, grant to, 216, 219, 235. 
Bussy, Matilda de, 207, 208 
Bute, Marquis of, 104, no. 
Butler, Geo., 137. 
Butlisdene, see Bitlesden. 
Butman, Geo., 198 (bis). 
Butman, Geo., 199. 
Buttlesdene, see Bitlesden 
Buzun (Buzoun). 

„ Alex., 15. 
Byrch, Anne, 194. 
Byrd, Eliz., 182, 183, 188. 

,, Francesca, 184. 

„ John, 182-184, 186-189. 

„ Marg., 186, 189. 

„ Mary, 187, 197. 
Byrhtnoth abbot, 48. 
Byrhtnoth, 172. 

Bytham castle, co. Lines., 120. 



Cabbel, John, 217. 

Cadbury (Cadeburi) in Eaton Socon. 

,, lands in, 216, 248, 249. 
Caddington (Cadendune, Cadandune). 

„ Eadwin de, 41 ; will of, 53. 

„ grant in, 53, 54. 

,, meaning of, 40. 



266 



INDEX 



Cadeburi, see Cadbury. 
Cainhoe in Clophill. 

„ barony, 232, 239. 
kt. service, 9, 20, 21. 

,, manor, 232. 

Calais, 106. 

Calne (Kalna), co. Wilts., 214. 
Caltrop, Martyn, 138. 

Cambridge, Bailiffs of, 120. 

,, Bennet Coll., 84. 

,, King's Coll., 109. 
Roger de, 129 (bis). 

„ Trinity Coll., 141. 
camera, Nicholas de, 120, 129- 131. 
Campe, Joan, 136. 
Campton, kt. service, 18, 19. 
Cantilupe, alias de Kalna. 

,, Fulk de, 214, 215. 

,, Geo. de, 214, 215. 

,, Masceline de, 213-215. 

,, Millicent de, 214, 215, 217. 

„ Rog. de, 214, 215. 

,, Thos. de, St., 214, 215. 

,, Walt, de, 213-215. 

„ Will, de (I), 213-215. 

„ Will, de (II), 214, 215. 

,, Will, de (III), inq. p.m., 210-215. 
Cardington (Kirdington), 56, 184, 
193- 

,, kt. service, 18. 
lands in, 79. 

,, warren in, 98, 99. 
Carew, 154. 

,, Catherine, 154. 
Carlisle, Ch. of St. Mary, 248. 
Carlton (Carleton), 226, 235. 

,, Geoff, de, 238. 

„ kt. service, 3, 12, 16, 17. 

„ lands in, 243-246. 

Caron family, 218. 

,, Osbert de, 249. 

„ Will, le, 19. 
carpenter, siege function of, 118. 
Hen., 124. 

,, Simon, 122. 

,, Thos., 120. 

,, Walter, 122. 
Carter, Thos., 141. 
Carvyll, Mistress, 137. 
Catlyn, Thos., 159. 
Cave, Ann w. of Rev. John, 30. 

„ Eliz. dau. of Sir Brian, 28. 

,, Mary, w. of Sir Brian, 28. 
Caxton, co. Hunts., lands in, 85. 
Cealchyth, see Chelsea. 
Cealhgraefan, see Chalgrave. 



Chainhalle (Ravensden). 
kt. service, 16, 17. 

Chalgrave (Cealhgraefan, Chelegrave). 

,, bounds of, 163-170. 

,, chalk at, 170. 

„ grant of, 42-44. 

,, Hillersden of, 75. 

„ kt. service, 3, 4, 10, 12, 22, 23. 

,, meaning of, 40. 

Chalgrove, co. Oxon., 44, 170. 
Champiun, Gilbt. le, of Carlton, 235. 
„ Will, le, of Carlton, 238. 

Champremy, Sim. de, 206. 
Chanu, Rich, le, 232, 243, 246. 
Chattuarii (Hetwaras), 175m 
Chawley, Thos., 198. 
Chawston in Roxton. 

,, lands in, 206. 

,, kt. service, 18. 

Chedingston, see Chiddingstone. 
Chedington, see Chiddingstone. 
Chelbert (D.B. tenant), 2, 3, 8, 12, 16. 
Chelegrave, see Chalgrave. 
Chelfiston, see Chellington. 
Chellington (Chelwinton, Chelfiston). 

,, lands in, 219, 231. 
Chelsea (Cealchyth), 174. 
Chelwinton, see Chellington. 
Chenemondewiche, see Kenemondwick. 
Cheney, Robt., 85. 

„ Thos., kt., 148. 
Cherwell River, 177m 
Chesney, Matilda de, 243. 
Chester, Haweise sis. of Randolf, Earl 

of, 237. 
Chetwode, Lucy de, 21. 
Chibolle, Will., 203. 
Chicksand (Chichesane). 

„ kt. service, 18, 19. 

,, priory of, 19, 21, 66, 70-72. 

„ ,, grants to, 230. 
Chiddingstone (Chedingston), co. 
Kent, 

„ bequest to, 136 ; 160. 
child, le, see Enfaunt. 
Christi, Judith, 199. 

„ Thos., 199. 
Churchmen. 

„ Abbot iElfwin of Ramsey, 49. 

,, ,, Eadnoth of Ramsey, 51, 52. 

,, Eadwine of Abingdon, 173. 

,, „ Leofstan of St. Alban, 54, 55. 

,, ,, Ranulf of Ramsey, 207. 

,, ,, Robert of Thorney, 233. 

,, Thos. Ramridge of St. Alban, 
"3- 



INDEX 



267 



Churchmen. 
,, Abbot of Bermondsey, 23a. 

„ of Bitlesden, 23. 

,, of Ramsey, 121. 
,, „ of St. Alban, in. 

„ of St. Edmund, 61. 
,, ,, of Warden, 14, 15, 17-19, 21. 
,, Archbishop iEthelhard, 42. 

„ Alexander of York, 98, 99. 
,, ,, Oda of Cant., 174m 

,, Oscytel of York, 171. 

,, Oswald, 51. 
,, „ Will. Courtenay of Cant., 98- 

100. 
,, Bishop 
„ ,, iElfric, 53. 

,, ,, ^Ethelwald of Winchester, 173. 
,, ,, ^Etheric of Dorchester, 56. 
,, ,, Eadnoth of Dorchester, 51, 52, 
56. 

,, ,, Fulk of London, 236. 
,, ,, Hugh de Grenoble of Lincoln, 
62, 63. 

,, ,, Walt, of Coventry and Lich- 
field, 98, 99 

,, Will, de Blois of Lincoln, 62, 
63. 

,, of Durham, 57. 
„ chaplain (capellanus). 

„ Peter, 249. 
,, clerk (clericus). 
„ ,, Hen. of Eversholt, 226. 
„ „ Joce, 14. 

,, „ Nich. of Langford, 227. 

,, ,, Randulf, 206. 

,, ,, Simon, 232. 

,, ,, Walter 210. 

,, ,, Will, of Oakley, 240. 

„ Prior of. 

,, Bushmead, 14, 15. 

,, ,, Chicksand, 19-21, 66, 70-72. 

,, „ Luffield, 23. 

,, Nev/nham, 14, 16, 17, 19. 

,, ,, Royston, 120. 
Churt, Hugh, 220. 
Cimindewyk, see Ken emond wick. 
Clapham (Cloppham). 

,, advowson, 241. 

„ grant in, 50, 56. 

„ lands in, 239-243. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Clare, see also Gloucester, Earls of. 

,, Rich. s. of Gilbt., Earl of, 231. 
Clark (Clerk, Clerke, Clarke), see also 
Churchmen, clerk. 

,, Ann w. of John, 29. 

„ Eliz., 187. 

,, Jane dau. of Geo., 155. 

„ Mary, 157. 



Cleyton, Agnes, 199. 

Clifford, Rog. de, Const, of St. 

Briavel, 123. 
Clifford, Will, de, 247, 248. 
Clifton (Cliftune), 28. 

„ grant in, 45. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Cliftune, see Clifton. 
Clophill, see Cainhoe. 
Cloppham, see Clapham. 
Cobb, Ger., 145. 
Cobbam, Margerie, 195. 
Cobham, Lord, see Brooke. 
Coccham Monastery, 42. 
Cock, Margaret, 35. 
Cockayne (Cokayne), G. E., 160. 

,, Thos., 141. 
Cockeswelle, see Coxwell. 
Cokeram, Phil., and w., 139. 
Colchester, St. John's Abbey, 218. 
Colesden in Roxton. 

,, lands in, 206. 
Collins, John, 137. 
Collop, John, 79. 
Colly more, Thos., 136. 
Colly t, Marg., 183. 

,, Rich., 183. 
Colmorth, see Colmworth. 
Colm worth (Colmorth). 

,, advowson, 91. 

,, bequest to poor, 84, 87, 89. 

,, kt. service, 9. 10, 18, 19, 23m 

,, lands in, 83, 89. 
Colquhoun, Eliz., 92. 

„ Will., 92. 

,, Will. Jas. Hillersden, 92. 
Colson, Margerie, 183. 

,, Robt., 183. 
Colworth, in Sharnbrook. 

„ kt. service, 17. 
Comaunder, John, of London, 194. 

,, Kath., 194. 
Comberland, Marg., 199. 
Condiments, medieval, 119, 127. 
Condgrave, Johanna w. of Conyers, 34. 
Conisby, Elizab., 76. 
Conyers, Dorothy w. of Will., 146, 148. 

„ Will., 149. 
Coo, Agnes, 191 (bis). 

,, Thos., 191 (bis), 
cook (cocus), John, 14. 

„ Rich., 15. 
Cookman, John, 191, 194. 

„ Marg., 191. 
Thos., 194. 
Cooper, Thos., Bp. Line, 76. 

,, Elizab. dau. of, 76. 
Cop, Alice, 189. 
Cope, Ferdinando, 81. 



268 



INDEX 



Cople, kt. service, 18. 

Coppinger, Alice wid. of Thos., 133. 

Corbett, Anne wid. of Robt., 80. 

„ Alice, 188. 

„ Ralf., 184. 
Corfe castle, 120, 234. 
Cornwall, Rich. Earl of, 203. 
Cosin (Cosyn), Hen. 20. 

„ Rich., 224. 
Costentin, Annabilla [? Amiabilla], 
218. 

,, Elias de, 218. 

,, Geoff, de, 218. 

,, Hen. de, inq. p.m., 217-219. 

,, Mahalt de, 218. 

,, Ranulf, 218. 

,, Rich, de, 219. 

,, Will, de, 219. 
Cotes, Gilbt. de, 20. 
Cotes, see Eastcotts. 
Cothermhoe, see Cutenho. 
Cotternho, see Cutenho. 
Couinton, Rich, de, 220, 229. 
Courg-end, see Kurigge. 
Courtenay, Will., Archbp., 98-100. 
Coutances, D.B. fief of Bp. of, 219. 
Covey, Dorothy, 33. 
Covyngton (Covengton), Nich., 184. 

„ Robt., 184. 
Cowper (Cowpper), Alice, 191. 

,, Eliz., 192 (bis), 194. 

„ John, 191, 192 (bis), 193, 194, 195, 
198. 

,, Nich., 191, 195. 

„ Marg., 199. 

,, Mary, 193. 
Cowridge, see Kurigge. 
Coxwell, co. Berks., 213. 
Coynterel, Hen., 243. 
Cranfield (Cranefeld, Crangfeld), 46, 
47- 

,, grant in, 56. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Crangfeld, see Cranfield. 
Crasshe (Chrasshe), Agnes, 185. 

„ alias Baxter, Eliz., 198. 

,, „ John, 198. 
Crauehurst, see Gravenhurst. 
Craulea, see Luton, Crawley Green. 
Craven, Lady, 155. 
Crawecumb, Godfrey de, 127. 
Crawley family, papers of, 102, 114. 

,, Edw., 113. 

,, John, no, 114. 

,, John Sambrook, no. 

„ Rich., no. 
Cray, Anne, 191. 

,, Thos., 191. 



Crayford, Agnes, 184 (bis). 

„ Thos., 184 (bis). 
Creuequor, see Crevequer. 
Crevequer (Creuequor). 

,, Hamo de, 18, 19. 

„ Robt. de, 243, 244, 246, 247. 
Crispin, Miles, 240. 
Cromwell, Rich., 157. 

„ Robt., 157. 
Crossbow, 118. 
Crosse, Joan, 190. 

„ Thos., 186. 
Crowche, Agnes, 190. 

„ Hen., 190. 
Crowele [loc. incert.], 234. 
Croydon, co. Surr., bequest to, 137. 
Cruise, Sim., 205. 
Cudsand (Cudessane), 18. 
Cumberland, E. A., 102. 

„ Mr., 170. 
Cupelin, Elias, 249. 
Curegg, see Kurigge. 
Curtis (Curtise), John, 142. 
Cutenho (Ketenho, Cutnoe, Cotternhoc 
Cothernhoe, Kitnoe, Kidnoe, Kid-J 
ney), in Luton, 101-111. 
Cynburg Well (Kimberwell), 43, 166. 



Dabridgecourt, Marg. w. of Thos., 135. 

,, Susan dau. of Geo., 133. 
Dagehale, see Dagnall. 
Dagnall (Dagehale), co. Bucks. 

,, Hugh de, 210. 
Dale, Hen., 137. 

„ Will., 185. 
Dallow in Luton, 41, 108, 257. 
Damsell, Will., kt., 137. 
Danes in Bedfordshire, 43, 44. 
Danmartin, Alberic de, 247. 

„ Odo de, 247. 

„ Reginald de, Count of Boulogne, 
247. 

Danyell, John, 185. 

,, Marione, 185. 
Darling, Abraham, 195. 

,, Eliz., 189, 197. 

„ Joan, 190. 

„ John, 189, 190, 193, 195, 196. 
„ Marg., 196. 
„ Mary, 193. 
Daubeny (de Albini) of Cainhoe. 
,, heir of Will., 23. 
„ Isabella, 22; inq. p.m., 231, 232. 
„ Nigel, 2. 
„ Will., 232. 



INDEX 



269 



Davy, Abraham, 193. 

„ Agnes, 190. 

„ Rich., 192, 193, 195. 

„ Robt., 190. 
Dawes, Alice, 190. 

„ Jane, 193. 

,, John, 182, 186, 188. 

„ Robt., 182, 186, 190. 
Daye (Dey), Helen, 189. 

,, John, 184. 
Deas, Hem., 152. 
Delinquency, 87. 
Denbigh, Sara Ctess. of, 33, 34. 
Dennis (Dennys), Andrew, 77-81. 

„ Mary dau. of Matth., 154. 
Dent, John, 86, 183. 

„ Robt., 183. 
Deodand (in 17^8), 59, 60. 
Depyng?, Barnabas, 191. 
Derby, Earl of, see Ferrars. 
Dew or Dow, Marg., 182. 

„ Will., 182. 
Dey, see Daye. 
Dickeson, Mr., 158. 
Dilwick (Aylewike, Dylewik), 22n. 

,, Hen. de, 15. 

,, kt. service, see Stagsden. 

,, manor of, 227-229. 

,, Rog. de, 220, 229. 
Dipere, Robt., 232. 

,, Thos. le, 228. 
Doe, Jolland (Joldewin de), 248. 
Domvile, Will., 157. 
Dorset, Sheriff of, letter close to, 121. 
Doughtie, Will., 81. 
Dover (Dovoria), see also Peverel, 
Honour of. 

,, Alice de, 210. 

,, castle, 211, 212. 

,, castle guard, 233. 

,, John de, 210. 

„ Margery dau. of John de, 210. 

,, Rich, de, inq. p.m., 209, 210. 
Dovoria, see Dover. 
Dow, see Dew. 
Dreu, Rich., 240. 
Druel, Joan, 17. 

„ John, 17. 

,, Sim., 206. 
Duloe (Duuelho), Eaton Socon, 249. 
Dun, Hugh le, kt., 212. 
Dunstable, letter close dated at, 127, 
128. 

,, priory, grant to, 212, 213. 
Dunstan, Archbp., 171. 
Dunton, see Millo. 
Durham, bp. of, 57. 
Dyck, Francis, 193. 



Dygule, John, 195. 

,, Margerie, 195. 
Dylewyk, see Dilwic, 
Dynnes, Alice, 191. 

„ Will., 191. 
Dyssett, w. of, 137. 
Dytton, Alice, 188. 

„ Joan, 187. 

„ Thos., 186, 187. 



Eabba, see Eormenburh. 

Eadgar, Kg., charter of, 45, 47, 170, 

171, 257; 56, 174m 
Eadnoth, abbot of Ramsey, bp. of 

Dorchester, 51, 52, 56. 
Eadnoth s. of Godric, grant by, 49-51 ; 

5 2 > 56. 

Eadward I (the Elder), Kg. of Wes- 

sex, 43, 44, 163. 
Eadward, Saint and King, 52. 
Eadward the Confessor, Kg., charters 

oi, $6, 57- 
Eadwig, Kg., 174m 
Eadwine, abbot of Abingdon, 173. 
Eadwine s. of Borgred, 55. 
Ealdred, 172. 
Ealdred thane, 42, 43. 
Ealhmund abbot, 41. 
East, Joan, 197. 

Eastcotan [ ? in Chalgrave], 42, 168. 
Eastcotts (Cotes). 

,, warren in, 98, 99. 
Eaton Bray (Eyton, Ehton, Eytuna, 
Eiton). 
,, lands in, 210-214. 
Eaton Socon (see also Bushmead, 
Cadbury, Duloe, Sudbury, Wy- 
boston), 249. 
,, Costentin of, 219. 
„ Elias s. of Walt, de, 249. 
,, Honour of, see Beauchamp of 

Eaton. 
,, lands in, 89. 
Ebor, Will, de, 69, 70. 
Ecfrid s. of Kg. Offa, 41, 42. 
Edlesborough, co. Bucks., lands in, 
211. 

Edeneburc, see Edinburgh. 
Edinburgh (Edeneburc) Castle, 217. 
Edmund (Edmond), Alice, 183. 

„ John, 192. 

,, Robt., 192. 

„ Thos., 183. 
Education of women in 1623, 78. 
Edward, Will., 198. 
Edwards, Eliz., 187. 



270 



INDEX 



Edworth (Edwurthe). 
Augustin de, 247. 
„ lands in, 212. 
Eete, Will., 195. 
Eglemunt in Totternhoe, 213. 
Ehton, see Eaton Bray. 
Eiton, see Eaton Bray. 
Eland, Rich., 184. 

Eleanor of Aquitaine, Qu. of Hen. II, 
213, 223. 

Eleanor of Provence, Qu. of Hen. Ill, 

224. 
Elf not, 45. 
Ellis, Chas., 158. 

,, John, 158. 
Elmestowe, see Elstow. 
Else, Jane, 194. 

„ Will., 194. 
Elstow Abbey, 79, 80. 

„ Boville, Alice, nun of, 182. 

,, Foxe, Eliz., nun of, 199. 

,, Napton, Eliz., nun of, 199. 
Preston, Anne, nun of, 198. 
Elstow (Elvistowe, Elmestowe), 75- 

95, l8 5- 
Elvington, Rowland, 138. 
Elvistowe, see Elstow. 
Enfaunt (Lemfaunt, le child) 

,, John le, 19, 229. 

,, Rich, 238. 

„ Will., 247. 
Engaine family, 8, 23n. 

„ John de, 240, 243. 

„ Nich., 17. 

„ Will., 16. 
Engelberd, Robt., 206. 
Engleis (Lengleis, Anglicus). 

,, John le, 228, 232, 243. 
Enveyse, see l'Enveyse. 
Eormenburh (Eabba), 167. 
Erby, Agnes, 182. 

,, Alice, 182. 

„ Eliz., 186. 

„ Joan, 187, 193. 

,, John, 182 (bis), 186, 187, 192. 
Espec (Spech), Albreda, 219. 

,, fief of, 203, 206, 207, 219, 220. 
Essex, Earl of, see Bohun. 
Est, Robt. of Hatley, 217. 

,, Robt., 226. 
Estall, John, 183. 
Estende, Ralf de, 244. 
E stone, see Staughton. 
Estrange, see 1' Estrange. 
Estune, Will, de, 226. 
Estwik, see Astwick. 
Eudo dapifer, 67-69, 71, 73, 217, 218. 
Euereshold, see Eversholt. 



Everard, Edmund, 23. 
Everat (Everatt), Agnes, 197. 

,, Alice, 194. 

,, Rich., 197. 
Evershaw, co. Bucks., 22, 23, 23n. 

,, Will, de, 22. 
Eversholt (Heverishou, Euereshold).; 

,, bequest to poor, 77, 81, 85, 87. 

,, Hen. clerk of, 226. 

,, Jordan de, 8. 

„ kt. service, 10, 20, 21. 

„ lands in, 80, 82. 

„ Paul de, 226. 
Everton, 217. 
Evett, Nich., 138. 

Evreux, Millicent wid. of Amauri de 

see Cantilupe. 
Ewster, Thos., 30. 

Exchequer, letter close to Barons of 

122-129. 
Eye (Eyen) in Gravenhurst. 

,, Steph. de, 206. 
Eyr, Will, le, 15. 
Eyringham, see Tyringham. 
Eyton, Eytuna, see Eaton Bray. 
Eyworth, 247. 

,, kt. service, 10, 20, 21. 

„ lands in, 206, 207. 



Fag, John, 197. 

,, Mary, 197. 
falconer, Ralf, 231, 232. 
Falconry, 81. 

Faldho in Higham Gobion. 

,, kt. service, 20, 21. 
Faramus de Boulogne, see Boulogne. 
Farclough (Fayreclough). 

„ Thos., 147, 148. 
Farley (Farlege) Hospital in Luton; 

IOI-III. 

„ Masters of, 107. 

,, Mauger, master, 101, 102, 107. 
Farndish, 233. 

,, lands in, 206. 
Farnham, Edw., 34. 

„ Harriet, 34. 
Farrar, Dennis, 89, 91. 

,, Dennis (Hillersdon), 92. 

„ Eliz., 89. 

,, Eliz. dau. of Will., 90. 

Eliz. w. of Dennis, 89, 91. 
,, Farrar Grover Spurgeon, 157. 
,, Mary, 92. 
,, Thos., 92. 
„ Will., 90-92, 156. 



INDEX 



271 



Faunt?, Margery, 187. 
Faure, Anne dau. of Hen., 92. 

,, Hen., 92. 
Fayreclough, see Farclough. 
Felmersham, 238, 239, see also Rad- 
well. 

,, John de, 107. 

,, lands in, 229, 230. 
Fencote in Chalgrave, 168. 
Ferley, Alice, 184. 
Fermbaud, Nich., 17. 
Ferrars, Eleanor dau. of Will., Earl 

of Derby, 237. 
Fiennes (Fience), Eliz., 189. 

,, Enguerrand (Ingram) de, 212, 
236. 

,, Sibyl de, 212. 
Fifield, Joanna, 32, 33. 

„ John, 32, 33. 

„ Mary, 32, 33. 

„ Selina, 32, 33. 
Finche, Hen., 142. 
Fisher, Dr. Jasper, 148, 149. 
fisher, Godwin, 217. 
Fitz, see Son of. 

Fitz, Sim., information wanted, 258. 
Fitzherbert, Edmund, 109. 
Flamstead Priory, co. Herts., 223. 
Flamvill (Flaunville, Flanvylle). 

,, Baldwin de, 246. 

,, Hen. de, 17. 

,, John de, 16, 20. 

,, Matilda, 21. 
Flaunville, see Flamville. 
Flawd, Chas., kt., 84. 

,, Lady, 84. 
jFleetwoode, Will., 137. 
Fleming, Walter the, 2, 205. 

,, Isabella le, 21. 

,, Patric le, 21. 
Fletcher, Rich., 149. 
Flitte, see Flitton. 
IFlitton (? Fleote, Flitte). 

,, ? charter of, 42. 

„ John de 231. 
Foliot, Margery, 248. 
fonte, Thos. de, 210. 
fontem, Ralf ad, 244. 
Fontevraud Abbey, 213. 
Forda, Laurence de, 203. 
Forde, Thos., 143. 
Fore, Marg., 195. 

„ Nich., 195. 
(Fort, Robt., le, 203. 
i Forth, Elizab., 85. 
I „ Martha, 85. 

,, Maiy dau. of John, 88. 



Foster, John, 137. 

,, Will, 194. 
Fotheringay, co. Northts., 142. 

„ bequest to poor, 143. 
Fouxe, Thos., 195. 
Fowler, Alice, 185, 197. 

„ Will., 197, 198. 

Fowler, G. H. ; on Some Saxon Char- 
ters, 39-57, 257 ; on Domesday Notes, 
II, Kenemondwick, 61-73; on Muni- 
tions in 1224, 1 17-132; on Inquisi- 
tions post mortem, 201-255. 
Foxe, Agnes, 184. 

,, dame Eliz., 199. 
Frances (Francys), Agnes, 195. 

„ Joan, 195. 

„ Will., 197. 
Franceys (Fraunceys), see also Francus. 

,, John, 244. 

„ Will., 16, 17. 

„ Will, le, 216. 
francus, Will, le, 61, 63. 
Frankelein (Frankeleyn). 

,, Hen., 243. 

,, Rich, le, 203, 206. 
Frankish brooch, i68n. 
Franklin, Lady, 155. 
Freer, John, 191. 
Frenchman's Way, 166. 
Frewen, John, 32, 33. 
Frisby (Frisbi), Anna, 190. 

,, Nich., 189. 

„ Robt., 189. 

,, Thos., 190. 
Fulham, co. Middx., lands, 151. 
Fuller, nurse, w. of, 137. 
Fullerton, Sir Jas., 79. 
Furnival, Cristiana w. of Gerard de, 
248. 

Furth, Eliz., 1S4. 
„ Thos., 184. 



Gabel, John, 247. 

Gaddesden (Gatesdene, Getesdene), 
co. Herts. 
,, Adulf de, 222, 223. 
,, Agatha de, 223. 
,, Ermicerda de, 223. 
„ grant in, 45. 
,, John de, inq. p.m., 221-225. 
,, manor of, 225. 
,, Margaret de, 221. 
,, Margery de, 223. 
,, Peter de, kt., 222, 224, 225. 
,, Rich, de, 223. 
,, Will, de, 222-224. 



272 



INDEX 



Gadsden, Cecile, 194. 
Gale, Hen., 144. 

Galloway, Helen dau. of Alan of, 237. 
Galston, see Golston. 
Gamelegeye, see Gamlingay. 
Gamlingay (Gamelegeye), co. Cambs. 

,, Agnes w. of Will, de, 65. 

„ WiU. s. of Will, de, 65. 
Gare, Agnes, 182. 

Rich., 182. 
Garnar, Jas., 157. 
Garrard, Will., kt., 138. 
Garston, Will., 189. 
Gatesdene, see Gaddesden. 
Gaunt, Helen, 189. 

„ Walt., 189. 
Gay, Robt., 88. 
Gee, Osgood, 92. 

„ Sarah, 92. 
Gernum, Ralf, 120. 
Gery, Regin., 249. 
Getesdene, see Gaddesden. 
Gey ton, Geo., 186 (ter). 

,. Nich., 186 (bis). 
Gibbs (Gybbes), Alice, 191. 

„ Thos., 191. 
Gibson (Gybson) Agnes, 187.. 
Giffard, Honour of, 231. 

,, Roheise dau. of Walt., 231. 
Gilbert, Will., 84. 
Gilueldene, see Yielden. 
Gittens, Robt, 139. 
Glassby, William, 97. 
Gleiue [ ? Gieme], Hugh, 205. 
Glen, Isabella, 34, 35. 
Glodington, see Goldington. 
Gloucester, Gilbt. de Clare, Earl, 203. 

,, Geoff, fitz Peter, Earl, 203. 

,, Honour of, 203, 218-220, 232. 

,, iron of, 124-126. 

„ Rich, de Clare, Earl, inq. p.m., 
231, 232. 

,, Thos. Duke of, 98-100. 
Gloucestershire iron, 118. 
Gobion, Hugh, 20. 

,, Rich., 8, 2i. 
Godarville (Seine Inferieure). 

,, Hyllaria de, 204. 

,, Joan de (Gascelin), 203. 

,, Margaret de, 203. 

„ Walter de, inq. p.m., 203, 204. 
Goddard, A. R., 117. 
Goddard or Nevy, Barbara, 145. 
Godfrey, Nich., 17. 

,, Robt., 226. 
Godric, grant by, 49; 51, 52. 
Godric s. of Leofric, 48. 



Godric [? the Sheriff], 55. 
Godrichesheye, Walt, de, 240. 
Godulf, Robt., 217. 

Goldington (Goudintone, Gloding- 
ton), 192. 

,, family of, 9. 

„ Peter de, 14, 15, 22, 229. 

,, Ralf de, 19. 

,, warren in, 97, 99. 

„ Will, de, 18. 
Golston (Goldston, Galston). 

,, Robert, 14, 15, 220, 229, 235. 
Goodall (Godal), Jane, 194. 

„ Robt., 193-195, 198. 

„ Rich., 193. 

,, Sarah, 193. 
Goscard, Fulk, 19. 
Gosle, see Gousle. 
Gostwick (Gostwycke), family, 147. 

„ Joan, 185. 

„ Robt., 183, 184. 

„ Will., 182 (bis), 185, 227. 
Goudintone, see Goldington. 
Gousle (Gosle), Drogo de, 227. 
Graenuill, see Greinvill. 
Graham, James, kt., 157. 
Gra[me?], Eliz., 190. 
Grange, Frances, w. of Will., 76. 
Grantcourt, Thos. de, 231. 
Graunt, Will, le, 249. 
Gravenel, John, 208. 

,, Thos., 208. 

Gravenhuest (Cravehurst), see also 
Eye. 

,, kt. service, 20. 

,, lands in, 206. 
Greenland, escarpment of Upper, 170.) 
Gregory, Eliz., 34. 
Greinvill (Graenuill). 

„ Gilbt. de, 128, 129, 131. 
Grene, Rich, de la, 238. 
Grenoble, Hugh de, bp. Line, 62, 63. 
Grey, John de, 248. 
Griffith, Rebecca, 151, 152. 
Grissell, John, 85. 
Groom, Thomas, 59. 
Grove Priory, in Leighton, 213. 

,, fish stews, 176m 
Grusset, Peter de, 210. 
Grym, John, 15. 

,, Margery, 15. 
Guher, Rich., 203. 
Guisnes, Baldwin Count of, 235. 

„ Robt. de, 235, 236. 
Gurnai, Hugh de, 213-215. 

,, Juliana de, 215. 

,, Millicent de, 214, 215, 217. 



INDEX 



273 



Gurney, F. G., on Yttingaford, and 
the Tenth-century Bounds of Chal- 
grave and Linslade, 163-180. 

Gussage (? Gyssic), co. Dorset, i73n. 

Guthrum Eohricsson, Danish Kg., 
peace of, 163. 

Gutteridge, Jas., 102. 
Gybbes, see Gibbs. 
Gybson, see Gibson. 
Gylley, Eliz., 187. 

,, John, 187. 
Gymices, Robt. de, 229. 
Gynnes, John de, 220. 
Gyse, Anselm de, 21. 

,, John de, 21. 
Gyssic, see Gussage. 



Hackepenne, John, 21b. 
Hacket, Robt., 231. 
Haddock, Edw., 195. 

„ Eliz., 198. 

„ Marg., 192. 

„ Robt., 192, 195, 198. 

Haddon, Harriet, 92. 
,, James, 92. 

Haefaeresham, see Haversham. 

Haethfaslda, 1730. 

Haetlea, see Hatley. 

Haettenlea, see Hatley. 

Halfknight (Halueknit), Will., 216. 

Halford, Selina dau. of Sir Thos., 30, 

Hall, Eliz., 188. 
Halley, Rich., 199. 
Halsey, Mary, 93. 
Halueknit, see Halfknight. 
Hammett, Rich., 152. 
Hamond, Emma, 197. 
Hamslap, see Hanslope. 
Hamsom, J., on The Grant of Free 
Warren to Newnham Priory, 97-99. 
Hanbury, Benjamin, 59. 
Handbury, Mrs., 155. 
Hanslope (Hamslap), co. Bucks. 

,, Mauduit family of, 241, 242. 

,, Robt. de, 235. 
Harberd (Harbord). 

,, John, 189. 

„ Juliana, 191. 

„ Robt., 189. 
Hardecnut, Kg., 56. 



Harding, Ann w. of Edmund, 146, 
148. 

,, Edmund, 77. 

Elizab. dau. of Edmund, 77. 
Elizab. w. of Edmund, 77. 
,, John, 77, 79. 
,, Lewis, 86. 
Hardwick (Hardewic, Herduyic). 
„ Hugh de, 238. 
,, Walt, de, 205, 238. 
Hardwick (Herdwik) [? Shefford]. 

,, lands in, 228. 
Hargrave, co. Northants., bequest to, 
I 59- 

Haring (Hareng), John, 226; of Carl- 
ton, 235. 

Harlew, Adam, 15. 

Harlewyne, Sim., 229. 

Harlington (Harlingdon), Robt. de, 
21. 

Harold, Earl, and w. Edith, 57. 
Harpenden, co. Herts., 109. 
Harpur, Will, le, 227. 
Harte, John, 138. 
Harvey, Eliz., 143. 

„ Mary, 143. 
Hasells (Heyseles) in Sandy. 

,, grange of, 66, 70, 72. 
Hasleden, Benj., 89. 

,, Eliz. w. of Benj., 89. 

,, Eliz. dau. of Benj., 89. 

,, Katherine, 89. 
Hastings (Hastinges). 

,, family, 72. 

„ Hen. de, 65, 67, 68, 73, 229, 230. 

„ John de, 71. 

„ Will, de, 62, 64. 
Hatley (Hattenleia, Haettanlea, Haet- 
lea, Hattele), 217, 247. 

„ grant in, 47-52. 

„ kt. service, 20, 21. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Hatley, Joan, 186. 
Hattele, see Hatley. 
Hattenleia, see Hatley. 
Haverhull, Will, de, Kg.'s clerk, 126. 
Havering, co. Ess., 210, 243. 
Haversham (Haefaeresham), co. Bucks., 

Hawnes (Haynes), kt. service, 20, 21. 

Haye, Walt, de la, 232, 240, 246. 

Heldeward, Robt., 228. 

Hemel Hempstead, co. Herts., 223. 

Henlow. 

,, kt. service, 18, 20. 

,, lands in, 209, 210, 212. 
Henry carpenter, 124. 



274 



INDEX 



Henry II, endowment of Farley, 104- 
107. 

Herbert, Geoff., 226. 
Herbert, Kg.'s reeve at D.B., 212. 
Herduyk, see Hardwick. 
Herdwik, see Hardwick. 
Hereford, Elias de, 216, 217. 
Heregeat, 49. 

Heremington, Rich, de, 235, 236, 238. 
Heriots, 93. 
Herman, John, 182. 

„ Robt., 182. 
Herne (Heron), see also Heyrun. 
Alice dau. of Thos., 133, 140. 

„ Francis, court of, 59. 

,, Lady, 138. 

„ Nich., kt., 135, 137. 
Heron, see Herne. 
Hertford, castle, 203. 
Hetwaras (Chattuarii), i75n. 
Heverishou, see Eversholt. 
Hewett, Thos., kt., 81-83, 85. 

Margaret w. of Thos., 81. 
Heydon, Thos. de, 69, 70. 
Heyrun, Hugh, 229. 

„ John, 240. 
Heyseles, see Hasells. 
Hicca, 45. 

Higham Gobion, kt. service, 20, 21. 
Hill, Hen., 152. 

,, Nathaniel, 148, 149. 
Hillersden of Elstow, 75-93 ; pedi- 
gree, 95 ; arms, 86. 
„ Alice dau. of Thos., 77. 
,, Anne dau. of Dennis, 92. 
,, ,, w. of Dennis, 92. 

Dennis Farrer-, 92. 
„ Eliz. w. of Thos., 76, 77, 82, 83, 

86, 93, 151-153- 
,, ,, dau. of John, 76. 
„ „ dau. of Thos., 77, 78, 80, 81, 
85-90. 

,, ,, w. of Rich., 89. 
,, w. of Will., 90, 91. 
,, ,, dau. of Will., 91. 
,, ,, dau. of Dennis, 92. 
,, Frances w. of John, 76. 
,, ,, dau. of John, 76. 
» „ 77> 92. 
„ Harriet, 92. 
,, Jane, 92. 

Joan w. of Thos., 75, 93. 
„ „ dau. of John, 76. 
,, ,, dau. of thos., 77, 78, 81. 
,, John s. of Thos., 76-79, 83-89, 93. 
„ „ 87, 88, 145, i53. 
„ Katherine dau. of Thos., 80. 



Hillersden of Elstow. 
,, Margaret dau. of Thos., 79, 85-87, 

90, 154. 
,, „ w. of Thos., 80, 86. 
„ „ dau. of Will., 89-91. 
,, Mary w. of Thos., 88, 90, 93. 
,, ,, dau. of Thos., 77. 
,, Richard, 79. 
,, ,, s. of Thos., 87-91, 154. 
,, Sarah w. of Dennis, 92. 
,, dau. of Dennis, 92. 
,, Susan dau. of John, 76. 

Susanna dau. of Thos., 87, 88, 90, 

154- 

„ Thomas (I), 75, 76, 93. 
„ „ (II), kt., 76-79, 86. 
„ „ (HI), 77-S1. 
„ „ (IV), 80, 82-86. 
„ „ (V), 83, 85-90. 
„ „ s. of John, 76. 
,, Farrer, 89-91. 
„ „ 93 ter. 

,, William s. of John, 76, 84. 
,, ,, s. of Thos., 87, 88, 90" 93, 152, 
154- 

Hilton, Rich., 185. 
Hinton, Geo., 78. 

,, Mary w. of Geo., 78. 
Hinwick (Hynewic), 16, 17. 

,, hidage and service, 10. 

,, lands in, 206, 243-246. 

„ Nich. s. of Robt. de, 205. 
Hitchinford, 164, 177. 
Hiueldon, see Yielden. 
Hlincgelad, see Linslade. 
Hockley, see Hockliffe. 
Hockliffe (Hockley), 44, 164. 
bequest to poor, 77, 85, 87. 

,, brook, i65n. 

,, church of, 77. 

,, kt. service, 10, 20, 21. 

,, lands in, 77, 80, 82, 84, 85. 
Hodgkin, Mrs., 34. 
Hoketon, Laur. de, 223. 
Holacot, see Holcote. 
Holcote (Holacot), 46, 47. 
Holland (Hoiland), parts of, co. Lines., 
121. 

Holme (Holma), in Biggleswade, 247. 
,, Geoff, de, 203. 

kt. service, 20. 
,, Simon de, 203. 
Holwell, Great (now co. Herts.), 19, 
2 57- 

,, Sim. de, 229. 
Hoo, La, in Marston and Wootton. 
,, lands in, 219, 220. 



INDEX 



275 



Hooker, Blanche, 29. 

,, John, 84. 

,, Rev. Jonathan, 29. 
Hooper, in error for Hooker, 29. 
Hopkins, Thos., 176. 
Horbury, John de, 13, 17, 25. 
Horley, W., i68n. 
Horne, Elizab., 78. 

„ John, 77. 

„ Mary w. of Reynold, 77. 
Reynold s. of John, 77. 

„ Thos., 79. 
Horsnell, Ann, 88. 

„ Eliz. dau. of Geo., 84. 

„ Geo. and w., 84, 88. 

„ Mary, 84. 

„ Mrs., 154. 
Hospital of St. John Jerusalem. 

j, prior of, 71. 
Houghton Conquest, kt. service, 10, 
20, 21. 

Houghton Regis, see also Bidwell. 

,, lands in, 211. 
Hounspell, see Hunspill. 
Howbury, see Renhold. 
Howe Down, 770. 
Howe, John, 114. 

„ Will., 114. 
Hrisanbeorgan, see Prince's Ris- 

borough. 
Hucksley, see Huxley. 
Hulle, Clement de la, 206. 

,, Ralf de la, 206. 

,, Ranulf de, 249. 
Humeto, see Humez. 
Humez (Humeto). 

,, Agnes dau. of Will, de, 207. 

„ John de, 207. 

„ Will, de, 218. 
Humfrey, Anna Maria, 34. 

,, Hester, 34. 
Hungerford, Jane, 160. 
Hunsdon, co. Herts., 5, 22, 23. 
Hunspill (Hounspell), co. Soms., 

manor, 138, 143. 
Huntercumbe [? co. Bucks.] 
Isabel de, 248. 

„ Walt, de, 248. 

„ Will, de, inq. p.m., 247, 248. 
Huntingdon, Earls of, see St. Liz. 

„ Honour of, 2, 66, 217, 229, 230, 

240, 247, 248. 
Hupfton, Walt, de, 25. 
Husborne [Crawley], (Hysse Burn), 

46, 47- 
Hutton, Joan, 193. 
,, Robt., 193. 
„ Thos., 85, 193 (bis). 



Huxley (Hucksley), Ann, 84. 
,, Arabella w. of Thos., 150, 152. 
„ Eliz., 84, 154. 

„ Eliz. dau. of John, 82, 86, 151-153. 

Frances, 154. 
„ Geo., 84, 153, 154. 
,, John, 82, 84-86, 152-154. 
,, Katharine, 151, 154. 
„ Sara, 86. 

,, Thos., 84, 93, 150-152. 
Hwitsand, see Wissant. 
Hyde, West, in Luton, 102, 104. 
Hylton, Joan, 186. 
Hynewik, see Hinwick. 
Hynman, Robt., 190. 

,, Thos., 190. 
Hysse Burn, see Husborne. 



Icknield Way, 169, 176. 
Impey, Thos., 77. 
Ingerram pincerna, 213. 
Inman, Agnes, 199. 

„ Eliz., 188. 

,, Ellen, 196. 

,, John, 192. 

,, Robt., 188, 192, 196, 199. 
Inner or Juner, Joan, 1S9. 
Inquisitions Post Mortem (1250-1271), 

201-255. 
Insula, Brian de, 62, 63. 

,, Giles de, 22, 23. 
Irelonde, Alice, 182, 192. 

,, Geo., 182, 187, 192. 
Iron of Gloucestershire, 118. 
Itius portus, see Wissant. 
Ivot, Thos., 143. 

Jackson (Jakson, Jacson), Ann, 193. 
„ Eliz., 199. 
„ Joan, 197 (bis). 
,, John, 189. 

,, Miles, 189, 193, 197 (bis), 199. 
Jakson, see Jackson. 
Jarponvyle, Will, de, 15. 
Jarratt, see Stanton. 
Jews, debts to, 62, 64, 69, 210, 249. 
Joce, Regin., 227. 
Joe, Nich., 185. 
Johan, 196. 

John, Kg., confirmation to Farley, 105. 
Johnson (Jonson), Alice, 183 bis, ? 193. 

,, Cornelius, 183, 193. 

„ Eliz., 93, 186. 
Nich., 78. 

„ Thos., 186. 
Jokylp, John, 183. 

,, Katherine, 183. 



276 



INDEX 



Jones, Edw., 135. 

,, Elizab.j 151. 

„ Mrs., 154. 
Jonson, see Johnson. 
Jordan, Rog., 249. 

Judith, Countess, 2, 7, 14, 16, 18, 229, 

240, 247, 248. 
Juel, Rich., 227. 
Julius Caesar, 106. 
Juner, see Inner. 
Jury, of three counties, 62, 63. 



Kalna, see Cantilupe. 
Kealy, Rev. A. G. ; The Paper Register 
of St. Mary's Church in Bedford, 
181-199. 
Keate, Sarah, 151. 
Kelke, Clement, 134, 136, 138. 
„ Eliz., 134, 136, 138. 
„ John, 137 ; his wid., 139. 
„ Thos., 134, 137. 
Kelkithe, see Kelke. 
Kellyt, Marg., 182. 
„ Will., 182. 
Kemestan, see Kempston. 
Kempston (Kemestan, Kemston). 
„ advowson, 156. 
„ grant in, 56. 
„ lands in, 79, 82, 156. 
„ meaning of, 40. 
Kemston, see Kempston. 
Kendall, Edmund, 194. 
,, Eliz. 196. 
„ John, 88. 
„ Laurence, 194, 196. 
Kenemondwick (Chenemondewiche, 
Kenemundby, Kenemundwich, 
Kinemun de Wic, Kynmonde- 
wik, Kenendewyk, Kynemunde- 
wyke, Kynmudeswyk, Kymon- 
dewyke, Kynwyke, Cimindewyk, 
Kinwick). 
,, Andrew de, 67. 
„ identification, 61-73. 
Kenemundby, see Kenemondwick. 
Kenemundewich, see Kenemondwick. 
Kenendewyk, see Kenemondwick. 
Kensworth, 54. 
Kent, Earl of, see Burgh. 
Kethel, Eli as, 247. 
Keysoe, 14, 15. 

Nicholas de, 9. 
Keywood (Keywodd), Amy, 183. 
„ Joan, 184, 188 (bis). 
„ Ralf, 183, 184, 188. 
Kidd, see Kydd. 



Kidney, see Cutenho. 
Kidnoe, see Cutenho. 
Kilby, co. Leic, 34. 
Kimpton, see Kymptom. 
Kinemun de Wic, see Kenemondwick. 
King (Kyng), Agnes, 182. 
Alice, 195. 

,, Dan.. 158. 

,, Martin, 195. 

„ Matilda, 188. 
King's Langley, co. Herts., 59. 
Kinwick, see Kenemondwick. 
Kirdington, see Cardington. 
Kitnoe, see Cutenho. 
Knaps, 170. 

Knight (Knyght, Knit). 
,, Alice, 191, 196. 
„ Eliz., 187. 

„ Gabriel, 186 bis, 187, 188 bis. 

,, Joan, 188. 

„ Marg., 186 bis. 

„ Mary, 193, 198. 

„ Matth. of Stagsden, 235. 

„ Thos., 191, 193, 196, 198. 
Knight service, assessment on Barony 
of Beauchamp, 1-26. 

,, relation to hidage, 9-12. 
Koo, Eliz., 188. 

„ Hen., 188. 

Kurigge (Kuruge, Cowridge, Curegg, 
Courg-end, Scurge End), 111- 
"5- 

„ Round Green in, 113; antiquities, 
114, 115. 

„ Turner's Knoll in, 113; antiqui- 
ties, 114-115. 
„ Will, de, in. 

Kuruge, see Kurigge. 
Kydd (Kidd), Francis, 139. 

„ Mr., 148. 
Kyme, Maud de, 109. 
Kympton (Kimpton, Kempton). 

,, Dorothy w. of Geo., 140, 141, 147. 
Kyng, see King. 

Kynmondewik, see Kenemondwick. 
Kynmudeswyk, see Kenemondwick. 
Kyrby, Alice, 192. 

„ Grace, 185. 

„ John, 185. 
Kyrck, Alice, 198. 

,, Margerie, 190. 
Kyrfett (Kyrfot), Anne, 193 bis. 

,, Geo., 192, 193 bis, 194. 

,, Hen., 194. 

,, Isabel, 192. 
Kytchiner, Agnes, 195. 

,, Geo., 195. 



INDEX 



277 



Lachbury [? rectius Lathbury], 107. 
Lacy, John de, Earl of Lincoln, 237. 

,, Margaret de, Ctess. of Lincoln, 
236-238. 

,, Walter de, 3. 
Ladd (Laad), see also Yeaman. 

, 3 Alice, 185. 

,, Marg., 183. 

,, Marione, 185. 

,, Thos., 183, 187. 

„ Will., 198. 
Lambert, Agnes, 187. 
Lancaster, Honour of, 218. 

,, John, Duke of, 98-100. 
Landes (Landas), Laundres. 

,, Almeric de, 230. 

,, Nich. dc, 213. 

,, Steph. de, 205, 238. 
Langford (Longaforde), 54. 

„ grant in, 45. 

,, meaning of, 40. 

,, Nich. de, clerk, 227. 
Lanman [probably Lauman], see Law- 
man. 
Lascy, see Lacy. 

Lathbury, co. Bucks., 22, 23, ? 107. 
Latimer, Alice w. of Will, le, 248. 

,, Cristiana w. of John le, 248. 
Laurence, Rich., 193. 

,, Thos., 193. 
Lawe, Robt. de la, 203. 
Lawman (Lauman), John, 189. 

„ Marg., 188. 

„ Ralf, 188, 189. 
Lechlade, co. Glos., 172, 174, 175. 
Lectona [ ? by error], see Luton, 

church. 
Lecyter, Helen, 189. 

John, 189. 
Ledet, Alice, 248. 

„ Cristiana, inq. p.m., 248, 249. 

,, Mamoria, 248. 

,, Margery, 248. 

„ Walt., 248. 

,, Wiscar.d, 248, 249. 
Leece, Eliz., 154, 158. 
Leed (Leid), Agnes, 185. 

,, John, 185, 186, 189. 

,, Mary, 189. 

„ Will., 186. 
Lefwin, see Leofwin. 
Lega (Leye) = Thurleigh. 

,, Hugh de, 14. 

,, R. de la, 17. 
Leigh, Eliz., 198. 

,, Kath., 199. 

,, Mr., 190, 195. 

,, Simon, 198. 

„ Thos., 199. 



Leigh (Lye), co. Kent, bequest to, 136. 
Leighton Buzzard (Liston, Lefton), see 
also Billington, Grove, Stan- 
bridge. 
,, Court Baron, 93. 
,, Grange Mill, 179. 
,, pension to Missenden Abbey in, 
224. 

Lemfaunt, see Enfaunt. 
Lende (Lounde), Walt, de la, 14, 15. 
Lenton Priory, co. Notts., grant to, 230. 
Lenveyse, Walt., 19. 
Leofric of Holwell, 48. 
Leofsige, goldsmith, 48, 50. 
Leofstan, abbot of St. Alban, 54, 55. 
Leofwin, 45. 

Leofwin (Lefwin) man of Eadnoth, 50. 
Leofwin (Lewin cilt) s. of Eadwine, 

53-55- 
Leowtun, see Luton. 
Lerom, Frances, 34. 
l'Estrange, Roger, 13, 19, 24, 25. 
Lew, John le, 229. 
Lewin cilt, see Leofwin. 
Lewis, Craven, 154, 156. 

„ Elizab., 154, 156. 

,, Frances, 154, 156, 158. 

,, Jane, 154, 156. 

,, Jane Rachel, 154, 155. 

Lexinton, Robt. de, 69, 70. 
Leyham, Nich. de, 25. 
Lhincgelade, see Linslade. 
Liccelade, see Linslade. 
Lidlington (Litlington, Lintlington). 
,, Paul de, 226, 228. 
Lince, 164, 165, 174m 
Lincgelad, see Linslade. 
Linchlade, Viscountess, i74n. 

Lincoln, bequest to Cathedral, 159. 

„ Bishopric, 61-63, 218. 

,, Bishops of, see Churchmen. 

„ Earls of, 237 ; see also Lacy. 

,, provosts, 124. 
Linslade (Hlincgelad, Lhincgelade, 
Lincgelad, Liccelade, Lincelada, 
Lyncelade, Lynchlad, Linch- 
lade), 163. 

,, bounds of, 174-179. 

„ grant of, 170-173. 

,, kt. service, 10, 22, 23. 

,, meaning of, 174m 

Lintlington, see Lidlington. 
l'lsle, see Insula. 
Litlingtun, see Lidlington. 
Llewellyn, Helen dau. of, Prince of 
N. Wales, 237. 



278 



INDEX 



Lloyd, Ann, 151, 154. 
„ Ann 1 dau. of Ann, 154. 

Elizabeth, 154. 
,, Katherine, 154. 
„ Sarah, 154. 
London, Constable of Tower, 130, 131. 
„ Bloomsbury Square, 157. 
„ Christ's Hosp., scholarship to, 137, 
138. 

„ Fulk, Bp. of, 236. 
„ Haberdashers Coy., bequest to, 
136. 

,, Ld. Mayor, ring to, 137. 
„ Mayor and Sheriffs, letter close to, 
123. 

„ poor householders, bequest to, 136. 

„ Recorder, ring to, 137. 

,, Red Lion Square, 158. 

,, St. Andrew by the Wardrobe, 157. 

„ St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 136. 

,, St. Bartholomew the Less, 136, 139. 

,, St. Christopher le Stocks, 139, 142. 

St. Margaret Moyses, 139. 
„ St. Mildred Poultry, 136. 

St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, 139. 
,, St. Swithin London Stone, 136. 
,, St. Thomas' Hosp., 136. 
,, Sheriffs, letter close to, 119-121, 
126. 

Longaforde, see Langford. 
Longden, H. Isham, 159, 160. 
Longeville, John de, 19. 
Longton, John, 186, 192. 

,, Marg., 186. 

„ Nich., 192. 

Longueville priory, 212, 213. 
Loring family, 3, 4, 8, 10, 219. 

,, David, 20. 
motte of, 168. 

„ Peter, 16, 17, 22, 23. 
Lorraine, see Albert, and Loring. 
Lottegarsale, see Ludgershall. 
Loughton, co. Ess. (Lygetun), 41, 42. 
Lounde, see Lende. 
Lovant Brook, see Ousel Brook. 
Lovatt Brook, see Ousel Brook. 
Lovibond, Jane wid. of Oliver, 135, 

138-140. 
Lowder, Rich., 78. 
Lowghton, Isabel, 197. 

,, Thos., 197. 
Lowrie, Margerie, 191, 195. 

Thos., 191, 195. 
Lucie, Mary w. of Jacob, 30. 

,, Mary St. John, 30. 
Ludgershall (Lottegarsale), co. Bucks., 
219, 220. 



Ludlow, co. Salop, 3. 

Luffield Priory, co. Northants., 23. 

Lupus, John, 205. 

Luton (Lygetune, ? Leowtun, ? Lec- 
tona), see also Biscot, Brache, 
Cutenho, Dallow, P'arley, Hyde, 
Kurigge. 
„ charter ? at, 44. 
,, church, 107-109. 
,, Crawley Green in, 112, 113. 
,, deodand at (1758), 59, 60. 

grant in, 41. 
,, halimote of the manor, 107. 

Luton Mortimer in, 109. 
,, meaning of, 40. 
,, Stockwood in, 105, 109, no. 
,, Wyperley in, 104, 107-109. 
Lye, see Leigh. 

Lygetune, see Luton and Loughton. 
Lyncelada, see Linslade. 
Lynchlad, see Linslade. 
Lytton, Ann w. of Rowland, 80. 

,, Margaret, 80. 

,, Rowland, 80. 

„ Rowland, kt., 80. 

„ Will., kt., 80-83, 86. 



Machun, see mason. 

Macun, see mason. 

Msessanwyrthas, see Masworth. 

Maffield, Grace, 1S5. 

Maiden's Castle (Edinburgh), 217. 

Major, Hen., 158. 

Malcott, Eliz., 141. 

„ Thos., 141. 
Malherbe family, 12. 

,, John, 17, 20, 21. 

„ Robt., 8. 

,, Will., 16, 17, 20. 
Malo Lacu, see Maulay. 
Mangonell, siege engine, 117, 119, 121, 

123, 127, 128, 130, 131. 
Manning, Mr., 108. 
Manton, Dorothy, 187. 
Maps, pre-Enclosure, wanted, 258. 
March, co. Cambs., 197. 
Margaret of Scotland, see Burgh. 
Margaret, Qu. of Scots, 217. 
Marre, Hugh, 64. 
Marriott, Will., 145. 
Marrys, co. Somers., manor, 138. 
Marsh Gibbon, co. Bucks., 22, 23, 23m 
Marshal, see Pembroke. 
Marsom, Thos., 102. 
Marson, Thomas, 31. 



INDEX 



279 



Marston Moretaine (Merestun, Mers- 
ton), 46, 47 ; see also Shelton, 
Hoo. 

,, Herbert de, 226. 

,, lands in, 219, 220. 

„ Robt. de, 228. 
Marsworth, see Masworth. 
Martel, Osbert, 211-213. 

Jordan, of Studham, 212. 

,, Will., 212, 214. 
Maryards, 165. 
Mason, Helen, 184, 189. 

,, Humfrey, 183 (bis), 184, 186. 

„ Thos., 183 (bis), 
mason (Macun, Machun). 

,, Rich, le, 220, 235. 
Masworth (Marsworth, Msessanwyr- 

thae), co. Bucks., i73n, 175. 
Matilda Qu. of Hen. I, 213, 222. 
Mauduit, Alice w. of Will., 239. 

,, Alice dau. of Waleran Earl Warw., 
242. 

„ Isabel, 242. 

,, Robt., 241, 242. 

„ Will., 242. 

,, Will., Earl of Warwick, inq. p.m., 
239- 2 43- 

Mauger, master of Farley, 101, 102, 107. 

Maulay (Malo Lacu). 

„ Peter de, 234, 235. 
Maulden (Maiden). 

,, kt. service, 20. 

,, lands in, &2. 
Maull, John, 34. 
Maunsel, Samson le, 220. 
Maybott (Meybot). 

„ Edw., 186. 

,, Kath., 191. 

„ Marg., 189. 

„ Thos., 190 (bis). 

„ Will., 186, 189, 190 (bis), 191. 
Maylard (Maylerd), Alice, 188. 

„ Edw., 185. 

„ Marg., 185. 
Meisil (Meysi). 

„ Robt. s. of Robt., 216. 
Melnho, see Millo. 
Membland, co. Devon, 75. 
Mentmore, co. Bucks., 211. 
Meperteshale, see Meppershall. 
Meppershall (Meperteshale), 54. 

,, family and pedigree, 230. 

,, lands in, 229. 

,, Nich. de, 229, 230. 

Ranulf de, inq. p.m., 229, 230. 
mercator, Geoffrey, 108, 109. 
Merestun, see Marston Moretaine. 
Mermel, Father, 105, 110. 



Merton Priory, co. Surrey. 

„ grant to/ 230. 
Meryll, John, 190. 

„ Will., 190. 
Messenger, Alice, 188. 

„ Will., 188, 198. 
Meybot, see Maybott. 
Meygot [? Meybot], Will., 191. 
Meysi, see Meisil. 
Michael senior, 22. 
Miles, see Myles. 
milites in D.B., 5. 
Millbrook, bequest to poor of, 77. 
miller, Simon, 223. 
Millo (Melnho) in Dunton. 

,, meaning of, 40. 

„ grant in, 57. 

Milton Bryan, kt. service, 18, 20, 21. 
Milton Ernest, 14, 15, 254 (n. 217). 
Missenden Abbey, co. Bucks., 224. 
Mixes Hill, see Kurigge. 
Modebroc, Maurice de, 216. 
Monnoux, Blanche dau. of Sir Hum- 
frey, 28. 

,, Humfrey, 29. 

,, Lewis, 29. 
Montacute, John de, 98, 99. 
Montault (de monte alto). 

,, John de, 214. 

Montchensi, William de, 13, 15, 17, 21, 

24, 25. 
Montibus, Hugh de, 226. 

„ John de, 17. 

,, Nich. de, 226. 

,, Robt. de, 16. 
More (Mara, Mare). 

,, John de la, 20. 

„ Matth. de, 205. 

,, Sim. de la, 238 (bis). 
Morgan, Rich., 81. 
Morlande, Anna, 190. 

,, Joan, 186, 190. 

,, Martin, 198. 

„ Matth., 198. 
Morris, Dr. J. E., on Assessment of 
Knight Service in Bedfordshire : II, 
1-26. 

Morris (Morys), Alice, 193. 
Morteyne (Morteun) of Marston. 

,, John de, 220. 
Moryn, Ralf, 245. 
Morys, see Morris. 
Mose, see Moss. 
Moss (Mosse, Mose). 

„ Eliz., 183. 

„ Jane, 154, 158. 

,, John, 13, 185; and w., 185. 
Mossett, Thos., 84. 
Mountjoy, Ld., 137. 



280 



INDEX 



Mowbray, Roger de, 13. 

„ Thos. de, E. of Nottingham, 98, 99. 
Mowell in Eaton Bray, i68n. 
Moyne, John le, 243, 246. 
Muleton, Thos. de, 69, 70. 
Mulgrave, barony of, 234. 
Munby, Alan de, 208. 
Munitions in 1224, 1 17-132. 
Murdac (Murdoc), Gilbt., 229. 

,, Thos., 14. 
Muschamp, Isab. dau. of Robt. de, 248. 
Mussard, Will., 216. 
Myles (Mylles, Miles), Alice, 190. 

„ Marion, 185. 
Robt., 191. 

„ Thos., 193. 

„ Will., 185, 190, 193. 
Mylles, see Myles. 
Mylwarde, Agnes, 190, 196. 

„ Alice, 191. 

„ Jane, 194, 199. 

„ Joan, 193, 195. 

„ John, 182-184, 190 bis, 191, 193-197? 
199. 

„ Nich., 182. 
„ Marg., 183 bis. 
„ Mary, 188. 
„ Rich., 196, 197.. 
Thos., 190, 196. 



Napton, dame Eliz., 199. 

N eoliths, 114, 115. 

nephew (nepos), Robt., 129, 131. 

Nevill, Hu^h de, 121, 124. 

„ Nich. de, 69, 70, 230. 
Nevy alias Goddard, Barbara, 145. 
Newbowl, Mary, 89. 
Newman (Neweman), Joan, 190, 197. 

,, John, 189, 210. 

,, Laurence, 189, 190, 193, 197 (bis). 
,, Walt., 210. 
„ Will., 193. 

Newnham Priory, 14, 16, 17, 19. 
,, charge on Stanbridge, 222, 224, 
225. 

,, grant of free warren, 97-100. 
„ grant of Southill ch., 204. 
Newport (Neuport) Pagnell, co. 
Bucks. 

„ letters close dated at, 119. 
Newton, Will., 78. 
Nicholaa, lady, 22. 
Nicholas of the Chamber, see camera. 



Nichols (Nycolse), Francis, 79. 
,, Isabella, 183. 
,, Marg. w. of Francis, 79. 
„ Robt., 183, 184. 
„ Rose, 184. 
niger, see Black. 
Noble of Wilden, 249, 
Norhgiuel, see Northill. 
Northale, John de, 223. 
Northampton borough. 

Bailiffs of, letters close to, 121, 
124-127; credit to, 126. 
,, constable of castle, mandate to, 
127. 

,, smiths of, 126. 
Northamptonshire, Sheriffs of, letter 

close to, 123, 128 ; credit to, 125. 
Northill (Norhgiuel), see also Beeston, 
Budnoe. 

,, kt. service, 18. 

,, lands in, 219, 220. 
Northo, Ralf de, 220, 226. 
North wood (Nortwod, Norwode). 

,, Robt. de, 206, 231. 
Norton, co. Herts., 257. 
Norton, Mabel w. of Sir Rich., 135. 
Nortwod, see North wood. 
Norwode, see North wood. 
Nottingham, Earl of, see Mowbray. 

,, Joan, 186. 
Nycolse, see Nichols. 
Nysse, John, 189. 
Nyt, Ralf, 190. 

„ Will., 190. 



Oakley (Acleya, Accle, Acleia), ? co. 
Beds., possibly meant for Hatley, 
co. Beds. 
,, grants in, 49-52, 56. 
Oakley (Acle, Achelai). 

lands in, 239-243. 
,, meaning of, 40. 
,, Will, clerk of, 240. 
Oakley, co. Bucks., 254 (n. 217). 
Oda, Archbp. Cant., 174m 
Odam, Kath., 183. 
Odell (Wahull), see also Wahull. 
,, Eliz. w. of Jonathan, 29. 

lands in, 236. 
,, manor of, 205. 
Offa, Kg. of Mercians, charter, 41 ; 42, 
54- 

Oilli, Robt. de, 240, 241. 
Oliver, Geoff., 249. 
Orchard, Chas., 152. 
Orcheston, co. Wilts., 218. 
Orewelle, Eust. de, 217. 



INDEX 



281 



Osbern (D.B. tenant), 2, 3, 5, 8, 16. 
Oscytel (Oscutel), Archbp. York, 171. 
Oseney Priory, grant to, 241. 
Osferth priest, 48. 
Osgar, 49. 

Osulf s. of Frane, see Oswulf. 
Oswald, saint and archbishop, 51. 
Oswulf of Studham, and w. yEthelitha, 

grant by, 54, 55. 
Ouilly le Basset, 241. 
Ousel (Whizzle) Brook, 175. 
Oven, see Oving. 

Oving (Oven), co. Bucks., lands in, 85. 
Oxford borough. 

,, bailiffs of, letter close to, 126. 
bacon sent Jo, 130, 131. 

,, constable of castle, 130, 131. 
Oxfordshire, Sheriff of, credit to, 127. 
Oyldebef, see Weldebof. 



Pabbeham, see Pavenham. 
Page, Joan, 191. 

„ John, 85. 

,, Rich., 191. 
Page-Turner, F. A. ; on St. John family 
of Southill, 27-37 ; on Hillersden 
family of Elstow, 75-95 ; on Becher 
family of Howbury, 133-161. 
Paglesham, co. Ess. (Paclesham), 42. 
Palaeoliths, 114, 115. 
Palmer, John Sharpe, no. 

,, Sarah, 158. 
Palmere, John le, 247. 
Parell, Agnes, 196. 

,, Jane, 194 (bis). 
Will., 194 (bis). 
Parentin, Helen de, 17. 

Robt. de, 205, 229. 
Parkhurst, Mary dau. of Sir Robt., 30. 
Parslow, John, 90. 

,, Marg. w. of John, 90. 
Paslowe, Eliz., 195. 

„ Will., 195. 
Passelewe, Alice, 210. 

,, Gilbt., 14, 16. 

,, Hamo, 210. 

„ Peter, 226. 
Ralf, 17, 232. 

,, Robt., 210, 229. 

,, Will., 17, 210, 229. 
Passell, Mary, 190. 

„ Will., 190. 
Paternoster, Alice, 191. 



Pateshull family, 3, 10. 

„ John de, 13, 17. 

„ Margery de, 21. 

,, Martin de, 69, 70. 

,, Simon de, 13, 16, 18, 20. 
Pavenham (Pabenham, Pabbeham), 16, 
»7- 

,, Alan f. of Hugh de, 244. 
„ Benedict de, 238 (bis). 

Eleanor de, 234, 244. 
,, Hugh de, 244. 

,, John de, 16, 17, 234; inq. p.m., 
243-246. 

,, lands in, 243-246. 
Pavillion (tent), 119. 
Payn, Alice, 187. 

„ Will., 184 (bis). 

,, Christiana, 184. 
Payne Gallwey, Sir R., 117. 
Paynel, Ralf, 13, 25. 

,, Thos., 21. 
Paynter, Joan, 195. 

,, Will., 195, 196. 

„ Marg., 196 (bis). 
Peacock, Will., 141. 
Pearce, Thos., 79. 
Peincurt, see Piencurt. 
Pembroke, Walt. Marshal, Earl of, 237. 
Penda, Kg. of Mercia, 166. 
Pennyfather, Will., 87, 88, 91. 
Penshurst, co. Kent, bequest to, 136; 
160. 

Perere (Perir), Elias de la (del), of 

Turvey, 220, 235, 244. 
Pershore, Abbot of, 206, 216, 217. 
Pertenhall, ? 184. 
Perteshuil (Pertesseye). 

,, family, 218. 

„ John, 15. 

,, Simon de, 14, 15. 

„ Will., 14. 

Pertesseye, see Perteshuil. 
Peterborough, Ctess. of, 149. 
Peterson, Agnes, 186. 
„ Jas., 186 (bis). 

Petrary, 117, 119, 121, 123, 128, 130, 

Petye (Pety), Alice, 192. 

Anne, 194. 

Jane, 192. 
,, John, 183, 195. 
,, Marg., 182. 

Rich., 182, 183, 192 ter. 
,, Robt., 194. 
„ Will., 192. 
Peverel ' of Brunne.' 
» Will., 233. 



282 



INDEX 



Peverel ' of Dover.' 
„ Honour of, 212, 220, 233, 234, 244, 

245. 
„ Will., 233. 

Peverel ' of London,' Honour of 

Ranulf, 233. 
Peverel ' of Nottingham,' Honour of 

Will., 233. 
Peverel, Will., 210, 213. 
Peyvere, Joan, 248. 

,, Paulinus, 232, 248. 
Phipp, Mr., 158. 
Picot (Pikot, Pycot), Hugh, 16. 

„ Rich., 17. 

Robt., 240, 243, 246. 
Pict's Hill, see Pykeshulle. 
Piencurt (Pyncurt, Peincurt). 

„ Nich. de, 238 (bis). 

„ Rich, de, 230. 
Pinceware, Nich., 14. 

„ Will., 216, 228. 
Pinfold, see Pynfold. 
Pipart (Pippard), Hugh, 228. 

,, John, 19. 
Nich., 16, 17. 

,, Robt., 18, 19. 
Pippard, see Pipart. 
Pirian [? co.], 53, 54. 
Pirot (Pyrot). 

„ Will., 206. 

„ Ralf, 239. 
pistor, see baker. 
Plummer, John le, 228. 
Podinton (Pudinton), 17. 

,, Hem. s. of Will, de, 205. 
Poer, Ralf le, kt., 212. 
Pole, Mich, de la, E. of Suffolk, 98, 99. 
Polhill, Cecil, 158. 

„ Nathaniel, 158. 
ponite, Rich, de, 226. 

„ Will de, 21. 
Ponton, Will, de, 228. 
Pope, Eliz., 190. 

Simon, 190. 
Port, Will, de, 21. 

POTSGRAVE. 

,, John! Reynes parson of, 77. 
kt. service, 22, 23. 
lands in, 212. 
Pottes, Eliz. dau. of Ralf, 77. 
„ Joan dau. of Ralf, 75. 
,, Ralf, 75, 77. 

Potton (Pottune). 
,, grants in, 47-52. 
,, lands ini, 248, 249. 
,, meaning of, 40. 
,, mill in D.B. at, 72. 



Pottune, see Potton. 

Powell, Mrs., 155. 

Powle, Anne, 34. 

Pratis, Walt, de, 19. 

Preese (Prees, Prese, Presse, Prease). 

,, Alice, 185, 188, 189, 192, 199. 

„ John, 185 (ter), 188-190, 192, 194, 
199. 

„ Thos., 194. 

„ Will., 190. 
Prestelya [ ? locality], 109. 
Preston, dame Anne, 397. 
Prince's Risborough (Hrisanbeorgan), 

Prisoners, bequest to, 136. 

Pudinton, see Podinton. 

Purde, Alice, 184. 

Putnoe in Goldington, 18, 19, 241. 

„ meaning of, 40. 
Puttenho, ? Putnoe, possibly mistake 
for Thuttenho = Totternhoe; grant 

in, 53, 54- 
Pycot, see Picot. 

Pyke, Edmund, 192, 193, 195, 197. 
„ Mary, 197 (bis). 

Prudence, 192. 
„ Rich., 195. 
,, Sarah, 193. 

Pykeshulle (Pict's Hill in Turvey). 
antecessors of family of, 221. 
John de, 220. 
,, Robt. (le Velu), inq. p.m., 220, 221, 

226, 227. 
,, Roger de, 221. 
Pym, Francis, 73. 
Pyncurt, see Piencurt. 
Pynfolde, Alice, 195. 
„ Joan, 197. 
,, John, 191. 
„ Walt., 195 (bis), 197. 
Pyrot, see Pirot. 



Quarell, 118, 119, 122-124, 126-128. 
Quarles, Judith dau. of John, 134. 
Queen Anne's Bounty, 151. 
Quency, pedigree of, 237. 

,, Haweise dau. of Robt. de, 208, 
209, 235, 237, 238. 

„ Joan dau. of Robt. de, 236-238. 

„ Robt. de, 236-238. 

„ Rog. de, Earl of Winchester, inq. 
p.m., 235-238. 
Quoynte, Alice le, 207, 208. 

„ Will, le, 208. 



INDEX 



283 



Rachel, John, 226. 
Radclyffe, Sir Edw., 76, 79. 

,, Sir Humfrey, 79. 
Radnage (Redenache), co. Bucks. 

Walt, de, 223. 
Radwell in Felmersham, 16, 17, 229. 
Gilbt. clerk of, 205. 
hidage and service, 9. 
,, lands in, 238, 239. 
,, Nigel de, 16. 
,, Robt. de, iuq. p.m., 238, 239. 
Rakington, Matilda w. of Barth. de, 
242. 

Raleg, Will, de, 69, 70. 
Rameseie, see Ramsey. 
Ramridge End, see Stopsley. 
Ramridge (Ramrygge). 
„ Thos., 113. 

,, Thos. abb. of St. Alban, 113. 

„ Will., 113. 
Ramrygge, see Ramridge. 
Ramsey Abbey (Rameseie), 121. 

,, yElfwin abbot of, 49. 

,, yEtheric monk of, 50, 52. 

,, Eadnoth, abbot of, 51, 52. 

,, foundation of, 51. 

„ grants to, 47-53, 56. 

,, Ranulf abbot of, 207. 

,, seneschals, 206, 207. 
Rand, Agnes, 190. 

,, Christiana, 187. 

,, Joan, 188. 

,, John, 1S8, 190. 

„ Robt., 186. 

„ Will., 1.86, 187. 
Ravensden, see also Chainhalle. 

,, hidage and service, 11. 

,, lands in, 228. 

,, warren, 97, 99. 
Ravenstone, co. Bucks., 211. 
Rayney, John, kt., 148. 
Reddall, Ambrose, 90, 91. 

,, Thos., 90. 
Redenache, see Radnage. 
Registers, orders for keeping Parish, 
181. 

Renhold (Ronhal), 16; see also Salpho. 
„ bequest to poor, 152. 
,, ,, to Vicar and poor, 147. 
„ Hen. Gale parson of, 144. 
,, hidage and service, 11. 
,, Howbury estate, 144, 147, 156, 158. 
„ lands in, 147. 
,, Nath. Hill vicar of, 148. 
„ registers and transcripts, 159. 
,, school at, 156. 
,, warren in, 97, 99. 



Reson (Resen), Amy, 184. 

,, John, 184, 185. 

„ Marg., 185. 
Reynan, Ralf, 190. 

Will., 190. 
Reynes, John, 77. 
Rhee or Ree river, i68n. 
Richard II, Kg., grant by, 97-100. 
Richards, Will., 147. 
Richardson, Anna, 185, 188 bis. 
Amy, 183, 187. 

,, Eliz., 199. 

,, Joan, 184, 187, 189. 
John, 183 bis, 184-189. 

„ Marg., 185. 

„ Thos., 183. 

„ Will., 185, 188 bis, 189, 196. 
Riche, John, 138, 140, 142. 

,, Judith dau. of John, 140. 

,, Thos. of Marston Morteyne, 140. 
Richmond, Robt., 179. 
Rickett, Adam, 179. 
Ridel, Agnes, 234. 

,, Matilda dau. of Geoff., 242. 

„ Ralf, 234. 
Ripa, see Rivere. 
Ripariis, see Rivers. 
Riseley (Risle), 14, 15. 
Hervey de, 240. 

,, hidage and service, 10. 

,, John s. of Geoff, de, 15. 
Risle, see Riseley. 
Rithe (riddy, rithig), 168, 169. 
Rivere (Ripa), Rich, de la, 229, 238. 
Rivers (de Ripariis), Rich, const, of 

Oxford, 130, 131. 
Robinson (Robynson, Robenson). 

,, Ellen, 139. 

,, Joan, 185. 

,, John, 199. 

,, Laurence, 185. 

,, Matth. jun., 148. 

,, Rich., 149. 

,, Ursula w. of Matth., 142, 147. 
Roe, Thos., 90. 
Rokele, JohnJ de, 107. 
Rolt, John, 240, 243. 

„ Thos., 148. 
Romano-British pottery, 114. 
Roo, Alex., 188, 189 (bis), 191, 196, 199. 

,, Alice, 189 (bis), 196. 

„ Edw., 188. 

„ Helen, 188. 

,, Joan, 191. 
Ros, le, see Rous. 
Ros, Robt. de, 24, 217. 
Rosett, John, 189. 

,, Thos., 189. 



284 



INDEX 



Rotherham, Geo., no. 

,, Thos., no. 
Rous, le (Ruffus, Rufus, le Ros, le Rus, 
le Rue). 
„ Geoff., 227, 238. 
„ John, 244. 
„ Rich., 13, 25. 
„ Robt., 18, 19. 
„ Will., of Cople, 23. 
Will., sheriff, 243. 
Rowse, Elizab. w. of Thos., 77, 78, 85. 
,, Elizab. dau. of Thos., 85. 
„ John, 85. 
Roxton, 18; see also Colesden, 

Chawston. 
Royston (de Cruce Roesie) Priory, co. 
Herts. 

,, Prior, letters close to, 120. 
Rue, le, see Rous. 
Ruffus, see Rous. 
Rugg, Elizabeth, 145. 
Rungefer, Rich., 216. 
Rus, le, see Rous. 
Rusell, see Russell. 
Rushden, co. Northants., 233. 
Rushe, Joan, 186. 

„ Will., 186. 
Russel (Rusell), Alice, 191. 

„ Eliz., 185. 

,, Jasper, 186. 

,, John, 190, 192. 

,, Nich., 184, 1S7. 

,, Rich., 191. 

„ Robt., 185 bis. 

,, Thos., 183-187, 190-193, saepe. 

„ Will., 183. 

„ Will., kt., 212. 
Rydge, Alice, 195 bis. 

„ John, 194, 195 bis. 

,, Mary, 194. 
Rysley, Cecile, 194. 

,, John, 194. 



Salchou (Salcho), see Salpho. 
St. Alban, Abbey, in, 203. 

„ grants to, 41, 45, 53-55, 233, 257. 

„ Leofstan abbot, 54, 55. 

,, Thos. Ramridge, abbot, 113. 
St. Alban, Borough, 59. 
St. Bartholemew Hospital, 243. 
St. Botulf, fair, ii2n, 125. 
St. Cyneburh (Lady Conyburrow) and 

her well (Kimberwell), 43, 166-168. 
St. Dunstan, charter of, 257. 
St. Eadburh (Bugga), 167. 
St. Edmund, Abbot of, 61, 66, 72, 73. 

,, Liberty of, 65. 



St. Frideswide, Oxford, 210. 
St. Ives, co. Hunts., 125. 
St. John of Bletsoe 

,, Alex., kt., 144, 145. 

„ Anne dau. of Oliver Ld., 80. 

,, Beauchamp, kt., 148, 149. 

,, Eliz. dau. of Oliver, 144, 153. 

,, Frances dau. of Oliver, 150. 

„ Oliver, Lord, 26, 81, 142, 153. 

,, Paulet, kt., 81. 

,, Rowland, 29. 

St. John of Southill, 27-37 ; pedigree. 
37- 

Anne, 27, 28, 30. 

Beauchamp Monnoux, 29. 
,, Benjamin, 27, 28, 30, 33. 
,, Blanche, 28, 29. 
,, Dorothy, 33. 

Eleanor, 31, 32. 

Eliz., 28-32, 35. 
,, Francis, 27-32, 35. 
„ John, 27, 28, 30, 31, 33-35. 
„ Judith, 27, 28. 
„ Lucy, 29, 31, 35. 
,, Margaret, 27, 28. 
,, Martha, 27. 
„ Mary, 30-32, 34. 
„ Myles, 27. 
,, Needham, 32, 33. 

Oliver, 27, 28. 
,, Rebecca, 31, 32, 34. 
„ Rowland, 30, 31, 34, 35. 
,, Selina, 30, 32-34. 
St. John of Woodford. 
,, Rowland, kt., 148, 149. 
,, Sybilla, 146. 

St. Liz, Sim. de, Earl of Huntingdon, 
247. 

St. Neot, Priory, 64-67, 72. 

St. Remy (Remigio), 253 (n. 182). 

,, Eleanor de, 244. 

,, Rich, de, 234. 
Robt. de, 234. 

,, Will, de, w. and daus., 234. 
St. Theodburh (Teobba, Tibbe), perh. 

name-saint of Tebworth, s6y. 
St. Waerburh, i67n. 
St. Walery, Guy de, 209, 226. 

,, Regin. de, 209. 
St. — , see also under London. 
Salford, John de, 21. 

,, kt. service, 9, 20, 21. 

,, Nigel de, 9, 20, 21. 
Salinis, Steph. de, kt., 248. 
Salpho (Salchou) in Renhold, 16, 17, 

147, 152. 
Salphoberie, see Salpho. 
Salt Way, 169, 170. 
Sander [? Saunders], Nich., 189 bis. 



INDEX 



285 



Sandon, Robt., 197. 
Sandy (Sondeye), see also Beeston, 
Hasells. 
■ ,, enclosure award, 73. 
\ lands in, 68, 70, 71, 73. 
I ,, mill, 72. 
Santingfeld, Pas de Calais. 

,, Hospital of, 104, 107, 108, 110. 
Sap, Sim., 247. 
Sarnebroc, see Sharnbrook. 
Saunders (Sawnders), Agnes, 186. 

,, Alice, 191. 

,, Amy, 183. 

,, Anna, 186. 

,, Geo., 182. 

,, John, 186. 

,, Nich., 182-184, 186. 
Sauvage, John le, 16, 228, 240. 
Saxon Charters, 39-57, 257. 
Scapelory, Hen., 228. 
Scelfdune, 41. 
Schetford, see Shefford. 
Scortegrava, see Shortgrave. 
Scrupeny, Roger de, 8. 
\ Scurge End, see Kurigge. 
Scytlingedune, see Shillington. 
Segrave, Hugh de, 98-100. 
Seisin asserted by ploughing, 227. 
Selwyn, Marg. dau. of John, 26. 
Serjeanty. 

,, falconer, of Stanbridge, 224. 
,, larderer, of Meppershall, 229, 230. 
' Seven Hides ' in Eaton' Bray. 
,, origin of the, 211, 212. 
,, John de (septem hidis), 210. 
Sharman (Sherman), Agnes, 189. 
Helen, 189. 
,, Joan, 190. 
[ ,, Robt., 189 (bis), 190 (bis), 192. 

,, Thos., 190. 
Sharnbrook (Sharnebroke, Sarnebroc), 
2-5, 16, 17; see also Colworth. 
Hen. de, 16, 17. 
,, Hen. s. of Will, de, 229. 
,, Mich, de, 205. 
,, warren in, 97, 99. 
Sharpenhoe, see Streatley. 
Shefford (Schetford), Deanery of, 65. 
Shelton in) Marston and Wootton, 3. 
I ,, kt. service, 3, 20, 21. 
Sherborne Castle, 234. 
Sherman, see Sharman. 
Shillington (Scytlingedune). 

., grant in, 56. 
I ,, meaning of, 40. 
Shirrell (scir-well) in Totternhoe, i68n. 
f Shortgrave (Sortegrava, Scortegrava) 
in Studham, grant in, 212, 213. 



Silbethorp, Robt. de, 14. 
Simons, John, 32. 
Slipton, Will, de, 223. 
Smalden, Rich, de, 205. 
smith (faber). 

,, John s. of, of Eaton, 249. 

,, Regin., 247. 

,, Walt., of Ey worth, 247. 
Smith (Smyth), Amy, 198. 

„ Anna, 184. 

,, Jane, 193. 

John, 137, 147. 
Marg., 185. 

„ Mary, 158. 

„ Robt., 197, 198 bis. 

,, Thos., 142, 193. 

„ Will., 184, 197 bis. 
Worthirigton, 114, 115. 
Smyth, see Smith. 

Society for the Propagation of the 

Gospel, 151. 
Sok' (Soch'), [? the Soke of Eaton 

Sokenj. 
„ Rog. de (le), 216, 249. 
„ Regin. de, 228. 
Somerford, Will, de, 249. 
Somery, Rog. de, 23. 
Son of 

„ Adam, Will., 210. 
,, vElfhelm, ^Elfwold, 48, 52. 
,, ,, iEthelric, 48, 52. 
„ Alie, Aug', 223. 

Borgred, Eadwine, 55. 
,, Clement, Hen., 203, 206. 
„ Costant', Ralf s. of Peter, 218. 
,, Eadwine, Leofwin, 53, 54. 
,, Frane, Oswulf, 54, 55. 

Frodwyne, Alward, 223. 
,, Geoff., Thos., 247. 
,, Gerold, Hen. (I), 218, 243. 
,, ,, Matilda w. of Hen., 243. 

,, Warin (II), 231, 241, 243. 
,, Gilbt., Baldwin, 207. 
,, Godric, Eadnoth, 49-52. 

Henry, Hugh, 217. 
,, „ Will., 244. 
,. Herbert, John, 222. 
,, Hugh, John, 222. 
,, ,, Will., 222, 223. 

Inkeran, Will., 223. 
„ John, Will., 210. 
„ Lambert, Will., 129 bis. 
,, Leofric, Godric, 48. 
,, Milo, John, 20. 

Nicholas, Rich., 238. 
„ ,, Rog., 246. 
,, Otho, Thos., 13. 
,, Payn, Geoff., 16, 20. 
,, „ Will., 228. 



286 



INDEX 



Son of. 
,, Petronill, John, 246. 
,, Philip, Rich., 101. 
., Ralf. Hubert, 218. 
,, „ Rich., 231. 
,, ,, Sim., 216. 
,, Reginald, Ralf, 244. 
„ Richard, Rog., 246. 
„ „ Will., 14. 
,, Robert, Adam, 220, 226. 
,, ,, Geoff., 14, 229. 
John, 210. 

,, Rog., 221. 

„ „ Will., 221, 228. 

„ Roger, Robt., 221. 
Stephen, Ralf, 203. 

„ Walter, Gilbt., 228. 

,, Warine, Fulk, 213. 

,, William, John, 222. 

,, ,, Peter, 226. 

,, „ Ralf, 16. 

,, Wimund, Rog., 221. 

„ Wymarc, Walt., 203. 

,, Wulward, Rich., 108, 109. 
Sondeye, see Sandy. 
Sortegrava, see Shortgrave. 
Sorwell, Eust. de, 247. 
South Sea Bubble, 151. 
Southampton, Earl of, 139. 

,, letter close to bailiffs, 124. 
Southill (Sudgyuel, Suggiuel, Suchg- 
mere, Sugmele), 28; see also 
Broom, Stanford. 

,, advowson, 204. 

,, kt. service, 18, 19. 

,, lands in, 203, 204, 219, 220. 
Southwealde, see South wold. 
Southwold (Southwealde), co. Ess., be- 
quest to, 137. 
Spalding, co. Lines., fair of, 12m. 
Spech, see Espec. 
Spens, Johnl, 183, 193, 199. 

„ Kath., 193. 
Spenser, Eliz., 185. 

„ John, 185, 186, 188 (bis). 

„ Thos., 186, 188 (bis). 
Spery, Rose, 184. 
Spurs as rent, 204, 224. 
Stachesden, see Stagsden. 
Stagsden (Stacheclen, Stachesden, 
Stockden), 3, 14, 15, 238 ; see also 
Dilwick. 

,, hidage and service, 11. 

,, lands in, 157. 

,, Robert de, 15, 19. 

,, Walter de, 14, 216, 229. 

,, warren in), 97, 99. 



Stanbridge (Stanbruge, Stanbrugge), 

,, Gilbt. de, 222. 

„ lands in, 221-225. 

„ Peter de, kt., 222, 224, 225. 

,, Queen's dower, 222. 

„ Will, de, 238. 
Standon, John de, 128. 
Stanford (Stanfort, Staunford) 
Southill, 27, 28. 

,, Anselm de, 203. 

,, kt. service, 2, 18, 19. 

„ lands in, 227. 

,, Walter de, 203. 
Stanhope, Alex., 84. 

„ Mich, and w. Joan, 34, 35 
Stanton alias Jarratt, Agnes, 198. 
Starcher thane (D.B.), 222. 
Stauenhache [ ? Stevenage], John d 

228. 

Staughton, Little (Estone, Stottoi 
Stokton, Stouton), 22n. 

,, kt. service, 14, 15. 

,, Walter de, 15. 
Staunford, see Stanford. 
Steingreve, Isabella de, 13. 

,, John de, 13, 25. 
Stenton, F. M., 163. 
Stephen, Kg., 106. 
Stepingleg', see Steppingley. 
Steppingley (Stepingleg'). 

,, Hen. de, 228. 

,, lands in, 82, 206. 
Sterne, Hen., 188. 

„ Mary, 188. 
Steven, Joan, 191. 
Stevenage, co. Herts., ? 206, ? 208. 
Stevinton (Styuentone). 

„ lands in, "235-238. 
Stirlawe, Walt, de, bp. Coventry an 

Lichfield, 98, 99. 
Stiuenhache [? Stevenage], John df 

206. 

Stock (Stok), Joan, 182, 184. 

„ John, 182. 
Stockden, see Stagsden. 
Stocking of royal manors, 211, 222, 234 
Stockwell, John, 198. 

,, Thos., 198. 
Stockwold, John, 198. 
Stock wood, see Luton. 
Stodham, see Studham. 
Stokton, see Staughton. 
Stondon, 9, 20, 21. 
Stoppeslega, see Stopsley. 
Stopsley (Stoppeslega). 

,, Kurigge in, see Kurigge. 
Ramridge End in, 113. 



INDEX 



287 



Stormy (Sturmy), Alice, 189, 19& 

|„ Kath., 199. 

i, Marg.j 194. 

ft, Rich., 189, 190. 

f „ Thos., 190, 194, 198, 199. 

Stotfold (Stotfald), 18, 19. 
m. Saxon bounds, 257. 

,, warren im, 97, 99. 
Stotton, see Staughton. 
Stouton, see Staughton. 
Stratton, Alice, 195. 
Stratton in Biggleswade. 

,, Geoff, de, 247. 
Straet and via strata, 177. 
Strastlea, see Streatley. 
Streatley (Straetlea), 177. 

L grant in, 53, 54. 

,, kt. service, 20, 21. 

„ meaning of, 40. 
Street Fields, 177. 
Stuckley, Marg., 195. 
Studham (Stodham). 

„ grant in, 54, 55, 212, 213. 

,, meaning of, 40. 
Stukeley (Stiuecle), co. Hunts., 206, 
207. 

,, Alice de, 207, 208. 
,, Alina de, inq. p.m., 206-209. 
-,, Barnabas de, 207, 208. 
,, Joscelin de, 206, 208. 
,, Margery de, 207, 208. 
,, Walt, de, kt., 207, 208. 

Sturmy, see Stormy. 

Stuteville, Joan d. of Nich., 20S, 209. 

Styuentone, see Stevinton. 

Suburue, see Sudbury. 

Suchgmere, see Southill. 

Sudbury (Suburue) in Eaton Socon. 

,, Rich, de, 216. 
Sudgyuel, see Southill. 
Sudwod, Sim. de, 226. 
Suffolk, Earl of, see Pole. 
Suggiuel, see Southill. 
Sugmele, see Southill. 
Sundon (Sunnandune). 
meaning of, 40. 

„ grant in, 53. 
Sunnandune, see Sundon. 
Sunrising water from holy well, 168. 
Sutton, lands in, 61, 63, 68, 69, 71, 
217-219, 248, 249. 

,, John s. of Robt. de, 217. 

,, mill, 72. 

Nich. de, 247. 

Thos. s. of Geoff, de, 217. 

Suzche, see Zouche. 
Swineshead, Walt, de, 16. 



Tadlow, 00. Cambs., 141. 
Taidene, see Theydon. 
Taillebois (Talboys). 

,, Albreda, 205, 209. 
Azelina, 209. 

„ dau. of Ralf, 5. 

,, Ralf, 222. 

„ Ralf and w. Azeline, 1-3, 5, 7, 18, 
20, 22. 

Talbot family of Battlesden, 231, 232. 
Talboys, see Taillebois. 
Tamworthy, 177m 
Tappe, Rich., 244. 

Targets for protection, 118, 119, 121- 
123. 

Tate, Eliz. dau. of Will., 149. 

„ Eliz. w. of Will., 149. 

,, James, 155. 

,, Margaret, 155. 

„ Will., kt., 149, 153. 
Tatenho, see Totter nhoe. 
Tatterhill, 165. 
Taylor (Tayler). 

,, Isaac, 138. 

„ John, 137. 

,, Rich., 81, 149. 
Tebworth (Teobbanwyrth) in Chal- 
grave, 163-170. 

„ grant of, 42-44. 

„ meaning of, 40, 167. 
Tempsford, 68, 249. 
Teobba, see St. Theodburh. 
Tethewrde, see Tetworth. 
Tetsworth, co. Oxon., 44. 
Tetworth (Tethewrde?), lands in, 218. 
Teydene, see Theydon. 
Teye, Walt, de, 13, 25, 26. 
Theydon Gernons (Taidene, Teydene), 
co. Essex, 243. 

,, Hen. de, 241, 243. 

,, Robt. de, 243. 
Thiodweg (theodweg, Edeway), 43, 163, 

164, 169, 175-177. 
Thored (Thured), E. of Deira, I73n. 
Thorington, co. Suff. (Turingtona), 49. 
Thorney Abbey, co. Cambs. 

„ grant to, 233. 

,, Robert Abbot of, 233. 
Thornton (Thorneton), Ann, 28. 

,, Hen., tq2. 

,, Robt., 139, 192, 

„ Thos., 184. 
Thorp, Chas., 151. 
Geo., 151. 

,, Mary w. of Jas., 151. 

,, Math, de, 21. 
Thorpe Constantine, co. Staffs., 218. 
Thoterho, see Totternhoe. 



288 



INDEX 



Throckmorton, Marg. dau. of Sir Geo., 
28. 

Thrunni, 53. 
Thured, see Thored. 
Thurleigh, 16, 17; see also Lega. 

,, lands in, 239-243. 
Tibba, see St. Theodburh. 
Tiddingford, see Yttinga Ford. 
Tillsworth, 233. 
Tinfoot, see Yttinga Ford. 
Tingriff, see Tingrith. 
Tingrith (Tingriff), lands in, 82. 
Tiville (Tiu ile), Rich, de, 206. 
Toddington (Tuddington), lands in, 
82. 

Todeni, Robert de, 55. 
Tofi Prude, 53. 
Tomlinson, Will., 79. 
Tomlyn, Helen, 187. 
Tooley St., i76n. 
Tortoise, siege engine, 118. 
Totham, co. Essex, 248, 249. 
TotnO', see Totter nhoe. 
Totternhoe (Thoterho, Totno. 
Tatenho?). 

,, lands in, 212, 213. 
Trabyll, Eleanor, 186. 
Trailly (Traily), Geoff, de, 219. 

,, John de, 203, 204; inq. p.m., 219, 
220; 231. 
Matilda de, 220. 

,, Walt, de, 203. 
Travail, Will., 231. 
Trebuchet, 117, 118. 
Trench, Samuel, 88, 90, 91, 151. 

Susan w. of Sam., 88, 90, 151, 152. 
Triom, Mrs., 154. 
Troll, Martin, 190. 
Trussel, Elizab., 84. 
Tryden, Peter, 142. 
Tuaud, Will., 14, 15. 
Tuddington, see Toddington. 
Tumbeald, 177m 
Turimgtona, see Thorington. 
Turner, John, 32. 
Turner's Knoll, see Kurigge. 
Turnham, Isabel dau. of Robt. de, 234. 
Turstin (D.B. tenant), 2-4, 7, 16, 18, 20, 
245- 

Turvey, 16, 17 ; see also Pykeshulle. 

,, Adam s. of Robt. de, 235. 

,, hidage and service, 9. 

,, lands in, 220, 221, 226, 227. 
T wells, 176m 
Tyler, Jane, 92. 

,, Thos., 92. 
Tynsley, Edmund, 192. 

,, Thurston, 192. 



Tyrel, Ralf, 233-235, 243, 246. 

„ Thos., inq. p.m., 232-235, 246. 
Tyringham (Eyringham), 00. Bucks, 

,, Geoff, de, 16. 

„ Rog. de, 17. 



Ulecot, Joan de, 204. 

,, Philip de, 204. 
Ulf, 1st husb. of yEthelitha, 55. 
Ultingford, 177. 

Upton Chalvey, co. Bucks., 22, 23n. 
Urns, pre- Roman, 176m 



Valerien, Will., 206, 249. 
Vancitter, Peter, 35. 
Varden, Joan, 196 (bis). 

„ Marg., 196. 
Vaughan, Elmira Selina, 34. 
Velu, le, see Pykeshulle, de. 
Venur, Rich, le, 228. 
Verdun, Lady Agnes de, 214. 
Vinson, Thos., 77, 78, 80, 81. 



Wafandun, see Wavendon. 
Wages, daily ; 128, 129. 
Wahull; see also Odell. 
,, Albreda, 205. 

Honour of, 205. 
,, Saer de, inq. p.m., 204, 205. 
„ Walt, de, 205. 
Wake, Agnes, 207, 208. 
„ Alina, inq. p.m., 206-209. 
Baldwin, 207, 209. 
Baldwin (III), 13, 208, 209. 
„ ,, Ella w. of, 13, 208, 209. 
„ „ daus. of, 13. 
,, Haweise, 208, 209, 237. 
,, Hugh, 207-209. 

James, 206, 207. 
„ Joan, 208, 209. 
„ John 1 st baron, 209. 
,, Matilda, 207, 208. 
Walker (W T alkar, Wakar), Alice, 191 
196, 198, 199. 
„ Joan, 192. 

„ Robt., 191, 192, 196, 198, 199. 
Waller, John, 104. 
Wallingford, co. Berks. 

,, castle, 243. 

,, Honour of. 218, 240, 241. 

Wigod of, and dau. Matilda, 240. 
Wallys, Emma, 196. 



INDEX 



289 



Waltham Abbey, co. Essex. 

„ gram to, 57. 
Waltheof, Earl, 61, 66, 72. 
Wanstead, co. Ess. (Wenstede), 42. 
Ward, Mrs., 89. 
Wardon, 18, 19, 249. 

,, grants to, 230, 241. 

,, Honour of, 206. 

,, manor of, 206, 207. 
Wardon Abbey. 

,, Abbot of, 14, 15, 17-19, 21. 

,, grant to, 67. 
Wardour, Chidiock, 134, 138. 

,, Edw., kt., 134. 

,, Mary w. of Chidiock, 134, 139. 
Ware, co. Herts., 2. 
Warner, Jacob, 157. 

,, Tabitha, 183. 

„ Walt., 183. 
Warren, free, grant of, 97-99. 
Warren, grant of free, 97-100. 
Warren (Waren), Francis, 137. 

,, John, 192. 

„ Will., 192. 
Warwick, Earls of, see Mauduit. 
Water level, lowering of, i76n. 
Watford, co. Herts., 53. 
Watkins, Rev. John, 91. 
Watkynson, Eliz., 187, 188. 

„ Joan, 187 (bis). 

„ John, 187. 

„ Nich., 195. 

,, Thos., 187 quinq., 1915. 
Watling Street, 43, 44, 164, 176. 
Watson, Jane, 34. 
Watson, Nich., 183. 

„ Thos., 183. 
Wauberg, see Weybridge. 
Wavendon, co. Bucks (Wafandun), 46. 
Wayght, John, 185. 
Weaver, Edw., 88. 
Webbe, Thos., 137, 138, 139. 
Wedmore, peace of, 176. 
Wedn, Edm. de, 226. 
Wedon, Laurence w. of Ralf de, 242. 
Weldebof (Weldelof, Wyldebof, 
Oyldebef). 

„ John, 228. 

„ Ralf de, 228, 246. 

„ Rich, de, 18, 19. 
Weldelof, see Weldebof. 
Welhed, Nich., 78. 
Wells, holy, 166-168, 258. 
Wells (Welles), Alice, 182 (bis). 

„ Joan, 184 (bis), 186, 187. 
Robt., 190. 

„ Thos., 182, 184 (bis), 186, 187, 188, 

190. 
„ Will., 188. 



Wendling, Will, de, 226. 
Wendover, co. Bucks., an, 212. 
WeDesi chamberlain (D.B.), 222. 
Weneslai, Half Hundred of, 71. 
Wengham, Hen. de, 203, .'^04. 
Wemlock, Will de, 107-109. 
Wensdon Hill (Wendlesdun), 46, 47. 
Weowungum, see Wing. 
Wernher, Lady, 104. 
West, Eliz., 191. 

,, John, 183, 191, 244. 

„ Sim., 244. 

„ Will., 183, 244. 
Westbrooke, Will., 137. 
Westby, 192. 

Westminster Abbey charters, 257. 
Westwica, 45. 

Wetherhead, Elizabeth, 32. 

,, Elizabeth w. of Rich., 32, 33. 

,, John, 32, 33. 

„ Mary, 32. 
Wewa (Wiwaa, Wuffa), i75n. 
Weybridge (Wauberg), co. Hunts., 

forest, 124. 
Weyland, Will., 227. 
Whipsnade (Wippesned). 

,, Phil, de, 210. 
Whitbread (Witbred, Blaunpayn). 

„ Mr., 79. 

,, Roger, 206, 231. 
White (Whyte), Agnes, 199. 

„ John, kt., 137. 

„ Thos., 35. 

„ Rich., 158. 
Whizzle (Ousel) Brook, 175. 
Whyperley, see Luton. 
Whyppulwhewe, Matth., 196. 
Whyte, see White. 
Wibaudeston, see Wyboston. 
Wigod, Hen., 232. 

„ Hugh, 232. 

„ Walt., 232. 

,, of Wallingford, 240. 
Wigg, Frances, 87. 

„ Rich., 87. 
Wilbraham, Thos., 137. 
Wilbury Hill, co. Herts., 257. 
Wildbore, Elizab., 88. 
Wilden (Wyledon, Wylden), 232, 249. 

„ lands in, 89, 232-235, 243-246. 

„ Oddewic in, 233. 
Wiliton, see Willington. 
Wilkes, Thos., 139. 
Wilkins (Wylkyns), Robt., 182. 

„ Thos., 182. 
William II (Rufus), 106; charter of, 73. 
William, master of Farley, 107. 
Williams (Wylliams), Alice, 182. 



290 



INDEX 



Williamson (Wylliamson), Agnes, 199. 

„ Ann, 193. 

„ John, 193. 
Robt., 199. 
Wellington (Wiliton), 18. 

„ warren in, 97, 99. 
Willows, Easter, 34. 

„ Rev. Thos., 34. 
Wills,, Ann, 145. 

Willshamstead (Willstead), 191. 

„ bequest to poor, 85, 87. 

,, lands in, 79. 
Willstead, see Willshamstead. 
Wilson (Wylson), Agnes, 196, 198. 

„ Christ., 78. 

,, Joan, 187. 

„ John, 182, 187, 194 bis, 196. 

„ Marg., 184. 

,, Mich., 187, 198. 

„ Robt., 189 bis. 

Steph., 182, 184, 185, 187, 189 (bis), 
193- 

,, Thos., 185. 
Wilton?, John de, 232. 
Winchester, Old and New Minsters, 
173m 

,, Earls of, see Quency. 
Windsor, Constable of, letter close to, 

120. 
Winemar, 45. 

Wing (set Weowungun, Witehunga, 

Withunga), co. Bucks., 773^ 174m 
Wingfield, see Chalgrave. 
Wingrave (Withungrave), co. Bucks., 
i74n. 

Wippesned, see Whipsnade. 
Wiscard (Wyscard), Rich., 231. 
Wissant (Itius portus, Hwitsand), 106, 
107. 

,, chapel at, no, in. 
Witehunge, Withunga, see Wing. 
Withungrave, see Wingrave. 
Wiwaa, see Wewa. 
Woburn, 46, 47. 

,, lands in, 212 (Birchmore). 
Wodelok, Alex., 249. 
Wodho, Steph. de, 227. 
Woingum, i74n, 175m 
Wolga [rectius Polga], see ^Elfhelm. 
Women's education in 1623, 78. 
Wood (atte Wode), see also Bosco. 

,, Nigel, 17. 
Woodcock, Robt., 79. 
Woodward, James, 78. 
Wootton (Wotton). 

,, kt. service, 3, 4, 20, 21. 

,, warren in, 98, 99. 
Worm on the Hoop, sign, 142. 
Wrastlingwurthe, see Wrestling worth. 



Wratting, co. Cambs., ^Elfhelm of, see 
yElfhelm. 

Wrestlingworth (Wrastlingwurthe). 

,, lands in, 247, 248. 
Wright, Robt., 137. 
Wright, Will., 32. 
Wrotham, co. Kent, 160. 
Wuffa, see Wewa. 
Wulfmcer, 48. 

Wulfnoth (? Wulfusthus), 172. 
Wulfwi, bp. of Dorchester, 55. 
Wyboston (Wibaudeston) in Eaton 
Socon, 18, 19. 

,, lands in, 216. 
Wygeyn, Hen., 19, 243. 

„ Ralf, 19. 

„ Rog., 18. 
Wyk, Rich, de, 238. 
Wyldebof, see Weldebof. 
Wylkyns, see Wilkins. 
WylUams, see Williams. 
Wylliamson, see Williamson. 
Wylson, see Wilson. 
Wyperley, see Luton. 
Wyse, Eleanor, 186. 

,, John, 186. 
Wytrich, Thos., 249. 
Wyvell, Will., 109. 



Yale, Thos., 135. 
Yarway, Will., 141. 
Yeaman, Mary, 193. 

alias Ladd, John, 193. 

,, ,, Kath., 197, 198. 

„ „ Will., 197, 198. 

,, Thos., 193. 

„ Will., 193. 
Yielden (Gilueldene). 

,, lands in, 219, 231. 
York, Edmund Duke of, 98-100. 
Young (Yung), Eliz., 197 (bis). 

,, Sibyl, 196. 

,, Thos., 196, 197. 
Ytas (? = Eotas or Jutes), 177. 
Yttingaford (Tiddingford, Tinfoot), 

163, 169, 171, 174-177- 
Yttingeshlawe, 177. 
Yung, see Young. 



Zouche of Haryng worth. 

,, Edw., last baron, 149. 

,, ,, Eliz. sis of, 149. 

,, ,, Mary sis. of, 149. 
Zouche (Suzche), Matilda de la, 220. 

,, Will, de la, 219, 220. 



v